Sample: 1

the project must adhere to zoning and building code requirements . constructing a project that fails to adhere to codes does not benefit the owner . some legal requirements come from malum in se considerations , or the desire to prevent things that are indisputably bad – bridge collapses or explosions . other legal requirements come from malum prohibitum considerations , or things that are a matter of custom or expectation , such as isolating businesses to a business district and residences to a residential district . an attorney may seek changes or exemptions in the law that governs the land where the building will be built , either by arguing that a rule is inapplicable ( the bridge design will not cause a collapse ) , or that the custom is no longer needed ( acceptance of live-work spaces has grown in the community ) .
constructing a project that fails to adhere to codes does not benefit whom ?
the owner

Sample: 2

during his time at his lab , tesla observed unusual signals from his receiver which he concluded may be communications from another planet . he mentioned them in a letter to reporter julian hawthorne at the philadelphia north american on 8 december 1899 and in a december 1900 letter about possible discoveries in the new century to the red cross society where he referred to messages " from another world " that read " 1 ... 2 ... 3 ... " . reporters treated it as a sensational story and jumped to the conclusion tesla was hearing signals from mars . he expanded on the signals he heard in a 9 february 1901 collier 's weekly article " talking with planets " where he said it had not been immediately apparent to him that he was hearing " intelligently controlled signals " and that the signals could come from mars , venus , or other planets . it has been hypothesized that he may have intercepted marconi 's european experiments in july 1899—marconi may have transmitted the letter s ( dot/dot/dot ) in a naval demonstration , the same three impulses that tesla hinted at hearing in colorado—or signals from another experimenter in wireless transmission .
to what did tesla attribute the unknown signals his radio received ?
communications from another planet

Sample: 3

the game 's media day , which was typically held on the tuesday afternoon prior to the game , was moved to the monday evening and re-branded as super bowl opening night . the event was held on february 1 , 2016 at sap center in san jose . alongside the traditional media availabilities , the event featured an opening ceremony with player introductions on a replica of the golden gate bridge .
what replica was used for player introductions ?
the golden gate bridge .

Sample: 4

the catechism is one of luther 's most personal works . " regarding the plan to collect my writings in volumes , " he wrote , " i am quite cool and not at all eager about it because , roused by a saturnian hunger , i would rather see them all devoured . for i acknowledge none of them to be really a book of mine , except perhaps the bondage of the will and the catechism . " the small catechism has earned a reputation as a model of clear religious teaching . it remains in use today , along with luther 's hymns and his translation of the bible .
besides the bondage of the will , what other work did luther view as a book of his ?
the catechism

Sample: 5

the collection of italian , medieval , renaissance , baroque and neoclassical sculpture ( both original and in cast form ) is unequalled outside of italy . it includes canova 's the three graces , which the museum jointly owns with national galleries of scotland . italian sculptors whose work is held by the museum include : bartolomeo bon , bartolomeo bellano , luca della robbia , giovanni pisano , donatello , agostino di duccio , andrea riccio , antonio rossellino , andrea del verrocchio , antonio lombardo , pier jacopo alari bonacolsi , andrea della robbia , michelozzo di bartolomeo , michelangelo ( represented by a freehand wax model and casts of his most famous sculptures ) , jacopo sansovino , alessandro algardi , antonio calcagni , benvenuto cellini ( medusa 's head dated c. 1547 ) , agostino busti , bartolomeo ammannati , giacomo della porta , giambologna ( samson slaying a philistine ( giambologna ) c. 1562 , his finest work outside italy ) , bernini ( neptune and triton c. 1622–3 ) , giovanni battista foggini , vincenzo foggini ( samson and the philistines ) , massimiliano soldani benzi , antonio corradini , andrea brustolon , giovanni battista piranesi , innocenzo spinazzi , canova , carlo marochetti and raffaelle monti . an unusual sculpture is the ancient roman statue of narcissus restored by valerio cioli c1564 with plaster . there are several small scale bronzes by donatello , alessandro vittoria , tiziano aspetti and francesco fanelli in the collection . the largest item from italy is the chancel chapel from santa chiara florence dated 1493–1500 , designed by giuliano da sangallo it is 11.1 metres in height by 5.4 metres square , it includes a grand sculpted tabernacle by antonio rossellino and coloured terracotta decoration .
what is the largest item from italy that is part of the sculpture collection ?
chancel chapel

Sample: 6

bskyb launched its hdtv service , sky+ hd , on 22 may 2006 . prior to its launch , bskyb claimed that 40,000 people had registered to receive the hd service . in the week before the launch , rumours started to surface that bskyb was having supply issues with its set top box ( stb ) from manufacturer thomson . on thursday 18 may 2006 , and continuing through the weekend before launch , people were reporting that bskyb had either cancelled or rescheduled its installation . finally , the bbc reported that 17,000 customers had yet to receive the service due to failed deliveries . on 31 march 2012 , sky announced the total number of homes with sky+hd was 4,222,000 .
what was the number of customers that the bbc reported had yet to receive the service due to failed deliveries ?
17,000

Sample: 7

the pilgrim street building was refurbished between november 2006 and may 2008 ; during the refurbishment works , the cinema relocated to the old town hall , gateshead . in may 2008 the tyneside cinema reopened in the restored and refurbished original building . the site currently houses three cinemas , including the restored classic —the united kingdom 's last surviving news cinema still in full-time operation—alongside two new screens , a roof extension containing the tyneside bar , and dedicated education and teaching suites .
between what dates was the building on pilgrim street refurbished ?
november 2006 and may 2008

Sample: 8

according to geographic scholars under colonizing empires , the world could be split into climatic zones . these scholars believed that northern europe and the mid-atlantic temperate climate produced a hard-working , moral , and upstanding human being . alternatively , tropical climates yielded lazy attitudes , sexual promiscuity , exotic culture , and moral degeneracy . the people of these climates were believed to be in need of guidance and intervention from the european empire to aid in the governing of a more evolved social structure ; they were seen as incapable of such a feat . similarly , orientalism is a view of a people based on their geographical location .
what did the the europeans think the peoples in the tropics were in need of ?
guidance

Sample: 9

the city developed around the roman settlement pons aelius and was named after the castle built in 1080 by robert curthose , william the conqueror 's eldest son . the city grew as an important centre for the wool trade in the 14th century , and later became a major coal mining area . the port developed in the 16th century and , along with the shipyards lower down the river tyne , was amongst the world 's largest shipbuilding and ship-repairing centres . newcastle 's economy includes corporate headquarters , learning , digital technology , retail , tourism and cultural centres , from which the city contributes £13 billion towards the united kingdom 's gva . among its icons are newcastle brown ale ; newcastle united football club ; and the tyne bridge . it has hosted the world 's most popular half marathon , the great north run , since it began in 1981 .
what globally popular half marathon began in 1981 ?
the great north run

Sample: 10

following the nice treaty , there was an attempt to reform the constitutional law of the european union and make it more transparent ; this would have also produced a single constitutional document . however , as a result of the referendum in france and the referendum in the netherlands , the 2004 treaty establishing a constitution for europe never came into force . instead , the lisbon treaty was enacted . its substance was very similar to the proposed constitutional treaty , but it was formally an amending treaty , and – though it significantly altered the existing treaties – it did not completely replace them .
when was there an attempt to reform the law of the eu ?
following the nice treaty

Sample: 11

by 1954 , all u.s. networks had regained control of their programming , with higher advertising revenues : abc 's revenue increased by 67 % ( earning $ 26 million ) , nbc 's went up by 30 % ( $ 100 million ) and cbs 's rose by 44 % ( $ 117 million ) . however that year , abc had only 14 primary affiliates compared to the 74 that carried the majority of cbs programs and the 71 that were primarily affiliated with nbc . most markets outside the largest ones were not large enough to support three full-time network affiliates . in some markets that were large enough for a third full-time affiliate , the only available commercial allocation was on the less-desirable uhf band . until the all-channel receiver act ( passed by congress in 1961 ) mandated the inclusion of uhf tuning , most viewers needed to purchase a converter to be able to watch uhf stations , and the signal quality was marginal at best even with a converter . additionally , during the analog television era , uhf stations were not adequately receivable in rugged terrain . these factors made many prospective station owners skittish about investing in a uhf station , especially one that would have had to take on an affiliation with a weaker network .
how many primary affiliates did cbs have in 1954 ?
74

Sample: 12

following the cretaceous–paleogene extinction event , the extinction of the dinosaurs and the wetter climate may have allowed the tropical rainforest to spread out across the continent . from 66–34 mya , the rainforest extended as far south as 45° . climate fluctuations during the last 34 million years have allowed savanna regions to expand into the tropics . during the oligocene , for example , the rainforest spanned a relatively narrow band . it expanded again during the middle miocene , then retracted to a mostly inland formation at the last glacial maximum . however , the rainforest still managed to thrive during these glacial periods , allowing for the survival and evolution of a broad diversity of species .
what has allowed for the savanna region to expand into the tropics ?
climate fluctuations during the last 34 million years have allowed savanna regions to expand into the tropics .

Sample: 13

the panthers used the san jose state practice facility and stayed at the san jose marriott . the broncos practiced at stanford university and stayed at the santa clara marriott .
which hotel did the broncos use for super bowl 50 ?
santa clara marriott .

Sample: 14

while acknowledging the central role economic growth can potentially play in human development , poverty reduction and the achievement of the millennium development goals , it is becoming widely understood amongst the development community that special efforts must be made to ensure poorer sections of society are able to participate in economic growth . the effect of economic growth on poverty reduction – the growth elasticity of poverty – can depend on the existing level of inequality . for instance , with low inequality a country with a growth rate of 2 % per head and 40 % of its population living in poverty , can halve poverty in ten years , but a country with high inequality would take nearly 60 years to achieve the same reduction . in the words of the secretary general of the united nations ban ki-moon : " while economic growth is necessary , it is not sufficient for progress on reducing poverty . "
what can the growth elasticity of poverty depend on ?
existing level of inequality

Sample: 15

in 1226 , immediately after returning from the west , genghis khan began a retaliatory attack on the tanguts . his armies quickly took heisui , ganzhou , and suzhou ( not the suzhou in jiangsu province ) , and in the autumn he took xiliang-fu [ disambiguation needed ] . one of the tangut generals challenged the mongols to a battle near helan mountains but was defeated . in november , genghis laid siege to the tangut city lingzhou and crossed the yellow river , defeating the tangut relief army . according to legend , it was here that genghis khan reportedly saw a line of five stars arranged in the sky and interpreted it as an omen of his victory .
what river did genghis khan cross before defeating the main tangut army ?
the yellow river

Sample: 16

carolina suffered a major setback when thomas davis , an 11-year veteran who had already overcome three acl tears in his career , went down with a broken arm in the nfc championship game . despite this , he insisted he would still find a way to play in the super bowl . his prediction turned out to be accurate .
what body part did thomas davis break during the nfc championship game ?
arm

Sample: 17

throughout the history of education the most common form of school discipline was corporal punishment . while a child was in school , a teacher was expected to act as a substitute parent , with all the normal forms of parental discipline open to them .
what types of discipline did the teacher have access to ?
all the normal forms of parental discipline

Sample: 18

these chloroplasts , which can be traced back directly to a cyanobacterial ancestor , are known as primary plastids ( " plastid " in this context means almost the same thing as chloroplast ) . all primary chloroplasts belong to one of three chloroplast lineages—the glaucophyte chloroplast lineage , the rhodophyte , or red algal chloroplast lineage , or the chloroplastidan , or green chloroplast lineage . the second two are the largest , and the green chloroplast lineage is the one that contains the land plants .
what does rhodophyte mean ?
red algal chloroplast

Sample: 19

the league eventually narrowed the bids to three sites : new orleans ' mercedes-benz superdome , miami 's sun life stadium , and the san francisco bay area 's levi 's stadium .
what is the name of the stadium in miami that was considered ?
sun life stadium

Sample: 20

there were two kinds of x.25 networks . some such as datapac and transpac were initially implemented with an x.25 external interface . some older networks such as telenet and tymnet were modified to provide a x.25 host interface in addition to older host connection schemes . datapac was developed by bell northern research which was a joint venture of bell canada ( a common carrier ) and northern telecom ( a telecommunications equipment supplier ) . northern telecom sold several datapac clones to foreign ptts including the deutsche bundespost . x.75 and x.121 allowed the interconnection of national x.25 networks . a user or host could call a host on a foreign network by including the dnic of the remote network as part of the destination address . [ citation needed ]
who developed datapac
datapac was developed by bell northern research

Sample: 21

in ring theory , the notion of number is generally replaced with that of ideal . prime ideals , which generalize prime elements in the sense that the principal ideal generated by a prime element is a prime ideal , are an important tool and object of study in commutative algebra , algebraic number theory and algebraic geometry . the prime ideals of the ring of integers are the ideals ( 0 ) , ( 2 ) , ( 3 ) , ( 5 ) , ( 7 ) , ( 11 ) , … the fundamental theorem of arithmetic generalizes to the lasker–noether theorem , which expresses every ideal in a noetherian commutative ring as an intersection of primary ideals , which are the appropriate generalizations of prime powers .
what type of commutative ring does the lasker–noether theorem express every ideal as an intersection of primary ideals in ?
a noetherian commutative ring

Sample: 22

the tentacles of cydippid ctenophores are typically fringed with tentilla ( " little tentacles " ) , although a few genera have simple tentacles without these sidebranches . the tentacles and tentilla are densely covered with microscopic colloblasts that capture prey by sticking to it . colloblasts are specialized mushroom-shaped cells in the outer layer of the epidermis , and have three main components : a domed head with vesicles ( chambers ) that contain adhesive ; a stalk that anchors the cell in the lower layer of the epidermis or in the mesoglea ; and a spiral thread that coils round the stalk and is attached to the head and to the root of the stalk . the function of the spiral thread is uncertain , but it may absorb stress when prey tries to escape , and thus prevent the collobast from being torn apart . in addition to colloblasts , members of the genus haeckelia , which feed mainly on jellyfish , incorporate their victims ' stinging nematocytes into their own tentacles – some cnidaria-eating nudibranchs similarly incorporate nematocytes into their bodies for defense . the tentilla of euplokamis differ significantly from those of other cydippids : they contain striated muscle , a cell type otherwise unknown in the phylum ctenophora ; and they are coiled when relaxed , while the tentilla of all other known ctenophores elongate when relaxed . euplokamis ' tentilla have three types of movement that are used in capturing prey : they may flick out very quickly ( in 40 to 60 milliseconds ) ; they can wriggle , which may lure prey by behaving like small planktonic worms ; and they coil round prey . the unique flicking is an uncoiling movement powered by contraction of the striated muscle . the wriggling motion is produced by smooth muscles , but of a highly specialized type . coiling around prey is accomplished largely by the return of the tentilla to their inactive state , but the coils may be tightened by smooth muscle .
what are colloblasts ?
specialized mushroom-shaped cells in the outer layer of the epidermis

Sample: 23

various princes of the holy land arrived in limassol at the same time , in particular guy de lusignan . all declared their support for richard provided that he support guy against his rival conrad of montferrat . the local barons abandoned isaac , who considered making peace with richard , joining him on the crusade , and offering his daughter in marriage to the person named by richard . but isaac changed his mind and tried to escape . richard then proceeded to conquer the whole island , his troops being led by guy de lusignan . isaac surrendered and was confined with silver chains , because richard had promised that he would not place him in irons . by 1 june , richard had conquered the whole island . his exploit was well publicized and contributed to his reputation ; he also derived significant financial gains from the conquest of the island . richard left for acre on 5 june , with his allies . before his departure , he named two of his norman generals , richard de camville and robert de thornham , as governors of cyprus .
what were isaac 's chains made out of ?
silver

Sample: 24

the dalek race , which first appeared in the show 's second serial in 1963 , are doctor who 's oldest villains . the daleks are kaleds from the planet skaro , mutated by the scientist davros and housed in mechanical armour shells for mobility . the actual creatures resemble octopi with large , pronounced brains . their armour shells have a single eye-stalk , a sink-plunger-like device that serves the purpose of a hand , and a directed-energy weapon . their main weakness is their eyestalk ; attacks upon them using various weapons can blind a dalek , making it go mad . their chief role in the series plot , as they frequently remark in their instantly recognisable metallic voices , is to " exterminate " all non-dalek beings . they even attack the time lords in the time war , as shown during the 50th anniversary of the show . they continue to be a recurring 'monster ' within the doctor who franchise , their most recent appearances being in the 2015 episodes " the witch 's familiar " and " hell bent " . davros has also been a recurring figure since his debut in genesis of the daleks , although played by several different actors .
who are the oldest villains from the doctor who series ?
the dalek race

Sample: 25

following the success of the 2005 series produced by russell t davies , the bbc commissioned davies to produce a 13-part spin-off series titled torchwood ( an anagram of " doctor who " ) , set in modern-day cardiff and investigating alien activities and crime . the series debuted on bbc three on 22 october 2006 . john barrowman reprised his role of jack harkness from the 2005 series of doctor who . two other actresses who appeared in doctor who also star in the series ; eve myles as gwen cooper , who also played the similarly named servant girl gwyneth in the 2005 doctor who episode " the unquiet dead " , and naoko mori who reprised her role as toshiko sato first seen in " aliens of london " . a second series of torchwood aired in 2008 ; for three episodes , the cast was joined by freema agyeman reprising her doctor who role of martha jones . a third series was broadcast from 6 to 10 july 2009 , and consisted of a single five-part story called children of earth which was set largely in london . a fourth series , torchwood : miracle day jointly produced by bbc wales , bbc worldwide and the american entertainment company starz debuted in 2011 . the series was predominantly set in the united states , though wales remained part of the show 's setting .
what doctor who spin-off series was commissioned by the bbc ?
torchwood

Sample: 26

the effect of luther 's intervention was immediate . after the sixth sermon , the wittenberg jurist jerome schurf wrote to the elector : " oh , what joy has dr. martin 's return spread among us ! his words , through divine mercy , are bringing back every day misguided people into the way of the truth . "
who wrote a resounding letter to the elector praising luther ?
jerome schurf

Sample: 27

the dominant explanation for the black death is the plague theory , which attributes the outbreak to yersinia pestis , also responsible for an epidemic that began in southern china in 1865 , eventually spreading to india . the investigation of the pathogen that caused the 19th-century plague was begun by teams of scientists who visited hong kong in 1894 , among whom was the french-swiss bacteriologist alexandre yersin , after whom the pathogen was named yersinia pestis . the mechanism by which y. pestis was usually transmitted was established in 1898 by paul-louis simond and was found to involve the bites of fleas whose midguts had become obstructed by replicating y. pestis several days after feeding on an infected host . this blockage results in starvation and aggressive feeding behaviour by the fleas , which repeatedly attempt to clear their blockage by regurgitation , resulting in thousands of plague bacteria being flushed into the feeding site , infecting the host . the bubonic plague mechanism was also dependent on two populations of rodents : one resistant to the disease , which act as hosts , keeping the disease endemic , and a second that lack resistance . when the second population dies , the fleas move on to other hosts , including people , thus creating a human epidemic .
where and when did the investigation of the plague pathogen begin ?
hong kong in 1894

Sample: 28

terra preta ( black earth ) , which is distributed over large areas in the amazon forest , is now widely accepted as a product of indigenous soil management . the development of this fertile soil allowed agriculture and silviculture in the previously hostile environment ; meaning that large portions of the amazon rainforest are probably the result of centuries of human management , rather than naturally occurring as has previously been supposed . in the region of the xingu tribe , remains of some of these large settlements in the middle of the amazon forest were found in 2003 by michael heckenberger and colleagues of the university of florida . among those were evidence of roads , bridges and large plazas .
what did the development of this fertile soil provide in hostile environment ?
agriculture and silviculture

Sample: 29

a regulation of the rhine was called for , with an upper canal near diepoldsau and a lower canal at fußach , in order to counteract the constant flooding and strong sedimentation in the western rhine delta . the dornbirner ach had to be diverted , too , and it now flows parallel to the canalized rhine into the lake . its water has a darker color than the rhine ; the latter 's lighter suspended load comes from higher up the mountains . it is expected that the continuous input of sediment into the lake will silt up the lake . this has already happened to the former lake tuggenersee .
where was the rhine regulated with an upper canal ?
diepoldsau

Sample: 30

luther devised the catechism as a method of imparting the basics of christianity to the congregations . in 1529 , he wrote the large catechism , a manual for pastors and teachers , as well as a synopsis , the small catechism , to be memorised by the people themselves . the catechisms provided easy-to-understand instructional and devotional material on the ten commandments , the apostles ' creed , the lord 's prayer , baptism , and the lord 's supper . luther incorporated questions and answers in the catechism so that the basics of christian faith would not just be learned by rote , " the way monkeys do it " , but understood .
what did luther devise to teach christianity to the congregation ?
catechism

Sample: 31

with istanbul as its capital and control of lands around the mediterranean basin , the ottoman empire was at the center of interactions between the eastern and western worlds for six centuries . following a long period of military setbacks against european powers , the ottoman empire gradually declined into the late nineteenth century . the empire allied with germany in the early 20th century , with the imperial ambition of recovering its lost territories , but it dissolved in the aftermath of world war i , leading to the emergence of the new state of turkey in the ottoman anatolian heartland , as well as the creation of modern balkan and middle eastern states , thus ending turkish colonial ambitions .
who did the ottoman empire ally with in ww i ?
germany

Sample: 32

following the death of braddock , william shirley assumed command of british forces in north america . at a meeting in albany in december 1755 , he laid out his plans for 1756 . in addition to renewing the efforts to capture niagara , crown point and duquesne , he proposed attacks on fort frontenac on the north shore of lake ontario and an expedition through the wilderness of the maine district and down the chaudière river to attack the city of quebec . bogged down by disagreements and disputes with others , including william johnson and new york 's governor sir charles hardy , shirley 's plan had little support .
where was shirley planning an expedition ?
through the wilderness of the maine district and down the chaudière river to attack the city of quebec

Sample: 33

it is possible to use a mechanism based on a pistonless rotary engine such as the wankel engine in place of the cylinders and valve gear of a conventional reciprocating steam engine . many such engines have been designed , from the time of james watt to the present day , but relatively few were actually built and even fewer went into quantity production ; see link at bottom of article for more details . the major problem is the difficulty of sealing the rotors to make them steam-tight in the face of wear and thermal expansion ; the resulting leakage made them very inefficient . lack of expansive working , or any means of control of the cutoff is also a serious problem with many such designs . [ citation needed ]
what is an example of a rotary engine without pistons ?
wankel

Sample: 34

fresno is marked by a semi-arid climate ( köppen bsh ) , with mild , moist winters and hot and dry summers , thus displaying mediterranean characteristics . december and january are the coldest months , and average around 46.5 °f ( 8.1 °c ) , and there are 14 nights with freezing lows annually , with the coldest night of the year typically bottoming out below 30 °f ( −1.1 °c ) . july is the warmest month , averaging 83.0 °f ( 28.3 °c ) ; normally , there are 32 days of 100 °f ( 37.8 °c ) + highs and 106 days of 90 °f ( 32.2 °c ) + highs , and in july and august , there are only three or four days where the high does not reach 90 °f ( 32.2 °c ) . summers provide considerable sunshine , with july peaking at 97 percent of the total possible sunlight hours ; conversely , january is the lowest with only 46 percent of the daylight time in sunlight because of thick tule fog . however , the year averages 81 % of possible sunshine , for a total of 3550 hours . average annual precipitation is around 11.5 inches ( 292.1 mm ) , which , by definition , would classify the area as a semidesert . most of the wind rose direction occurrences derive from the northwest , as winds are driven downward along the axis of the california central valley ; in december , january and february there is an increased presence of southeastern wind directions in the wind rose statistics . fresno meteorology was selected in a national u.s. environmental protection agency study for analysis of equilibrium temperature for use of ten-year meteorological data to represent a warm , dry western united states locale .
in which months does fresno experience increased wind coming from the southeastern direction ?
december , january and february

Sample: 35

the mechanisms used to evade the adaptive immune system are more complicated . the simplest approach is to rapidly change non-essential epitopes ( amino acids and/or sugars ) on the surface of the pathogen , while keeping essential epitopes concealed . this is called antigenic variation . an example is hiv , which mutates rapidly , so the proteins on its viral envelope that are essential for entry into its host target cell are constantly changing . these frequent changes in antigens may explain the failures of vaccines directed at this virus . the parasite trypanosoma brucei uses a similar strategy , constantly switching one type of surface protein for another , allowing it to stay one step ahead of the antibody response . masking antigens with host molecules is another common strategy for avoiding detection by the immune system . in hiv , the envelope that covers the virion is formed from the outermost membrane of the host cell ; such " self-cloaked " viruses make it difficult for the immune system to identify them as " non-self " structures .
what is an example of a virus that uses antigenic variation ?
hiv

Sample: 36

luther had been suffering from ill health for years , including ménière 's disease , vertigo , fainting , tinnitus , and a cataract in one eye . from 1531 to 1546 , his health deteriorated further . the years of struggle with rome , the antagonisms with and among his fellow reformers , and the scandal which ensued from the bigamy of the philip of hesse incident , in which luther had played a leading role , all may have contributed . in 1536 , he began to suffer from kidney and bladder stones , and arthritis , and an ear infection ruptured an ear drum . in december 1544 , he began to feel the effects of angina .
what did luther begin to experience in 1536 ?
kidney and bladder stones

Sample: 37

a large body of mathematical work would still be valid when calling 1 a prime , but euclid 's fundamental theorem of arithmetic ( mentioned above ) would not hold as stated . for example , the number 15 can be factored as 3 · 5 and 1 · 3 · 5 ; if 1 were admitted as a prime , these two presentations would be considered different factorizations of 15 into prime numbers , so the statement of that theorem would have to be modified . similarly , the sieve of eratosthenes would not work correctly if 1 were considered a prime : a modified version of the sieve that considers 1 as prime would eliminate all multiples of 1 ( that is , all other numbers ) and produce as output only the single number 1 . furthermore , the prime numbers have several properties that the number 1 lacks , such as the relationship of the number to its corresponding value of euler 's totient function or the sum of divisors function .
if 1 were to be considered as prime what would the sieve of eratosthenes yield for all other numbers ?
only the single number 1

Sample: 38

there were many religions practiced during the yuan dynasty , such as buddhism , islam , and christianity . the establishment of the yuan dynasty had dramatically increased the number of muslims in china . however , unlike the western khanates , the yuan dynasty never converted to islam . instead , kublai khan , the founder of the yuan dynasty , favored buddhism , especially the tibetan variants . as a result , tibetan buddhism was established as the de facto state religion . the top-level department and government agency known as the bureau of buddhist and tibetan affairs ( xuanzheng yuan ) was set up in khanbaliq ( modern beijing ) to supervise buddhist monks throughout the empire . since kublai khan only esteemed the sakya sect of tibetan buddhism , other religions became less important . he and his successors kept a sakya imperial preceptor ( dishi ) at court . before the end of the yuan dynasty , 14 leaders of the sakya sect had held the post of imperial preceptor , thereby enjoying special power . furthermore , mongol patronage of buddhism resulted in a number of monuments of buddhist art . mongolian buddhist translations , almost all from tibetan originals , began on a large scale after 1300 . many mongols of the upper class such as the jalayir and the oronar nobles as well as the emperors also patronized confucian scholars and institutions . a considerable number of confucian and chinese historical works were translated into the mongolian language .
what was the yuan 's unofficial state religion ?
tibetan buddhism

Sample: 39

normans came into scotland , building castles and founding noble families who would provide some future kings , such as robert the bruce , as well as founding a considerable number of the scottish clans . king david i of scotland , whose elder brother alexander i had married sybilla of normandy , was instrumental in introducing normans and norman culture to scotland , part of the process some scholars call the " davidian revolution " . having spent time at the court of henry i of england ( married to david 's sister maud of scotland ) , and needing them to wrestle the kingdom from his half-brother máel coluim mac alaxandair , david had to reward many with lands . the process was continued under david 's successors , most intensely of all under william the lion . the norman-derived feudal system was applied in varying degrees to most of scotland . scottish families of the names bruce , gray , ramsay , fraser , ogilvie , montgomery , sinclair , pollock , burnard , douglas and gordon to name but a few , and including the later royal house of stewart , can all be traced back to norman ancestry .
who did alexander i marry ?
sybilla of normandy

Sample: 40

the service started on 1 september 1993 based on the idea from the then chief executive officer , sam chisholm and rupert murdoch , of converting the company business strategy to an entirely fee-based concept . the new package included four channels formerly available free-to-air , broadcasting on astra 's satellites , as well as introducing new channels . the service continued until the closure of bskyb 's analogue service on 27 september 2001 , due to the launch and expansion of the sky digital platform . some of the channels did broadcast either in the clear or soft encrypted ( whereby a videocrypt decoder was required to decode , without a subscription card ) prior to their addition to the sky multichannels package . within two months of the launch , bskyb gained 400,000 new subscribers , with the majority taking at least one premium channel as well , which helped bskyb reach 3.5 million households by mid-1994 . michael grade criticized the operations in front of the select committee on national heritage , mainly for the lack of original programming on many of the new channels .
who 's satellites would the new free-to-air channels be broadcast from ?
astra

Sample: 41

concentrated o 2 will allow combustion to proceed rapidly and energetically . steel pipes and storage vessels used to store and transmit both gaseous and liquid oxygen will act as a fuel ; and therefore the design and manufacture of o 2 systems requires special training to ensure that ignition sources are minimized . the fire that killed the apollo 1 crew in a launch pad test spread so rapidly because the capsule was pressurized with pure o 2 but at slightly more than atmospheric pressure , instead of the 1⁄3 normal pressure that would be used in a mission . [ k ]
to ensure safety of future space missions oxygen was used at _____ of the normal pressure .
1⁄3

Sample: 42

one key figure in the plans for what would come to be known as american empire , was a geographer named isiah bowman . bowman was the director of the american geographical society in 1914 . three years later in 1917 , he was appointed to then president woodrow wilson 's inquiry in 1917 . the inquiry was the idea of president wilson and the american delegation from the paris peace conference . the point of this inquiry was to build a premise that would allow for u.s authorship of a 'new world ' which was to be characterized by geographical order . as a result of his role in the inquiry , isiah bowman would come to be known as wilson 's geographer .
who besides woodrow wilson himself had the idea for the inquiry ?
american delegation from the paris peace conference

Sample: 43

the university of chicago has been the site of some important experiments and academic movements . in economics , the university has played an important role in shaping ideas about the free market and is the namesake of the chicago school of economics , the school of economic thought supported by milton friedman and other economists . the university 's sociology department was the first independent sociology department in the united states and gave birth to the chicago school of sociology . in physics , the university was the site of the chicago pile-1 ( the first self-sustained man-made nuclear reaction , part of the manhattan project ) , of robert millikan 's oil-drop experiment that calculated the charge of the electron , and of the development of radiocarbon dating by willard f. libby in 1947 . the chemical experiment that tested how life originated on early earth , the miller–urey experiment , was conducted at the university . rem sleep was discovered at the university in 1953 by nathaniel kleitman and eugene aserinsky .
what was the name of the experiment that tested how life originated ?
miller–urey experiment

Sample: 44

the principle of inclusions and components states that , with sedimentary rocks , if inclusions ( or clasts ) are found in a formation , then the inclusions must be older than the formation that contains them . for example , in sedimentary rocks , it is common for gravel from an older formation to be ripped up and included in a newer layer . a similar situation with igneous rocks occurs when xenoliths are found . these foreign bodies are picked up as magma or lava flows , and are incorporated , later to cool in the matrix . as a result , xenoliths are older than the rock which contains them .
what is another word for inclusions in sedimentary rocks ?
clasts

Sample: 45

on his 50th birthday in 1906 , tesla demonstrated his 200 horsepower ( 150 kilowatts ) 16,000 rpm bladeless turbine . during 1910–1911 at the waterside power station in new york , several of his bladeless turbine engines were tested at 100–5,000 hp .
how many horsepower did tesla 's bladeless turbine have ?
200

Sample: 46

construction is the process of constructing a building or infrastructure . construction differs from manufacturing in that manufacturing typically involves mass production of similar items without a designated purchaser , while construction typically takes place on location for a known client . construction as an industry comprises six to nine percent of the gross domestic product of developed countries . construction starts with planning , [ citation needed ] design , and financing and continues until the project is built and ready for use .
what is the process of constructing a building or infrastructure ?
construction

Sample: 47

in this equation , a dimensional constant is used to describe the relative strength of gravity . this constant has come to be known as newton 's universal gravitation constant , though its value was unknown in newton 's lifetime . not until 1798 was henry cavendish able to make the first measurement of using a torsion balance ; this was widely reported in the press as a measurement of the mass of the earth since knowing could allow one to solve for the earth 's mass given the above equation . newton , however , realized that since all celestial bodies followed the same laws of motion , his law of gravity had to be universal . succinctly stated , newton 's law of gravitation states that the force on a spherical object of mass due to the gravitational pull of mass is
what is used to figure the relative strengh of gravity ?
newton 's universal gravitation constant ,

Sample: 48

in the united states , there has been a push to legalize importation of medications from canada and other countries , in order to reduce consumer costs . while in most cases importation of prescription medications violates food and drug administration ( fda ) regulations and federal laws , enforcement is generally targeted at international drug suppliers , rather than consumers . there is no known case of any u.s. citizens buying canadian drugs for personal use with a prescription , who has ever been charged by authorities .
who are fda laws against importing medications aimed at ?
international drug suppliers , rather than consumers

Sample: 49

in 2007 , the kenyan government unveiled vision 2030 , an economic development programme it hopes will put the country in the same league as the asian economic tigers by the year 2030 . in 2013 , it launched a national climate change action plan , having acknowledged that omitting climate as a key development issue in vision 2030 was an oversight . the 200-page action plan , developed with support from the climate & development knowledge network , sets out the government of kenya 's vision for a 'low carbon climate resilient development pathway ' . at the launch in march 2013 , the secretary of the ministry of planning , national development and vision 2030 emphasised that climate will be a central issue in the renewed medium term plan that will be launched in the coming months . this will create a direct and robust delivery framework for the action plan and ensure climate change is treated as an economy-wide issue .
what is vision 2030 ?
an economic development programme it hopes will put the country in the same league as the asian economic tigers by the year 2030

Sample: 50

the dalek race , which first appeared in the show 's second serial in 1963 , are doctor who 's oldest villains . the daleks are kaleds from the planet skaro , mutated by the scientist davros and housed in mechanical armour shells for mobility . the actual creatures resemble octopi with large , pronounced brains . their armour shells have a single eye-stalk , a sink-plunger-like device that serves the purpose of a hand , and a directed-energy weapon . their main weakness is their eyestalk ; attacks upon them using various weapons can blind a dalek , making it go mad . their chief role in the series plot , as they frequently remark in their instantly recognisable metallic voices , is to " exterminate " all non-dalek beings . they even attack the time lords in the time war , as shown during the 50th anniversary of the show . they continue to be a recurring 'monster ' within the doctor who franchise , their most recent appearances being in the 2015 episodes " the witch 's familiar " and " hell bent " . davros has also been a recurring figure since his debut in genesis of the daleks , although played by several different actors .
what scientist created the daleks , by mutation ?
davros

Sample: 51

plotting the relationship between level of income and inequality , kuznets saw middle-income developing economies level of inequality bulging out to form what is now known as the kuznets curve . kuznets demonstrated this relationship using cross-sectional data . however , more recent testing of this theory with superior panel data has shown it to be very weak . kuznets ' curve predicts that income inequality will eventually decrease given time . as an example , income inequality did fall in the united states during its high school movement from 1910 to 1940 and thereafter . [ citation needed ] however , recent data shows that the level of income inequality began to rise after the 1970s . this does not necessarily disprove kuznets ' theory . [ citation needed ] it may be possible that another kuznets ' cycle is occurring , specifically the move from the manufacturing sector to the service sector . [ citation needed ] this implies that it may be possible for multiple kuznets ' cycles to be in effect at any given time .
who plotted the relationships between levels of income and inequality ?
kuznets

Sample: 52

on 1 july 1851 , writs were issued for the election of the first victorian legislative council , and the absolute independence of victoria from new south wales was established proclaiming a new colony of victoria . days later , still in 1851 gold was discovered near ballarat , and subsequently at bendigo . later discoveries occurred at many sites across victoria . this triggered one of the largest gold rushes the world has ever seen . the colony grew rapidly in both population and economic power . in ten years the population of victoria increased sevenfold from 76,000 to 540,000 . all sorts of gold records were produced including the " richest shallow alluvial goldfield in the world " and the largest gold nugget . victoria produced in the decade 1851–1860 20 million ounces of gold , one third of the world 's output [ citation needed ] .
how much gold did victoria produce in the years of 1851-1860 ?
20 million ounces

Sample: 53

manning finished the game 13 of 23 for 141 yards with one interception and zero touchdowns . sanders was his top receiver with six receptions for 83 yards . anderson was the game 's leading rusher with 90 yards and a touchdown , along with four receptions for 10 yards . miller had six total tackles ( five solo ) , 2½ sacks , and two forced fumbles . ware had five total tackles and two sacks . ward had seven total tackles , a fumble recovery , and an interception . mcmanus made all four of his field goals , making him perfect on all 11 attempts during the post-season . newton completed 18 of 41 passes for 265 yards , with one interception . he was also the team 's leading rusher with 45 yards on six carries . brown caught four passes for 80 yards , while ginn had four receptions for 74 . ealy was the top defensive performer for carolina with four total tackles , three sacks , a forced fumble , a fumble recovery , and an interception . defensive end charles johnson had four total tackles , a sack , and a forced fumble . linebacker luke kuechly had 11 total tackles , while thomas davis had seven , despite playing just two weeks after breaking his right arm in the nfc title game .
which player played even though he broke his arm two weeks prior to the super bowl ?
thomas davis

Sample: 54

prime numbers have influenced many artists and writers . the french composer olivier messiaen used prime numbers to create ametrical music through " natural phenomena " . in works such as la nativité du seigneur ( 1935 ) and quatre études de rythme ( 1949–50 ) , he simultaneously employs motifs with lengths given by different prime numbers to create unpredictable rhythms : the primes 41 , 43 , 47 and 53 appear in the third étude , " neumes rythmiques " . according to messiaen this way of composing was " inspired by the movements of nature , movements of free and unequal durations " .
messiaen says that composition with prime numbers was inspired by what ?
the movements of nature

Sample: 55

according to scholars walter krämer , götz trenkler , gerhard ritter , and gerhard prause , the story of the posting on the door , even though it has settled as one of the pillars of history , has little foundation in truth . the story is based on comments made by philipp melanchthon , though it is thought that he was not in wittenberg at the time .
what story of little truth is a pillar of history ?
posting on the door

Sample: 56

westwood one will carry the game throughout north america , with kevin harlan as play-by-play announcer , boomer esiason and dan fouts as color analysts , and james lofton and mark malone as sideline reporters . jim gray will anchor the pre-game and halftime coverage .
who shared sideline reporting duties with mark malone ?
james lofton

Sample: 57

another example of scientific research which suggests that previous estimates by the ipcc , far from overstating dangers and risks , have actually understated them is a study on projected rises in sea levels . when the researchers ' analysis was " applied to the possible scenarios outlined by the intergovernmental panel on climate change ( ipcc ) , the researchers found that in 2100 sea levels would be 0.5–1.4 m [ 50–140 cm ] above 1990 levels . these values are much greater than the 9–88 cm as projected by the ipcc itself in its third assessment report , published in 2001 " . this may have been due , in part , to the expanding human understanding of climate .
what danger did the ipcc understate ?
projected rises in sea levels

Sample: 58

the original theme was composed by ron grainer and realised by delia derbyshire of the bbc radiophonic workshop , with assistance from dick mills . the various parts were built up using musique concrète techniques , by creating tape loops of an individually struck piano string and individual test oscillators and filters . the derbyshire arrangement served , with minor edits , as the theme tune up to the end of season 17 ( 1979–80 ) . it is regarded as a significant and innovative piece of electronic music , recorded well before the availability of commercial synthesisers or multitrack mixers . each note was individually created by cutting , splicing , speeding up and slowing down segments of analogue tape containing recordings of a single plucked string , white noise , and the simple harmonic waveforms of test-tone oscillators , intended for calibrating equipment and rooms , not creating music . new techniques were invented to allow mixing of the music , as this was before the era of multitrack tape machines . on hearing the finished result , grainer asked , " did i write that ? " [ citation needed ]
upon hearing the final product , what was the creator quoted as saying ?
did i write that ?

Sample: 59

the first attempts to internationalize the abc television network date back to the 1950s , after leonard goldenson , following the united paramount theatres model , tried to use on abc the same strategies he had made in expanding upt 's theater operation to the international market . leonard goldenson said that abc 's first international activity was broadcasting the coronation of queen elizabeth ii in june 1953 ; cbs and nbc were unable to cover the coronation live due to respective issues with technical problems and flight delays . nbc 's plane landed in latin america [ where ? ] , leading abc to learn of subsidiaries in that region . goldenson tried international investing , having abc invest in the latin american market , acquiring a 51 % interest in a network covering central america . goldenson also cited interest in japan in the early 1950s , acquiring a 5 % stake in two new domestic networks , the mainichi broadcasting system in 1951 and nihon educational television in 1957 . goldenson also invested in broadcasting properties in beirut in the mid-1960s .
what country did abc expand in to in the mid-1960s ?
beirut

Sample: 60

in 1898 , tesla demonstrated a radio-controlled boat—which he dubbed " teleautomaton " —to the public during an electrical exhibition at madison square garden . the crowd that witnessed the demonstration made outrageous claims about the workings of the boat , such as magic , telepathy , and being piloted by a trained monkey hidden inside . tesla tried to sell his idea to the u.s. military as a type of radio-controlled torpedo , but they showed little interest . remote radio control remained a novelty until world war i and afterward , when a number of countries used it in military programs . tesla took the opportunity to further demonstrate " teleautomatics " in an address to a meeting of the commercial club in chicago , while he was travelling to colorado springs , on 13 may 1899 .
what was the boat called ?
teleautomaton

Sample: 61

norman architecture typically stands out as a new stage in the architectural history of the regions they subdued . they spread a unique romanesque idiom to england and italy , and the encastellation of these regions with keeps in their north french style fundamentally altered the military landscape . their style was characterised by rounded arches , particularly over windows and doorways , and massive proportions .
what kind of arches does norman architecture have ?
rounded

Sample: 62

oxygen is a chemical element with symbol o and atomic number 8 . it is a member of the chalcogen group on the periodic table and is a highly reactive nonmetal and oxidizing agent that readily forms compounds ( notably oxides ) with most elements . by mass , oxygen is the third-most abundant element in the universe , after hydrogen and helium . at standard temperature and pressure , two atoms of the element bind to form dioxygen , a colorless and odorless diatomic gas with the formula o 2 . diatomic oxygen gas constitutes 20.8 % of the earth 's atmosphere . however , monitoring of atmospheric oxygen levels show a global downward trend , because of fossil-fuel burning . oxygen is the most abundant element by mass in the earth 's crust as part of oxide compounds such as silicon dioxide , making up almost half of the crust 's mass .
what type of compounds does oxygen most commonly form ?
oxides

Sample: 63

manning finished the game 13 of 23 for 141 yards with one interception and zero touchdowns . sanders was his top receiver with six receptions for 83 yards . anderson was the game 's leading rusher with 90 yards and a touchdown , along with four receptions for 10 yards . miller had six total tackles ( five solo ) , 2½ sacks , and two forced fumbles . ware had five total tackles and two sacks . ward had seven total tackles , a fumble recovery , and an interception . mcmanus made all four of his field goals , making him perfect on all 11 attempts during the post-season . newton completed 18 of 41 passes for 265 yards , with one interception . he was also the team 's leading rusher with 45 yards on six carries . brown caught four passes for 80 yards , while ginn had four receptions for 74 . ealy was the top defensive performer for carolina with four total tackles , three sacks , a forced fumble , a fumble recovery , and an interception . defensive end charles johnson had four total tackles , a sack , and a forced fumble . linebacker luke kuechly had 11 total tackles , while thomas davis had seven , despite playing just two weeks after breaking his right arm in the nfc title game .
how many total tackles did charles johnson have in super bowl 50 ?
four

Sample: 64

the soulages collection of italian and french renaissance objects was acquired between 1859 and 1865 , and includes several cassone . the john jones collection of french 18th-century art and furnishings was left to the museum in 1882 , then valued at £250,000 . one of the most important pieces in this collection is a marquetry commode by the ébéniste jean henri riesener dated c1780 . other signed pieces of furniture in the collection include a bureau by jean-françois oeben , a pair of pedestals with inlaid brass work by andré charles boulle , a commode by bernard vanrisamburgh and a work-table by martin carlin . other 18th-century ébénistes represented in the museum collection include adam weisweiler , david roentgen , gilles joubert & pierre langlois . in 1901 , sir george donaldson donated several pieces of art nouveau furniture to the museum , which he had acquired the previous year at the paris exposition universelle . this was criticized at the time , with the result that the museum ceased to collect contemporary items and did not do so again until the 1960s . in 1986 the lady abingdon collection of french empire furniture was bequeathed by mrs t. r. p. hole .
from which period did the objects in the soulages collection come from ?
italian and french renaissance

Sample: 65

following the election of the uk labour party to government in 1997 , the uk formally subscribed to the agreement on social policy , which allowed it to be included with minor amendments as the social chapter of the 1997 treaty of amsterdam . the uk subsequently adopted the main legislation previously agreed under the agreement on social policy , the 1994 works council directive , which required workforce consultation in businesses , and the 1996 parental leave directive . in the 10 years following the 1997 treaty of amsterdam and adoption of the social chapter the european union has undertaken policy initiatives in various social policy areas , including labour and industry relations , equal opportunity , health and safety , public health , protection of children , the disabled and elderly , poverty , migrant workers , education , training and youth .
what did the works council directive require ?
workforce consultation in businesses

Sample: 66

in what became known as the st. bartholomew 's day massacre of 24 august – 3 october 1572 , catholics killed thousands of huguenots in paris . similar massacres took place in other towns in the weeks following . the main provincial towns and cities experiencing the massacre were aix , bordeaux , bourges , lyons , meaux , orleans , rouen , toulouse , and troyes . nearly 3,000 protestants were slaughtered in toulouse alone . the exact number of fatalities throughout the country is not known . on 23–24 august , between about 2,000 and 3,000 protestants were killed in paris and between 3,000 and 7,000 more in the french provinces . by 17 september , almost 25,000 protestants had been massacred in paris alone . beyond paris , the killings continued until 3 october . an amnesty granted in 1573 pardoned the perpetrators . [ citation needed ]
when was amnesty granted to those responsible for the massacre ?
1573

Sample: 67

in the early years , many huguenots also settled in the area of present-day charleston , south carolina . in 1685 , rev . elie prioleau from the town of pons in france , was among the first to settle there . he became pastor of the first huguenot church in north america in that city . after the revocation of the edict of nantes in 1685 , several huguenot families of norman and carolingian nobility and descent , including edmund bohun of suffolk england from the humphrey de bohun line of french royalty descended from charlemagne , jean postell of dieppe france , alexander pepin , antoine poitevin of orsement france , and jacques de bordeaux of grenoble , immigrated to the charleston orange district . they were very successful at marriage and property speculation . after petitioning the british crown in 1697 for the right to own land in the baronies , they prospered as slave owners on the cooper , ashepoo , ashley and santee river plantations they purchased from the british landgrave edmund bellinger . some of their descendants moved into the deep south and texas , where they developed new plantations .
when did the huguenots secure the right to own land in the baronies ?
1697

Sample: 68

this is true throughout most of the united states as well . however , alternative approaches for primary education do exist . one of these , sometimes referred to as a " platoon " system , involves placing a group of students together in one class that moves from one specialist to another for every subject . the advantage here is that students learn from teachers who specialize in one subject and who tend to be more knowledgeable in that one area than a teacher who teaches many subjects . students still derive a strong sense of security by staying with the same group of peers for all classes .
what country is this teaching subject discussing ?
united states

Sample: 69

los angeles ( at 3.7 million people ) and san diego ( at 1.3 million people ) , both in southern california , are the two largest cities in all of california ( and two of the eight largest cities in the united states ) . in southern california there are also twelve cities with more than 200,000 residents and 34 cities over 100,000 in population . many of southern california 's most developed cities lie along or in close proximity to the coast , with the exception of san bernardino and riverside .
what is the population of the second largest city in california ?
1.3 million

Sample: 70

telenet was the first fcc-licensed public data network in the united states . it was founded by former arpa ipto director larry roberts as a means of making arpanet technology public . he had tried to interest at & t in buying the technology , but the monopoly 's reaction was that this was incompatible with their future . bolt , beranack and newman ( bbn ) provided the financing . it initially used arpanet technology but changed the host interface to x.25 and the terminal interface to x.29 . telenet designed these protocols and helped standardize them in the ccitt . telenet was incorporated in 1973 and started operations in 1975 . it went public in 1979 and was then sold to gte .
purpose of telnet
making arpanet technology public

Sample: 71

in ireland , private schools ( irish : scoil phríobháideach ) are unusual because a certain number of teacher 's salaries are paid by the state . if the school wishes to employ extra teachers they are paid for with school fees , which tend to be relatively low in ireland compared to the rest of the world . there is , however , a limited element of state assessment of private schools , because of the requirement that the state ensure that children receive a certain minimum education ; irish private schools must still work towards the junior certificate and the leaving certificate , for example . many private schools in ireland also double as boarding schools . the average fee is around €5,000 annually for most schools , but some of these schools also provide boarding and the fees may then rise up to €25,000 per year . the fee-paying schools are usually run by a religious order , i.e. , the society of jesus or congregation of christian brothers , etc .
what is the typical annual cost for an irish private school ?
€5,000

Sample: 72

in what became known as the st. bartholomew 's day massacre of 24 august – 3 october 1572 , catholics killed thousands of huguenots in paris . similar massacres took place in other towns in the weeks following . the main provincial towns and cities experiencing the massacre were aix , bordeaux , bourges , lyons , meaux , orleans , rouen , toulouse , and troyes . nearly 3,000 protestants were slaughtered in toulouse alone . the exact number of fatalities throughout the country is not known . on 23–24 august , between about 2,000 and 3,000 protestants were killed in paris and between 3,000 and 7,000 more in the french provinces . by 17 september , almost 25,000 protestants had been massacred in paris alone . beyond paris , the killings continued until 3 october . an amnesty granted in 1573 pardoned the perpetrators . [ citation needed ]
how many huguenots were killed in toulouse ?
nearly 3,000

Sample: 73

charles avison , the leading british composer of concertos in the 18th century , was born in newcastle upon tyne in 1709 and died there in 1770 . basil hume , archbishop of westminster , was born in the city in 1923 . vice admiral cuthbert collingwood , 1st baron collingwood , was born in the city . ironmaster , metallurgist , and member of parliament isaac lowthian bell was born in the city in 1816 . other notable people born in or associated with newcastle include : engineer and industrialist lord armstrong , engineer and father of the modern steam railways george stephenson , his son , also an engineer , robert stephenson , engineer and inventor of the steam turbine sir charles parsons , inventor of the incandescent light bulb sir joseph swan , modernist poet basil bunting , and lord chief justice peter taylor . portuguese writer eça de queiroz was a diplomat in newcastle from late 1874 until april 1879—his most productive literary period . former prime minister of thailand abhisit vejjajiva , was born in the city .
what year did charles avison die in newcastle ?
1770

Sample: 74

in 2014 , economists with the standard & poor 's rating agency concluded that the widening disparity between the u.s. 's wealthiest citizens and the rest of the nation had slowed its recovery from the 2008-2009 recession and made it more prone to boom-and-bust cycles . to partially remedy the wealth gap and the resulting slow growth , s & p recommended increasing access to education . it estimated that if the average united states worker had completed just one more year of school , it would add an additional $ 105 billion in growth to the country 's economy over five years .
what is the united states at risk for because of the recession of 2008 ?
boom-and-bust cycles

Sample: 75

the social charter was subsequently adopted in 1989 by 11 of the then 12 member states . the uk refused to sign the social charter and was exempt from the legislation covering social charter issues unless it agreed to be bound by the legislation . the uk subsequently was the only member state to veto the social charter being included as the " social chapter " of the 1992 maastricht treaty - instead , an agreement on social policy was added as a protocol . again , the uk was exempt from legislation arising from the protocol , unless it agreed to be bound by it . the protocol was to become known as " social chapter " , despite not actually being a chapter of the maastricht treaty . to achieve aims of the agreement on social policy the european union was to " support and complement " the policies of member states . the aims of the agreement on social policy are :
what title was the social charter set to be included into the maastricht treaty under ?
the " social chapter "

Sample: 76

among the most well-known experiments in structural geology are those involving orogenic wedges , which are zones in which mountains are built along convergent tectonic plate boundaries . in the analog versions of these experiments , horizontal layers of sand are pulled along a lower surface into a back stop , which results in realistic-looking patterns of faulting and the growth of a critically tapered ( all angles remain the same ) orogenic wedge . numerical models work in the same way as these analog models , though they are often more sophisticated and can include patterns of erosion and uplift in the mountain belt . this helps to show the relationship between erosion and the shape of the mountain range . these studies can also give useful information about pathways for metamorphism through pressure , temperature , space , and time .
what are among the most well known experiments in structural geology ?
those involving orogenic wedges

Sample: 77

in the united states , scholars argue that there already existed a negotiated settlement based on equality between both parties prior to 1973 . the possibility that the middle east could become another superpower confrontation with the ussr was of more concern to the us than oil . further , interest groups and government agencies more worried about energy were no match for kissinger 's dominance . in the us production , distribution and price disruptions " have been held responsible for recessions , periods of excessive inflation , reduced productivity , and lower economic growth . "
scholars stated that there was already an existing settlement between 2 parties prior to which date ?
1973

Sample: 78

the french population numbered about 75,000 and was heavily concentrated along the st. lawrence river valley , with some also in acadia ( present-day new brunswick and parts of nova scotia , including île royale ( present-day cape breton island ) ) . fewer lived in new orleans , biloxi , mississippi , mobile , alabama and small settlements in the illinois country , hugging the east side of the mississippi river and its tributaries . french fur traders and trappers traveled throughout the st. lawrence and mississippi watersheds , did business with local tribes , and often married indian women . traders married daughters of chiefs , creating high-ranking unions .
what was french population in north america ?
about 75,000

Sample: 79

an early important political response to the opening of hostilities was the convening of the albany congress in june and july , 1754 . the goal of the congress was to formalize a unified front in trade and negotiations with various indians , since allegiance of the various tribes and nations was seen to be pivotal in the success in the war that was unfolding . the plan that the delegates agreed to was never ratified by the colonial legislatures nor approved of by the crown . nevertheless , the format of the congress and many specifics of the plan became the prototype for confederation during the war of independence .
what was the goal of congress ?
formalize a unified front in trade and negotiations with various indians , since allegiance of the various tribes and nations was seen to be pivotal

Sample: 80

in september 1958 , bank of america launched a new product called bankamericard in fresno . after a troubled gestation during which its creator resigned , bankamericard went on to become the first successful credit card ; that is , a financial instrument that was usable across a large number of merchants and also allowed cardholders to revolve a balance ( earlier financial products could do one or the other but not both ) . in 1976 , bankamericard was renamed and spun off into a separate company known today as visa inc .
what did the bankamericard allow customers do to that they could n't do with previous financial instruments ?
to revolve a balance

Sample: 81

manning finished the game 13 of 23 for 141 yards with one interception and zero touchdowns . sanders was his top receiver with six receptions for 83 yards . anderson was the game 's leading rusher with 90 yards and a touchdown , along with four receptions for 10 yards . miller had six total tackles ( five solo ) , 2½ sacks , and two forced fumbles . ware had five total tackles and two sacks . ward had seven total tackles , a fumble recovery , and an interception . mcmanus made all four of his field goals , making him perfect on all 11 attempts during the post-season . newton completed 18 of 41 passes for 265 yards , with one interception . he was also the team 's leading rusher with 45 yards on six carries . brown caught four passes for 80 yards , while ginn had four receptions for 74 . ealy was the top defensive performer for carolina with four total tackles , three sacks , a forced fumble , a fumble recovery , and an interception . defensive end charles johnson had four total tackles , a sack , and a forced fumble . linebacker luke kuechly had 11 total tackles , while thomas davis had seven , despite playing just two weeks after breaking his right arm in the nfc title game .
how many intercpetions did newton have in super bowl 50 ?
one

Sample: 82

students are likely to build stronger relations with teachers who are friendly and supportive and will show more interest in courses taught by these teachers . teachers that spend more time interacting and working directly with students are perceived as supportive and effective teachers . effective teachers have been shown to invite student participation and decision making , allow humor into their classroom , and demonstrate a willingness to play .
students show more interest in classes taught by what type of teachers ?
friendly and supportive

Sample: 83

traveling south on interstate 5 , the main gap to continued urbanization is camp pendleton . the cities and communities along interstate 15 and interstate 215 are so inter-related that temecula and murrieta have as much connection with the san diego metropolitan area as they do with the inland empire . to the east , the united states census bureau considers the san bernardino and riverside county areas , riverside-san bernardino area as a separate metropolitan area from los angeles county . while many commute to l.a. and orange counties , there are some differences in development , as most of san bernardino and riverside counties ( the non-desert portions ) were developed in the 1980s and 1990s . newly developed exurbs formed in the antelope valley north of los angeles , the victor valley and the coachella valley with the imperial valley . also , population growth was high in the bakersfield-kern county , santa maria and san luis obispo areas .
other than the san diego metropolitan area , what other area are the communities along interstates 15 and 215 connected with ?
inland empire

Sample: 84

the v & a covers 12.5 acres ( 51,000 m2 ) and 145 galleries . its collection spans 5,000 years of art , from ancient times to the present day , from the cultures of europe , north america , asia and north africa . the holdings of ceramics , glass , textiles , costumes , silver , ironwork , jewellery , furniture , medieval objects , sculpture , prints and printmaking , drawings and photographs are among the largest and most comprehensive in the world . the museum owns the world 's largest collection of post-classical sculpture , with the holdings of italian renaissance items being the largest outside italy . the departments of asia include art from south asia , china , japan , korea and the islamic world . the east asian collections are among the best in europe , with particular strengths in ceramics and metalwork , while the islamic collection is amongst the largest in the western world . overall , it is one of the largest museums in the world .
which cultures are represented in the v & a 's collections ?
europe , north america , asia and north africa

Sample: 85

it became a moral justification to lift the world up to french standards by bringing christianity and french culture . in 1884 the leading exponent of colonialism , jules ferry declared france had a civilising mission : " the higher races have a right over the lower races , they have a duty to civilize the inferior " . full citizenship rights – ‘ ’ assimilation ’ ’ – were offered , although in reality assimilation was always on the distant horizon . contrasting from britain , france sent small numbers of settlers to its colonies , with the only notable exception of algeria , where french settlers nevertheless always remained a small minority .
what did france offer that was rare by imperial standards ?
assimilation

Sample: 86

sky uk limited ( formerly british sky broadcasting or bskyb ) is a british telecommunications company which serves the united kingdom . sky provides television and broadband internet services and fixed line telephone services to consumers and businesses in the united kingdom . it is the uk 's largest pay-tv broadcaster with 11 million customers as of 2015 . it was the uk 's most popular digital tv service until it was overtaken by freeview in april 2007 . its corporate headquarters are based in isleworth .
sky uk limited is formerly known by what name ?
bskyb

Sample: 87

the principle of faunal succession is based on the appearance of fossils in sedimentary rocks . as organisms exist at the same time period throughout the world , their presence or ( sometimes ) absence may be used to provide a relative age of the formations in which they are found . based on principles laid out by william smith almost a hundred years before the publication of charles darwin 's theory of evolution , the principles of succession were developed independently of evolutionary thought . the principle becomes quite complex , however , given the uncertainties of fossilization , the localization of fossil types due to lateral changes in habitat ( facies change in sedimentary strata ) , and that not all fossils may be found globally at the same time .
the principle of faunal succession was developed 100 years before whose theory of evolution ?
charles darwin

Sample: 88

peyton manning became the first quarterback ever to lead two different teams to multiple super bowls . he is also the oldest quarterback ever to play in a super bowl at age 39 . the past record was held by john elway , who led the broncos to victory in super bowl xxxiii at age 38 and is currently denver 's executive vice president of football operations and general manager .
who has the record of being the oldest quarter back in any super bowl game ?
peyton manning

Sample: 89

by 1620 the huguenots were on the defensive , and the government increasingly applied pressure . a series of three small civil wars known as the huguenot rebellions broke out , mainly in southwestern france , between 1621 and 1629. revolted against royal authority . the uprising occurred a decade following the death of henry iv , a huguenot before converting to catholicism , who had protected protestants through the edict of nantes . his successor louis xiii , under the regency of his italian catholic mother marie de ' medici , became more intolerant of protestantism . the huguenots respond by establishing independent political and military structures , establishing diplomatic contacts with foreign powers , and openly revolting against central power . the rebellions were implacably suppressed by the french crown . [ citation needed ]
what were the civil wars caused by the huguenots called ?
huguenot rebellions

Sample: 90

on may 21 , 2013 , nfl owners at their spring meetings in boston voted and awarded the game to levi 's stadium . the $ 1.2 billion stadium opened in 2014 . it is the first super bowl held in the san francisco bay area since super bowl xix in 1985 , and the first in california since super bowl xxxvii took place in san diego in 2003 .
when was the last time california hosted a super bowl ?
2003 .

Sample: 91

in 1516 , johann tetzel , a dominican friar and papal commissioner for indulgences , was sent to germany by the roman catholic church to sell indulgences to raise money to rebuild st. peter 's basilica in rome . roman catholic theology stated that faith alone , whether fiduciary or dogmatic , can not justify man ; justification rather depends only on such faith as is active in charity and good works ( fides caritate formata ) . the benefits of good works could be obtained by donating money to the church .
why was tetzel seeking money in germany ?
rebuild st. peter 's basilica

Sample: 92

in 1899 , john jacob astor iv invested $ 100,000 for tesla to further develop and produce a new lighting system . instead , tesla used the money to fund his colorado springs experiments .
how much money did john jacob astor iv provide tesla with ?
$ 100,000

Sample: 93

dendritic cells ( dc ) are phagocytes in tissues that are in contact with the external environment ; therefore , they are located mainly in the skin , nose , lungs , stomach , and intestines . they are named for their resemblance to neuronal dendrites , as both have many spine-like projections , but dendritic cells are in no way connected to the nervous system . dendritic cells serve as a link between the bodily tissues and the innate and adaptive immune systems , as they present antigens to t cells , one of the key cell types of the adaptive immune system .
what are one of the key cell types of the adaptive immune system ?
t cells

Sample: 94

a method to lessen the magnitude of this heating and cooling was invented in 1804 by british engineer arthur woolf , who patented his woolf high-pressure compound engine in 1805 . in the compound engine , high-pressure steam from the boiler expands in a high-pressure ( hp ) cylinder and then enters one or more subsequent lower-pressure ( lp ) cylinders . the complete expansion of the steam now occurs across multiple cylinders and as less expansion now occurs in each cylinder less heat is lost by the steam in each . this reduces the magnitude of cylinder heating and cooling , increasing the efficiency of the engine . by staging the expansion in multiple cylinders , torque variability can be reduced . to derive equal work from lower-pressure steam requires a larger cylinder volume as this steam occupies a greater volume . therefore , the bore , and often the stroke , are increased in low-pressure cylinders resulting in larger cylinders .
what needs to be larger to get the same work out of lower pressure steam ?
cylinder volume

Sample: 95

neoclassical economics views inequalities in the distribution of income as arising from differences in value added by labor , capital and land . within labor income distribution is due to differences in value added by different classifications of workers . in this perspective , wages and profits are determined by the marginal value added of each economic actor ( worker , capitalist/business owner , landlord ) . thus , in a market economy , inequality is a reflection of the productivity gap between highly-paid professions and lower-paid professions .
what does the marginal value added by an economic actor determine ?
wages and profits

Sample: 96

westwood one will carry the game throughout north america , with kevin harlan as play-by-play announcer , boomer esiason and dan fouts as color analysts , and james lofton and mark malone as sideline reporters . jim gray will anchor the pre-game and halftime coverage .
who is the play-by-play announcer for the game ?
kevin harlan

Sample: 97

most early greeks did not even consider 1 to be a number , so they could not consider it to be a prime . by the middle ages and renaissance many mathematicians included 1 as the first prime number . in the mid-18th century christian goldbach listed 1 as the first prime in his famous correspondence with leonhard euler -- who did not agree . in the 19th century many mathematicians still considered the number 1 to be a prime . for example , derrick norman lehmer 's list of primes up to 10,006,721 , reprinted as late as 1956 , started with 1 as its first prime . henri lebesgue is said to be the last professional mathematician to call 1 prime . by the early 20th century , mathematicians began to accept that 1 is not a prime number , but rather forms its own special category as a " unit " .
in the mid 18th century , who did not concur that 1 should be the first prime number ?
leonhard euler

Sample: 98

during reconstruction and the gilded age , jacksonville and nearby st. augustine became popular winter resorts for the rich and famous . visitors arrived by steamboat and later by railroad . president grover cleveland attended the sub-tropical exposition in the city on february 22 , 1888 during his trip to florida . this highlighted the visibility of the state as a worthy place for tourism . the city 's tourism , however , was dealt major blows in the late 19th century by yellow fever outbreaks . in addition , extension of the florida east coast railway further south drew visitors to other areas . from 1893 to 1938 jacksonville was the site of the florida old confederate soldiers and sailors home with a nearby cemetery .
what caused jacksonville 's tourism to become less desirable at the latter half of the 19th century ?
yellow fever outbreaks

Sample: 99

non-revolutionary civil disobedience is a simple disobedience of laws on the grounds that they are judged " wrong " by an individual conscience , or as part of an effort to render certain laws ineffective , to cause their repeal , or to exert pressure to get one 's political wishes on some other issue . revolutionary civil disobedience is more of an active attempt to overthrow a government ( or to change cultural traditions , social customs , religious beliefs , etc ... revolution does n't have to be political , i.e . " cultural revolution " , it simply implies sweeping and widespread change to a section of the social fabric ) . gandhi 's acts have been described as revolutionary civil disobedience . it has been claimed that the hungarians under ferenc deák directed revolutionary civil disobedience against the austrian government . thoreau also wrote of civil disobedience accomplishing " peaceable revolution . " howard zinn , harvey wheeler , and others have identified the right espoused in the declaration of independence to " alter or abolish " an unjust government to be a principle of civil disobedience .
what type of civil disobedience is larger scale ?
revolutionary civil disobedience

Sample: 100

private schooling in the united states has been debated by educators , lawmakers and parents , since the beginnings of compulsory education in massachusetts in 1852 . the supreme court precedent appears to favor educational choice , so long as states may set standards for educational accomplishment . some of the most relevant supreme court case law on this is as follows : runyon v. mccrary , 427 u.s. 160 ( 1976 ) ; wisconsin v. yoder , 406 u.s. 205 ( 1972 ) ; pierce v. society of sisters , 268 u.s. 510 ( 1925 ) ; meyer v. nebraska , 262 u.s. 390 ( 1923 ) .
in what year did massachusetts first require children to be educated in schools ?
1852

Sample: 101

warsaw 's first stock exchange was established in 1817 and continued trading until world war ii . it was re-established in april 1991 , following the end of the post-war communist control of the country and the reintroduction of a free-market economy . today , the warsaw stock exchange ( wse ) is , according to many indicators , the largest market in the region , with 374 companies listed and total capitalization of 162 584 mln eur as of 31 august 2009 . from 1991 until 2000 , the stock exchange was , ironically , located in the building previously used as the headquarters of the polish united workers ' party ( pzpr ) .
when was warsaw 's stock exchange brought back to life ?
april 1991

Sample: 102

in honor of the 50th super bowl , the pregame ceremony featured the on-field introduction of 39 of the 43 previous super bowl most valuable players . bart starr ( mvp of super bowls i and ii ) and chuck howley ( mvp of super bowl v ) appeared via video , while peyton manning ( mvp of super bowl xli and current broncos quarterback ) was shown in the locker room preparing for the game . no plans were announced regarding the recognition of harvey martin , co-mvp of super bowl xii , who died in 2001 .
which mvp honoree died in 2001 ?
harvey martin

Sample: 103

warsaw 's name in the polish language is warszawa , approximately /vɑːrˈʃɑːvə/ ( also formerly spelled warszewa and warszowa ) , meaning " belonging to warsz " , warsz being a shortened form of the masculine name of slavic origin warcisław ; see also etymology of wrocław . folk etymology attributes the city name to a fisherman , wars , and his wife , sawa . according to legend , sawa was a mermaid living in the vistula river with whom wars fell in love . in actuality , warsz was a 12th/13th-century nobleman who owned a village located at the modern-day site of mariensztat neighbourhood . see also the vršovci family which had escaped to poland . the official city name in full is miasto stołeczne warszawa ( english : " the capital city of warsaw " ) . a native or resident of warsaw is known as a varsovian – in polish warszawiak ( male ) , warszawianka ( female ) , warszawiacy ( plural ) .
what is the full official city name of warsaw ?
miasto stołeczne warszawa

Sample: 104

legally , only non-profit trusts and societies can run schools in india . they will have to satisfy a number of infrastructure and human resource related criteria to get recognition ( a form of license ) from the government . critics of this system point out that this leads to corruption by school inspectors who check compliance and to fewer schools in a country that has the largest adult illiterate population in the world . while official data does not capture the real extent of private schooling in the country , various studies have reported unpopularity of government schools and an increasing number of private schools . the annual status of education report ( aser ) , which evaluates learning levels in rural india , has been reporting poorer academic achievement in government schools than in private schools . a key difference between the government and private schools is that the medium of education in private schools is english while it is the local language in government schools .
what is the full name of the aser ?
annual status of education report

Sample: 105

kublai khan promoted commercial , scientific , and cultural growth . he supported the merchants of the silk road trade network by protecting the mongol postal system , constructing infrastructure , providing loans that financed trade caravans , and encouraging the circulation of paper banknotes ( 鈔 , chao ) . pax mongolica , mongol peace , enabled the spread of technologies , commodities , and culture between china and the west . kublai expanded the grand canal from southern china to daidu in the north . mongol rule was cosmopolitan under kublai khan . he welcomed foreign visitors to his court , such as the venetian merchant marco polo , who wrote the most influential european account of yuan china . marco polo 's travels would later inspire many others like christopher columbus to chart a passage to the far east in search of its legendary wealth .
who described kublai 's china to europe ?
marco polo

Sample: 106

there are 3 main bus companies providing services in the city ; arriva north east , go north east and stagecoach north east . there are two major bus stations in the city : haymarket bus station and eldon square bus station . arriva mainly operates from haymarket bus station providing the majority of services to the north of newcastle , northumberland and north tyneside . go-ahead operates from eldon square bus station , providing the majority of services south of the river in gateshead , south tyneside , sunderland , and county durham . stagecoach is the primary operator in the city proper , with cross-city services mainly between both the west and east ends via the city centre with some services extending out to the metrocentre , killingworth , wallsend and ponteland . bus services in newcastle upon tyne and the surrounding boroughs part of the tyne and wear area are coordinated by nexus , the tyne and wear passenger transport executive .
how many bus companies provide service to the city of newcastle ?
3

Sample: 107

the origin of electric and magnetic fields would not be fully explained until 1864 when james clerk maxwell unified a number of earlier theories into a set of 20 scalar equations , which were later reformulated into 4 vector equations by oliver heaviside and josiah willard gibbs . these " maxwell equations " fully described the sources of the fields as being stationary and moving charges , and the interactions of the fields themselves . this led maxwell to discover that electric and magnetic fields could be " self-generating " through a wave that traveled at a speed that he calculated to be the speed of light . this insight united the nascent fields of electromagnetic theory with optics and led directly to a complete description of the electromagnetic spectrum .
how many scalar equations were formed into a set by james maxwell ?
20

Sample: 108

when some species , including bathyctena chuni , euplokamis stationis and eurhamphaea vexilligera , are disturbed , they produce secretions ( ink ) that luminesce at much the same wavelengths as their bodies . juveniles will luminesce more brightly in relation to their body size than adults , whose luminescence is diffused over their bodies . detailed statistical investigation has not suggested the function of ctenophores ' bioluminescence nor produced any correlation between its exact color and any aspect of the animals ' environments , such as depth or whether they live in coastal or mid-ocean waters .
what are the secretions commonly called ?
ink

Sample: 109

for a long time , it was thought that the amazon rainforest was only ever sparsely populated , as it was impossible to sustain a large population through agriculture given the poor soil . archeologist betty meggers was a prominent proponent of this idea , as described in her book amazonia : man and culture in a counterfeit paradise . she claimed that a population density of 0.2 inhabitants per square kilometre ( 0.52/sq mi ) is the maximum that can be sustained in the rainforest through hunting , with agriculture needed to host a larger population . however , recent anthropological findings have suggested that the region was actually densely populated . some 5 million people may have lived in the amazon region in ad 1500 , divided between dense coastal settlements , such as that at marajó , and inland dwellers . by 1900 the population had fallen to 1 million and by the early 1980s it was less than 200,000 .
how many people may have lived in the amazon region during ad 1500 ?
5 million

Sample: 110

during the 20th century , historians john gallagher ( 1919–1980 ) and ronald robinson ( 1920–1999 ) constructed a framework for understanding european imperialism . they claim that european imperialism was influential , and europeans rejected the notion that " imperialism " required formal , legal control by one government over another country . " in their view , historians have been mesmerized by formal empire and maps of the world with regions colored red . the bulk of british emigration , trade , and capital went to areas outside the formal british empire . key to their thinking is the idea of empire 'informally if possible and formally if necessary . ' " [ attribution needed ] because of the resources made available by imperialism , the world 's economy grew significantly and became much more interconnected in the decades before world war i , making the many imperial powers rich and prosperous .
who was made rich and prosperous prior to world war 1
many imperial powers

Sample: 111

writers whose papers are in the library are as diverse as charles dickens and beatrix potter . illuminated manuscripts in the library dating from the 12th to 16th centuries include : the eadwine psalter [ citation needed ] , canterbury ; pocket book of hours , reims ; missal from the royal abbey of saint denis , paris ; the simon marmion book of hours , bruges ; 1524 charter illuminated by lucas horenbout , london ; the armagnac manuscript of the trial and rehabilitation of joan of arc , rouen . also the victorian period is represented by william morris .
the papers of which famous english victorian author are collected in the library ?
charles dickens

Sample: 112

in july 1888 , brown and peck negotiated a licensing deal with george westinghouse for tesla 's polyphase induction motor and transformer designs for $ 60,000 in cash and stock and a royalty of $ 2.50 per ac horsepower produced by each motor . westinghouse also hired tesla for one year for the large fee of $ 2,000 ( $ 52,700 in today 's dollars ) per month to be a consultant at the westinghouse electric & manufacturing company 's pittsburgh labs .
in what year were tesla 's motor and transformer designs licensed to westinghouse ?
1888

Sample: 113

all of these processes do not necessarily occur in a single environment , and do not necessarily occur in a single order . the hawaiian islands , for example , consist almost entirely of layered basaltic lava flows . the sedimentary sequences of the mid-continental united states and the grand canyon in the southwestern united states contain almost-undeformed stacks of sedimentary rocks that have remained in place since cambrian time . other areas are much more geologically complex . in the southwestern united states , sedimentary , volcanic , and intrusive rocks have been metamorphosed , faulted , foliated , and folded . even older rocks , such as the acasta gneiss of the slave craton in northwestern canada , the oldest known rock in the world have been metamorphosed to the point where their origin is undiscernable without laboratory analysis . in addition , these processes can occur in stages . in many places , the grand canyon in the southwestern united states being a very visible example , the lower rock units were metamorphosed and deformed , and then deformation ended and the upper , undeformed units were deposited . although any amount of rock emplacement and rock deformation can occur , and they can occur any number of times , these concepts provide a guide to understanding the geological history of an area .
the rocks at the grand canyon have been in place since when ?
cambrian time

Sample: 114

the primary law of the eu consists mainly of the founding treaties , the " core " treaties being the treaty on european union ( teu ) and the treaty on the functioning of the european union ( tfeu ) . the treaties contain formal and substantive provisions , which frame policies of the european union institutions and determine the division of competences between the european union and its member states . the teu establishes that european union law applies to the metropolitan territories of the member states , as well as certain islands and overseas territories , including madeira , the canary islands and the french overseas departments . european union law also applies in territories where a member state is responsible for external relations , for example gibraltar and the åland islands . the teu allows the european council to make specific provisions for regions , as for example done for customs matters in gibraltar and saint-pierre-et-miquelon . the teu specifically excludes certain regions , for example the faroe islands , from the jurisdiction of european union law . treaties apply as soon as they enter into force , unless stated otherwise , and are generally concluded for an unlimited period . the teu provides that commitments entered into by the member states between themselves before the treaty was signed no longer apply . [ vague ] all eu member states are regarded as subject to the general obligation of the principle of cooperation , as stated in the teu , whereby member states are obliged not to take measure which could jeopardise the attainment of the teu objectives . the court of justice of the european union can interpret the treaties , but it can not rule on their validity , which is subject to international law . individuals may rely on primary law in the court of justice of the european union if the treaty provisions have a direct effect and they are sufficiently clear , precise and unconditional .
what powers does the court of justice of the european union have in regards to treaties ?
can interpret the treaties , but it can not rule on their validity

Sample: 115

the church also holds that they " are equally bound to respect the sacredness of the life and well-being of the mother , for whom devastating damage may result from an unacceptable pregnancy . in continuity with past christian teaching , we recognize tragic conflicts of life with life that may justify abortion , and in such cases we support the legal option of abortion under proper medical procedures . " as such , two official bodies of the united methodist church are part of the religious coalition for reproductive choice 's governing coalition , the general board of church and society , and the united methodist women . the church cautions that " governmental laws and regulations do not provide all the guidance required by the informed christian conscience . " the church emphasizes the need to be in supportive ministry with all women , regardless of their choice .
the church holds that they are equally bound to respect the sacredness of the life and well-being of whom ?
the mother

Sample: 116

the mouth of the rhine into lake constance forms an inland delta . the delta is delimited in the west by the alter rhein ( " old rhine " ) and in the east by a modern canalized section . most of the delta is a nature reserve and bird sanctuary . it includes the austrian towns of gaißau , höchst and fußach . the natural rhine originally branched into at least two arms and formed small islands by precipitating sediments . in the local alemannic dialect , the singular is pronounced " isel " and this is also the local pronunciation of esel ( " donkey " ) . many local fields have an official name containing this element .
in local alemannic dialect , what is the the singular form of the names of the islands formed by the rhine ?
isel

Sample: 117

wiesner kept up the pressure , even making the disagreement public during a two-day september visit by the president to marshall space flight center . wiesner blurted out " no , that 's no good " in front of the press , during a presentation by von braun . webb jumped in and defended von braun , until kennedy ended the squabble by stating that the matter was " still subject to final review " . webb held firm , and issued a request for proposal to candidate lunar excursion module ( lem ) contractors . wiesner finally relented , unwilling to settle the dispute once and for all in kennedy 's office , because of the president 's involvement with the october cuban missile crisis , and fear of kennedy 's support for webb . nasa announced the selection of grumman as the lem contractor in november 1962 .
what did wiesner shout out in front of the press during a presentation by von braun ?
" no , that 's no good "

Sample: 118

a wide selection of serials are available from bbc video on dvd , on sale in the united kingdom , australia , canada and the united states . every fully extant serial has been released on vhs , and bbc worldwide continues to regularly release serials on dvd . the 2005 series is also available in its entirety on umd for the playstation portable . eight original series serials have been released on laserdisc and many have also been released on betamax tape and video 2000 . one episode of doctor who ( the infinite quest ) was released on vcd . only the series from 2009 onwards are available on blu-ray , except for the 1970 story spearhead from space , released in july 2013 . many early releases have been re-released as special editions , with more bonus features .
what is the only episode released on vcd ?
the infinite quest

Sample: 119

the climate in newcastle is oceanic ( köppen cfb ) and significantly milder than some other locations in the world at a similar latitude , due to the warming influence of the gulf stream ( via the north atlantic drift ) . being in the rain shadow of the north pennines , it is among the driest cities in the uk . temperature extremes recorded at newcastle weather centre include 32.5 °c ( 90.5 °f ) during august 1990 down to −12.6 °c ( 9.3 °f ) during january 1982 . in contrast to other areas influenced by the gulf stream , such as inland scandinavia , newcastle has milder winters and cooler summers , similar to the remainder of the british isles .
what kind of influence does the gulf stream exert on newcastle ?
warming

Sample: 120

passenger rail service is provided by amtrak san joaquins . the main passenger rail station is the recently renovated historic santa fe railroad depot in downtown fresno . the bakersfield-stockton mainlines of the burlington northern santa fe railway and union pacific railroad railroads cross in fresno , and both railroads maintain railyards within the city ; the san joaquin valley railroad also operates former southern pacific branchlines heading west and south out of the city . the city of fresno is planned to serve the future california high speed rail .
which company provides train service in fresno ?
amtrak san joaquins

Sample: 121

in december 1984 , thomas s. murphy , chief executive officer of capital cities communications , contacted leonard goldenson about a proposal to merge their respective companies . on march 16 , 1985 , abc 's executive committee accepted the merger offer , which was formally announced on march 18 , 1985 , with capital cities purchasing abc and its related properties for $ 3.5 billion and $ 118 for each of abc 's shares as well as a guarantee of 10 % ( or $ 3 ) for a total of $ 121 per share . to finance the purchase , capital cities borrowed $ 2.1 billion from a consortium of banks , which sold certain assets that capital cites could not acquire or retain due to fcc ownership rules for a combined $ 900 million and sold off several cable television systems , which were sold to the washington post company ( forming the present-day cable one ) . the remaining $ 500 million was loaned by warren buffett , who promised that his company berkshire hathaway would purchase $ 3 million in shares , at $ 172.50 apiece . due to an fcc ban on same-market ownership of television and radio stations by a single company ( although the deal would have otherwise complied with new ownership rules implemented by the fcc in january 1985 , that allowed broadcasters to own a maximum of 12 television stations ) , abc and capital cities respectively decided to sell wxyz-tv and tampa independent station wfts-tv to the e. w. scripps company ( although capital cities/abc originally intended to seek a cross-ownership waiver to retain wxyz and capital cities-owned radio stations wjr and whyt ) .
$ 500 million was supplied for the capital city - abc merger by what investor ?
warren buffett

Sample: 122

legrande writes that " the formulation of a single all-encompassing definition of the term is extremely difficult , if not impossible . in reviewing the voluminous literature on the subject , the student of civil disobedience rapidly finds himself surrounded by a maze of semantical problems and grammatical niceties . like alice in wonderland , he often finds that specific terminology has no more ( or no less ) meaning than the individual orator intends it to have . " he encourages a distinction between lawful protest demonstration , nonviolent civil disobedience , and violent civil disobedience .
what issue plagues the literature about civil disobedience ?
semantical problems and grammatical niceties

Sample: 123

in 1881 , tesla moved to budapest to work under ferenc puskás at a telegraph company , the budapest telephone exchange . upon arrival , tesla realized that the company , then under construction , was not functional , so he worked as a draftsman in the central telegraph office instead . within a few months , the budapest telephone exchange became functional and tesla was allocated the chief electrician position . during his employment , tesla made many improvements to the central station equipment and claimed to have perfected a telephone repeater or amplifier , which was never patented nor publicly described .
what position did tesla hold in the central telegraph office ?
draftsman

Sample: 124

luther next set about reversing or modifying the new church practices . by working alongside the authorities to restore public order , he signalled his reinvention as a conservative force within the reformation . after banishing the zwickau prophets , he now faced a battle against not only the established church but also the radical reformers who threatened the new order by fomenting social unrest and violence .
who did luther banish ?
zwickau prophets

Sample: 125

tamara de lempicka was a famous artist born in warsaw . she was born maria górska in warsaw to wealthy parents and in 1916 married a polish lawyer tadeusz łempicki . better than anyone else she represented the art deco style in painting and art . nathan alterman , the israeli poet , was born in warsaw , as was moshe vilenski , the israeli composer , lyricist , and pianist , who studied music at the warsaw conservatory . warsaw was the beloved city of isaac bashevis singer , which he described in many of his novels : warsaw has just now been destroyed . no one will ever see the warsaw i knew . let me just write about it . let this warsaw not disappear forever , he commented .
where was the famous artist tamara de lempicka born ?
warsaw

Sample: 126

subordinate to the general conference are the jurisdictional and central conferences which also meet every four years . the united states is divided into five jurisdictions : northeastern , southeastern , north central , south central and western . outside the united states the church is divided into seven central conferences : africa , congo , west africa , central & southern europe , germany , northern europe and the philippines . the main purpose of the jurisdictions and central conferences is to elect and appoint bishops , the chief administrators of the church . bishops thus elected serve episcopal areas , which consist of one or more annual conferences .
the united states is divided into how many jurisdictions ?
five

Sample: 127

in the united states , the game was televised by cbs , as part of a cycle between the three main broadcast television partners of the nfl . the network 's lead broadcast team of jim nantz and phil simms called the contest , with tracy wolfson and evan washburn on the sidelines . cbs introduced new features during the telecast , including pylon cameras and microphones along with eyevision 360—an array of 36 cameras along the upper deck that can be used to provide a 360-degree view of plays and " bullet time " effects . ( an earlier version of eyevision was last used in super bowl xxxv ; for super bowl 50 , the cameras were upgraded to 5k resolution . )
how many broadcast television partners does the nfl have ?
three

Sample: 128

the literary and philosophical society of newcastle upon tyne ( popularly known as the 'lit & phil ' ) is the largest independent library outside london , housing more than 150,000 books . its music library contains 8000 cds and 10,000 lps . the current lit and phil premises were built in 1825 and the building was designed by john and benjamin green . operating since 1793 and founded as a ‘ conversation club , ’ its lecture theatre was the first public building to be lit by electric light , during a lecture by joseph swan on 20 october 1880 .
what was the first public building to be lit by electric light in newcastle ?
lecture theatre

Sample: 129

this is the most common method of construction procurement and is well established and recognized . in this arrangement , the architect or engineer acts as the project coordinator . his or her role is to design the works , prepare the specifications and produce construction drawings , administer the contract , tender the works , and manage the works from inception to completion . there are direct contractual links between the architect 's client and the main contractor . any subcontractor has a direct contractual relationship with the main contractor . the procedure continues until the building is ready to occupy .
in the most common construction procurement , who acts as the project coordinator ?
the architect or engineer

Sample: 130

there are several museums and galleries in newcastle , including the centre for life with its science village ; the discovery museum a museum highlighting life on tyneside , including tyneside 's shipbuilding heritage , and inventions which changed the world ; the great north museum ; in 2009 the newcastle on tyne museum of antiquities merged with the great north museum ( hancock museum ) ; seven stories a museum dedicated to children 's books , the side gallery historical and contemporary photography from around the world and northern england and the newburn hall motor museum .
what year saw the merger of two museums in newcastle ?
2009

Sample: 131

in the meantime , on august 1 , 1774 , an experiment conducted by the british clergyman joseph priestley focused sunlight on mercuric oxide ( hgo ) inside a glass tube , which liberated a gas he named " dephlogisticated air " . he noted that candles burned brighter in the gas and that a mouse was more active and lived longer while breathing it . after breathing the gas himself , he wrote : " the feeling of it to my lungs was not sensibly different from that of common air , but i fancied that my breast felt peculiarly light and easy for some time afterwards . " priestley published his findings in 1775 in a paper titled " an account of further discoveries in air " which was included in the second volume of his book titled experiments and observations on different kinds of air . because he published his findings first , priestley is usually given priority in the discovery .
why is priestley usually given credit for being first to discover oxygen ?
published his findings first

Sample: 132

the victorian parts of the building have a complex history , with piecemeal additions by different architects . founded in may 1852 , it was not until 1857 that the museum moved to the present site . this area of london was known as brompton but had been renamed south kensington . the land was occupied by brompton park house , which was extended , most notably by the " brompton boilers " , which were starkly utilitarian iron galleries with a temporary look and were later dismantled and used to build the v & a museum of childhood . the first building to be erected that still forms part of the museum was the sheepshanks gallery in 1857 on the eastern side of the garden . its architect was civil engineer captain francis fowke , royal engineers , who was appointed by cole . the next major expansions were designed by the same architect , the turner and vernon galleries built 1858-9 to house the eponymous collections ( later transferred to the tate gallery ) and now used as the picture galleries and tapestry gallery respectively . the north and south courts , were then built , both of which opened by june 1862 . they now form the galleries for temporary exhibitions and are directly behind the sheepshanks gallery . on the very northern edge of the site is situated the secretariat wing , also built in 1862 this houses the offices and board room etc . and is not open to the public .
who designed the turner and vernon galleries that were built in 1858-9 ?
captain francis fowke

Sample: 133

the internal cavity forms : a mouth that can usually be closed by muscles ; a pharynx ( " throat " ) ; a wider area in the center that acts as a stomach ; and a system of internal canals . these branch through the mesoglea to the most active parts of the animal : the mouth and pharynx ; the roots of the tentacles , if present ; all along the underside of each comb row ; and four branches round the sensory complex at the far end from the mouth – two of these four branches terminate in anal pores . the inner surface of the cavity is lined with an epithelium , the gastrodermis . the mouth and pharynx have both cilia and well-developed muscles . in other parts of the canal system , the gastrodermis is different on the sides nearest to and furthest from the organ that it supplies . the nearer side is composed of tall nutritive cells that store nutrients in vacuoles ( internal compartments ) , germ cells that produce eggs or sperm , and photocytes that produce bioluminescence . the side furthest from the organ is covered with ciliated cells that circulate water through the canals , punctuated by ciliary rosettes , pores that are surrounded by double whorls of cilia and connect to the mesoglea .
the inside of a ctenophore is lined with what ?
epithelium

Sample: 134

people who climb mountains or fly in non-pressurized fixed-wing aircraft sometimes have supplemental o 2 supplies . [ h ] passengers traveling in ( pressurized ) commercial airplanes have an emergency supply of o 2 automatically supplied to them in case of cabin depressurization . sudden cabin pressure loss activates chemical oxygen generators above each seat , causing oxygen masks to drop . pulling on the masks " to start the flow of oxygen " as cabin safety instructions dictate , forces iron filings into the sodium chlorate inside the canister . a steady stream of oxygen gas is then produced by the exothermic reaction .
what gas does the airline exothermic reaction produce ?
oxygen gas

Sample: 135

perhaps the most significant difference between primary school and secondary school teaching is the relationship between teachers and children . in primary schools each class has a teacher who stays with them for most of the week and will teach them the whole curriculum . in secondary schools they will be taught by different subject specialists each session during the week and may have ten or more different teachers . the relationship between children and their teachers tends to be closer in the primary school where they act as form tutor , specialist teacher and surrogate parent during the course of the day .
which type of school has a closer teacher-child relationship ?
primary school

Sample: 136

approximately one million protestants in modern france represent some 2 % of its population . most are concentrated in alsace in northeast france and the cévennes mountain region in the south , who still regard themselves as huguenots to this day . [ citation needed ] a diaspora of french australians still considers itself huguenot , even after centuries of exile . long integrated into australian society , it is encouraged by the huguenot society of australia to embrace and conserve its cultural heritage , aided by the society 's genealogical research services .
what northern province in france has a large protestant population ?
alsace

Sample: 137

packet switching contrasts with another principal networking paradigm , circuit switching , a method which pre-allocates dedicated network bandwidth specifically for each communication session , each having a constant bit rate and latency between nodes . in cases of billable services , such as cellular communication services , circuit switching is characterized by a fee per unit of connection time , even when no data is transferred , while packet switching may be characterized by a fee per unit of information transmitted , such as characters , packets , or messages .
what is circuit switching characterized by
circuit switching is characterized by a fee per unit of connection time

Sample: 138

the primary law of the eu consists mainly of the founding treaties , the " core " treaties being the treaty on european union ( teu ) and the treaty on the functioning of the european union ( tfeu ) . the treaties contain formal and substantive provisions , which frame policies of the european union institutions and determine the division of competences between the european union and its member states . the teu establishes that european union law applies to the metropolitan territories of the member states , as well as certain islands and overseas territories , including madeira , the canary islands and the french overseas departments . european union law also applies in territories where a member state is responsible for external relations , for example gibraltar and the åland islands . the teu allows the european council to make specific provisions for regions , as for example done for customs matters in gibraltar and saint-pierre-et-miquelon . the teu specifically excludes certain regions , for example the faroe islands , from the jurisdiction of european union law . treaties apply as soon as they enter into force , unless stated otherwise , and are generally concluded for an unlimited period . the teu provides that commitments entered into by the member states between themselves before the treaty was signed no longer apply . [ vague ] all eu member states are regarded as subject to the general obligation of the principle of cooperation , as stated in the teu , whereby member states are obliged not to take measure which could jeopardise the attainment of the teu objectives . the court of justice of the european union can interpret the treaties , but it can not rule on their validity , which is subject to international law . individuals may rely on primary law in the court of justice of the european union if the treaty provisions have a direct effect and they are sufficiently clear , precise and unconditional .
which treaty provides that the european union law be applied to metropolitan territories of member states ?
treaty on european union ( teu )

Sample: 139

a prime number ( or a prime ) is a natural number greater than 1 that has no positive divisors other than 1 and itself . a natural number greater than 1 that is not a prime number is called a composite number . for example , 5 is prime because 1 and 5 are its only positive integer factors , whereas 6 is composite because it has the divisors 2 and 3 in addition to 1 and 6 . the fundamental theorem of arithmetic establishes the central role of primes in number theory : any integer greater than 1 can be expressed as a product of primes that is unique up to ordering . the uniqueness in this theorem requires excluding 1 as a prime because one can include arbitrarily many instances of 1 in any factorization , e.g. , 3 , 1 · 3 , 1 · 1 · 3 , etc . are all valid factorizations of 3 .
what are numbers greater than 1 that can be divided by 3 or more numbers called ?
composite number

Sample: 140

an early important political response to the opening of hostilities was the convening of the albany congress in june and july , 1754 . the goal of the congress was to formalize a unified front in trade and negotiations with various indians , since allegiance of the various tribes and nations was seen to be pivotal in the success in the war that was unfolding . the plan that the delegates agreed to was never ratified by the colonial legislatures nor approved of by the crown . nevertheless , the format of the congress and many specifics of the plan became the prototype for confederation during the war of independence .
what was the importance of the congress ?
format of the congress and many specifics of the plan became the prototype for confederation during the war of independence

Sample: 141

some chloroplasts contain a structure called the chloroplast peripheral reticulum . it is often found in the chloroplasts of c4 plants , though it has also been found in some c3 angiosperms , and even some gymnosperms . the chloroplast peripheral reticulum consists of a maze of membranous tubes and vesicles continuous with the inner chloroplast membrane that extends into the internal stromal fluid of the chloroplast . its purpose is thought to be to increase the chloroplast 's surface area for cross-membrane transport between its stroma and the cell cytoplasm . the small vesicles sometimes observed may serve as transport vesicles to shuttle stuff between the thylakoids and intermembrane space .
what does the chloroplast peripheral reticulum do ?
increase the chloroplast 's surface area for cross-membrane transport

Sample: 142

whilst this is the consensus viewpoint amongst the majority of academics , some teachers and parents advocate a more assertive and confrontational style of discipline . [ citation needed ] such individuals claim that many problems with modern schooling stem from the weakness in school discipline and if teachers exercised firm control over the classroom they would be able to teach more efficiently . this viewpoint is supported by the educational attainment of countries—in east asia for instance—that combine strict discipline with high standards of education . [ citation needed ]
who wants a more confrontational type of discipline ?
some teachers and parents

Sample: 143

while its radio network was undergoing reconstruction , abc found it difficult to avoid falling behind on the new medium of television . to ensure a space , in 1947 , abc submitted five applications for television station licenses , one for each market where it owned and operated a radio station ( new york city , los angeles , chicago , san francisco and detroit ) . these applications all requested for the stations to broadcast on vhf channel 7 , as frank marx , then abc 's vice-president of engineering , thought that the low-band vhf frequencies ( corresponding to channels 2 through 6 ) would be requisitioned from broadcasting use and reallocated for the u.s. army .
who was abc 's vice-president of engineering ?
frank marx

Sample: 144

the city of bukhara was not heavily fortified , with a moat and a single wall , and the citadel typical of khwarezmi cities . the city leaders opened the gates to the mongols , though a unit of turkish defenders held the city 's citadel for another twelve days . survivors from the citadel were executed , artisans and craftsmen were sent back to mongolia , young men who had not fought were drafted into the mongolian army and the rest of the population was sent into slavery . as the mongol soldiers looted the city , a fire broke out , razing most of the city to the ground . genghis khan had the city 's surviving population assemble in the main mosque of the town , where he declared that he was the flail of god , sent to punish them for their sins .
how did genghis khan describe himself to the people of bukhara ?
the flail of god

Sample: 145

an important factor in the creation of inequality is variation in individuals ' access to education . education , especially in an area where there is a high demand for workers , creates high wages for those with this education , however , increases in education first increase and then decrease growth as well as income inequality . as a result , those who are unable to afford an education , or choose not to pursue optional education , generally receive much lower wages . the justification for this is that a lack of education leads directly to lower incomes , and thus lower aggregate savings and investment . conversely , education raises incomes and promotes growth because it helps to unleash the productive potential of the poor .
what type of wages do people unable to afford an education receive ?
lower

Sample: 146

nasa immediately convened an accident review board , overseen by both houses of congress . while the determination of responsibility for the accident was complex , the review board concluded that " deficiencies existed in command module design , workmanship and quality control . " at the insistence of nasa administrator webb , north american removed harrison storms as command module program manager . webb also reassigned apollo spacecraft program office ( aspo ) manager joseph francis shea , replacing him with george low .
what was found to be at fault for the fire in the cabin on apollo 1 regarding the cm design ?
deficiencies

Sample: 147

to the east is the colorado desert and the colorado river at the border with arizona , and the mojave desert at the border with the state of nevada . to the south is the mexico–united states border .
what is the name of the desert near the border of nevada ?
mojave desert

Sample: 148

in the united states , the game was televised by cbs , as part of a cycle between the three main broadcast television partners of the nfl . the network 's lead broadcast team of jim nantz and phil simms called the contest , with tracy wolfson and evan washburn on the sidelines . cbs introduced new features during the telecast , including pylon cameras and microphones along with eyevision 360—an array of 36 cameras along the upper deck that can be used to provide a 360-degree view of plays and " bullet time " effects . ( an earlier version of eyevision was last used in super bowl xxxv ; for super bowl 50 , the cameras were upgraded to 5k resolution . )
who , with jim nantz , was a member of the game 's lead broadcast team ?
phil simms

Sample: 149

the earliest recorded incidents of collective civil disobedience took place during the roman empire [ citation needed ] . unarmed jews gathered in the streets to prevent the installation of pagan images in the temple in jerusalem . [ citation needed ] [ original research ? ] in modern times , some activists who commit civil disobedience as a group collectively refuse to sign bail until certain demands are met , such as favorable bail conditions , or the release of all the activists . this is a form of jail solidarity . [ page needed ] there have also been many instances of solitary civil disobedience , such as that committed by thoreau , but these sometimes go unnoticed . thoreau , at the time of his arrest , was not yet a well-known author , and his arrest was not covered in any newspapers in the days , weeks and months after it happened . the tax collector who arrested him rose to higher political office , and thoreau 's essay was not published until after the end of the mexican war .
when did the earliest examples of civil disobedience as a whole occur ?
during the roman empire

Sample: 150

tesla was born on 10 july [ o.s . 28 june ] 1856 into a serb family in the village of smiljan , austrian empire ( modern-day croatia ) . his father , milutin tesla , was a serbian orthodox priest . tesla 's mother , đuka tesla ( née mandić ) , whose father was also an orthodox priest , :10 had a talent for making home craft tools , mechanical appliances , and the ability to memorize serbian epic poems . đuka had never received a formal education . nikola credited his eidetic memory and creative abilities to his mother 's genetics and influence . tesla 's progenitors were from western serbia , near montenegro . :12
who did tesla credit for his abilities ?
his mother 's genetics

Sample: 151

the national art library ( also called word and image department ) at the victoria and albert museum collection catalog used to be kept in different formats including printed exhibit catalogs , and card catalogs . a computer system called modes cataloging system was used from the 1980s to the 1990s , but those electronic files were not available to the library users . all of the archival material at the national art library is using encoded archival description ( ead ) . the victoria and albert museum has a computer system but most of the items in the collection , unless those were newly accessioned into the collection , probably do not show up in the computer system . there is a feature on the victoria and albert museum web-site called " search the collections , " but not everything is listed there .
what archival system is used for all material at the national art library ?
encoded archival description

Sample: 152

according to economists david castells-quintana and vicente royuela , increasing inequality harms economic growth . high and persistent unemployment , in which inequality increases , has a negative effect on subsequent long-run economic growth . unemployment can harm growth not only because it is a waste of resources , but also because it generates redistributive pressures and subsequent distortions , drives people to poverty , constrains liquidity limiting labor mobility , and erodes self-esteem promoting social dislocation , unrest and conflict . policies aiming at controlling unemployment and in particular at reducing its inequality-associated effects support economic growth .
policies which try to control unemployment support economic growth because they reduce what ?
inequality-associated effects

Sample: 153

due to the fact that the bureaucracy was dominated by el temür , tugh temür is known for his cultural contribution instead . he adopted many measures honoring confucianism and promoting chinese cultural values . his most concrete effort to patronize chinese learning was founding the academy of the pavilion of the star of literature ( chinese : 奎章閣學士院 ) , first established in the spring of 1329 and designed to undertake " a number of tasks relating to the transmission of confucian high culture to the mongolian imperial establishment " . the academy was responsible for compiling and publishing a number of books , but its most important achievement was its compilation of a vast institutional compendium named jingshi dadian ( chinese : 經世大典 ) . tugh temür supported zhu xi 's neo-confucianism and also devoted himself in buddhism .
what academy did tugh temur found ?
academy of the pavilion of the star of literature

Sample: 154

conservative researchers have argued that income inequality is not significant because consumption , rather than income should be the measure of inequality , and inequality of consumption is less extreme than inequality of income in the us . will wilkinson of the libertarian cato institute states that " the weight of the evidence shows that the run-up in consumption inequality has been considerably less dramatic than the rise in income inequality , " and consumption is more important than income . according to johnson , smeeding , and tory , consumption inequality was actually lower in 2001 than it was in 1986 . the debate is summarized in " the hidden prosperity of the poor " by journalist thomas b. edsall . other studies have not found consumption inequality less dramatic than household income inequality , and the cbo 's study found consumption data not " adequately " capturing " consumption by high-income households " as it does their income , though it did agree that household consumption numbers show more equal distribution than household income .
who wrote " the hidden prosperity of the poor " ?
thomas b. edsall

Sample: 155

archbishop albrecht of mainz and magdeburg did not reply to luther 's letter containing the 95 theses . he had the theses checked for heresy and in december 1517 forwarded them to rome . he needed the revenue from the indulgences to pay off a papal dispensation for his tenure of more than one bishopric . as luther later noted , " the pope had a finger in the pie as well , because one half was to go to the building of st peter 's church in rome " .
what did albrecht need the indulgences to pay for ?
papal dispensation

Sample: 156

the broncos ' defense ranked first in the nfl yards allowed ( 4,530 ) for the first time in franchise history , and fourth in points allowed ( 296 ) . defensive ends derek wolfe and malik jackson each had 5½ sacks . pro bowl linebacker von miller led the team with 11 sacks , forced four fumbles , and recovered three . linebacker demarcus ware was selected to play in the pro bowl for the ninth time in his career , ranking second on the team with 7½ sacks . linebacker brandon marshall led the team in total tackles with 109 , while danny trevathan ranked second with 102 . cornerbacks aqib talib ( three interceptions ) and chris harris , jr. ( two interceptions ) were the other two pro bowl selections from the defense .
who forced four fumbles for the broncos in the 2015 season ?
von miller

Sample: 157

tymnet was an international data communications network headquartered in san jose , ca that utilized virtual call packet switched technology and used x.25 , sna/sdlc , bsc and ascii interfaces to connect host computers ( servers ) at thousands of large companies , educational institutions , and government agencies . users typically connected via dial-up connections or dedicated async connections . the business consisted of a large public network that supported dial-up users and a private network business that allowed government agencies and large companies ( mostly banks and airlines ) to build their own dedicated networks . the private networks were often connected via gateways to the public network to reach locations not on the private network . tymnet was also connected to dozens of other public networks in the u.s. and internationally via x.25/x.75 gateways . ( interesting note : tymnet was not named after mr. tyme . another employee suggested the name . )
gateways allowed private companies to do what
private networks were often connected via gateways to the public network to reach locations not on the private network

Sample: 158

another important library – the university library , founded in 1816 , is home to over two million items . the building was designed by architects marek budzyński and zbigniew badowski and opened on 15 december 1999 . it is surrounded by green . the university library garden , designed by irena bajerska , was opened on 12 june 2002 . it is one of the largest and most beautiful roof gardens in europe with an area of more than 10,000 m2 ( 107,639.10 sq ft ) , and plants covering 5,111 m2 ( 55,014.35 sq ft ) . as the university garden it is open to the public every day .
who designed the garden for the university library ?
irena bajerska

Sample: 159

as of the 2010 united states census , southern california has a population of 22,680,010 . despite a reputation for high growth rates , southern california 's rate grew less than the state average of 10.0 % in the 2000s as california 's growth became concentrated in the northern part of the state due to a stronger , tech-oriented economy in the bay area and an emerging greater sacramento region .
southern california had a population of 22,680,010 according to the census from which year ?
2010

Sample: 160

the centre-left australian labor party ( alp ) , the centre-right liberal party of australia , the rural-based national party of australia , and the environmentalist australian greens are victoria 's main political parties . traditionally , labor is strongest in melbourne 's working class western and northern suburbs , and the regional cities of ballarat , bendigo and geelong . the liberals ' main support lies in melbourne 's more affluent eastern and outer suburbs , and some rural and regional centres . the nationals are strongest in victoria 's north western and eastern rural regional areas . the greens , who won their first lower house seats in 2014 , are strongest in inner melbourne .
what party is favored in bedigo and geelong ?
labor

Sample: 161

at the end of 1949 , movie theater operator united paramount theatres ( upt ) was forced by the u.s. supreme court to become an independent entity , separating itself from paramount pictures . for its part , abc was on the verge of bankruptcy , with only five owned-and-operated stations and nine full-time affiliates . its revenues , which were related to advertising and were indexed compared to the number of listeners/viewers , failed to compensate for its heavy investments in purchasing and building stations . in 1951 , a rumor even mentioned that the network would be sold to cbs . in 1951 , noble held a 58 % ownership stake in abc , giving him $ 5 million with which to prevent abc from going bankrupt ; as banks refused further credit , that amount was obtained through a loan from the prudential insurance company of america .
in 1949 , upt was forced to become an independent entity by whom ?
u.s. supreme court

Sample: 162

in 1975 , season 11 of the series won a writers ' guild of great britain award for best writing in a children 's serial . in 1996 , bbc television held the " auntie awards " as the culmination of their " tv60 " series , celebrating 60 years of bbc television broadcasting , where doctor who was voted as the " best popular drama " the corporation had ever produced , ahead of such ratings heavyweights as eastenders and casualty . in 2000 , doctor who was ranked third in a list of the 100 greatest british television programmes of the 20th century , produced by the british film institute and voted on by industry professionals . in 2005 , the series came first in a survey by sfx magazine of " the greatest uk science fiction and fantasy television series ever " . also , in the 100 greatest kids ' tv shows ( a channel 4 countdown in 2001 ) , the 1963–1989 run was placed at number eight .
what publication called doctor who " the greatest uk science fiction series ever " ?
sfx magazine

Sample: 163

on the other hand , higher economic inequality tends to increase entrepreneurship rates at the individual level ( self-employment ) . however , most of it is often based on necessity rather than opportunity . necessity-based entrepreneurship is motivated by survival needs such as income for food and shelter ( " push " motivations ) , whereas opportunity-based entrepreneurship is driven by achievement-oriented motivations ( " pull " ) such as vocation and more likely to involve the pursue of new products , services , or underserved market needs . the economic impact of the former type of entrepreneurialism tends to be redistributive while the latter is expected to foster technological progress and thus have a more positive impact on economic growth .
what motivation is opportunity-based entrepreneurship driven by ?
achievement-oriented

Sample: 164

the reason for the order of the classes and the reason why people were placed in a certain class was the date they surrendered to the mongols , and had nothing to do with their ethnicity . the earlier they surrendered to the mongols , the higher they were placed , the more the held out , the lower they were ranked . the northern chinese were ranked higher and southern chinese were ranked lower because southern china withstood and fought to the last before caving in . major commerce during this era gave rise to favorable conditions for private southern chinese manufacturers and merchants .
why were southern chinese ranked lower ?
southern china withstood and fought to the last

Sample: 165

when rock units are placed under horizontal compression , they shorten and become thicker . because rock units , other than muds , do not significantly change in volume , this is accomplished in two primary ways : through faulting and folding . in the shallow crust , where brittle deformation can occur , thrust faults form , which cause deeper rock to move on top of shallower rock . because deeper rock is often older , as noted by the principle of superposition , this can result in older rocks moving on top of younger ones . movement along faults can result in folding , either because the faults are not planar or because rock layers are dragged along , forming drag folds as slip occurs along the fault . deeper in the earth , rocks behave plastically , and fold instead of faulting . these folds can either be those where the material in the center of the fold buckles upwards , creating " antiforms " , or where it buckles downwards , creating " synforms " . if the tops of the rock units within the folds remain pointing upwards , they are called anticlines and synclines , respectively . if some of the units in the fold are facing downward , the structure is called an overturned anticline or syncline , and if all of the rock units are overturned or the correct up-direction is unknown , they are simply called by the most general terms , antiforms and synforms .
when rock folds deep in the earth it can fold one of two ways , when it buckles upwards it creates what ?
antiforms

Sample: 166

tesla 's demonstration of his induction motor and westinghouse 's subsequent licensing of the patent , both in 1888 , put tesla firmly on the " ac " side of the so-called " war of currents , " an electrical distribution battle being waged between thomas edison and george westinghouse that had been simmering since westinghouse 's first ac system in 1886 and had reached the point of all-out warfare by 1888 . this started out as a competition between rival lighting systems with edison holding all the patents for dc and the incandescent light and westinghouse using his own patented ac system to power arc lights as well as incandescent lamps of a slightly different design to get around the edison patent . the acquisition of a feasible ac motor gave westinghouse a key patent in building a completely integrated ac system , but the financial strain of buying up patents and hiring the engineers needed to build it meant development of tesla 's motor had to be put on hold for a while . the competition resulted in edison machine works pursuing ac development in 1890 and by 1892 thomas edison was no longer in control of his own company , which was consolidated into the conglomerate general electric and converting to an ac delivery system at that point .
what caused the delay during the development of the ac motor .
financial strain

Sample: 167

in 2008 , japan aerospace exploration agency 's selene probe observed evidence of the halo surrounding the apollo 15 lunar module blast crater while orbiting above the lunar surface . in 2009 , nasa 's robotic lunar reconnaissance orbiter , while orbiting 50 kilometers ( 31 mi ) above the moon , began photographing the remnants of the apollo program left on the lunar surface , and photographed each site where manned apollo flights landed . all of the u. s. flags left on the moon during the apollo missions were found to still be standing , with the exception of the one left during the apollo 11 mission , which was blown over during that mission 's lift-off from the lunar surface and return to the mission command module in lunar orbit ; the degree to which these flags retain their original colors remains unknown .
do the u.s. flags on the moon still have their original coloring or were they faded due to the sun ?
unknown

Sample: 168

martin luther was born to hans luder ( or ludher , later luther ) and his wife margarethe ( née lindemann ) on 10 november 1483 in eisleben , saxony , then part of the holy roman empire . he was baptized as a catholic the next morning on the feast day of st. martin of tours . his family moved to mansfeld in 1484 , where his father was a leaseholder of copper mines and smelters and served as one of four citizen representatives on the local council . the religious scholar martin marty describes luther 's mother as a hard-working woman of " trading-class stock and middling means " and notes that luther 's enemies later wrongly described her as a whore and bath attendant . he had several brothers and sisters , and is known to have been close to one of them , jacob . hans luther was ambitious for himself and his family , and he was determined to see martin , his eldest son , become a lawyer . he sent martin to latin schools in mansfeld , then magdeburg in 1497 , where he attended a school operated by a lay group called the brethren of the common life , and eisenach in 1498 . the three schools focused on the so-called " trivium " : grammar , rhetoric , and logic . luther later compared his education there to purgatory and hell .
where was luther born ?
eisleben , saxony

Sample: 169

an apoplectic stroke deprived him of his speech , and he died shortly afterwards at 2:45 a.m. on 18 february 1546 , aged 62 , in eisleben , the city of his birth . he was buried in the castle church in wittenberg , beneath the pulpit . the funeral was held by his friends johannes bugenhagen and philipp melanchthon . a year later , troops of luther 's adversary charles v , holy roman emperor entered the town , but were ordered by charles not to disturb the grave .
on what date did luther die ?
18 february 1546

Sample: 170

near tamins-reichenau the anterior rhine and the posterior rhine join and form the rhine . the river makes a distinctive turn to the north near chur . this section is nearly 86 km long , and descends from a height of 599 m to 396 m. it flows through a wide glacial alpine valley known as the rhine valley ( german : rheintal ) . near sargans a natural dam , only a few metres high , prevents it from flowing into the open seeztal valley and then through lake walen and lake zurich into the river aare . the alpine rhine begins in the most western part of the swiss canton of graubünden , and later forms the border between switzerland to the west and liechtenstein and later austria to the east .
what is the other country the rhine separates switzerland to ?
austria

Sample: 171

the loc included launch complex 39 , a launch control center , and a 130 million cubic foot ( 3.7 million cubic meter ) vertical assembly building ( vab ) in which the space vehicle ( launch vehicle and spacecraft ) would be assembled on a mobile launcher platform and then moved by a transporter to one of several launch pads . although at least three pads were planned , only two , designated a and b , were completed in october 1965 . the loc also included an operations and checkout building ( ocb ) to which gemini and apollo spacecraft were initially received prior to being mated to their launch vehicles . the apollo spacecraft could be tested in two vacuum chambers capable of simulating atmospheric pressure at altitudes up to 250,000 feet ( 76 km ) , which is nearly a vacuum .
how high in altitude in feet could the vacuum chambers simulate ?
250,000 feet

Sample: 172

the collection includes about 1130 british and 650 european oil paintings , 6800 british watercolours , pastels and 2000 miniatures , for which the museum holds the national collection . also on loan to the museum , from her majesty the queen elizabeth ii , are the raphael cartoons : the seven surviving ( there were ten ) full scale designs for tapestries in the sistine chapel , of the lives of peter and paul from the gospels and the acts of the apostles . there is also on display a fresco by pietro perugino dated 1522 from the church of castello at fontignano ( perugia ) and is amongst the painter 's last works . one of the largest objects in the collection is the spanish tempera on wood , 670 x 486 cm , retable of st george , c. 1400 , consisting of numerous scenes and painted by andrés marzal de sax in valencia .
who has loaned the raphael cartoons to the museum ?
queen elizabeth ii

Sample: 173

in addition to arguing that the rat population was insufficient to account for a bubonic plague pandemic , sceptics of the bubonic plague theory point out that the symptoms of the black death are not unique ( and arguably in some accounts may differ from bubonic plague ) ; that transference via fleas in goods was likely to be of marginal significance ; and that the dna results may be flawed and might not have been repeated elsewhere , despite extensive samples from other mass graves . other arguments include the lack of accounts of the death of rats before outbreaks of plague between the 14th and 17th centuries ; temperatures that are too cold in northern europe for the survival of fleas ; that , despite primitive transport systems , the spread of the black death was much faster than that of modern bubonic plague ; that mortality rates of the black death appear to be very high ; that , while modern bubonic plague is largely endemic as a rural disease , the black death indiscriminately struck urban and rural areas ; and that the pattern of the black death , with major outbreaks in the same areas separated by 5 to 15 years , differs from modern bubonic plague—which often becomes endemic for decades with annual flare-ups .
how many years could separate outbreaks of the black death ?
5 to 15 years

Sample: 174

on october 6 , 1973 , syria and egypt , with support from other arab nations , launched a surprise attack on israel , on yom kippur . this renewal of hostilities in the arab–israeli conflict released the underlying economic pressure on oil prices . at the time , iran was the world 's second-largest oil exporter and a close us ally . weeks later , the shah of iran said in an interview : " of course [ the price of oil ] is going to rise ... certainly ! and how ! ... you 've [ western nations ] increased the price of the wheat you sell us by 300 percent , and the same for sugar and cement ... you buy our crude oil and sell it back to us , refined as petrochemicals , at a hundred times the price you 've paid us ... it 's only fair that , from now on , you should pay more for oil . let 's say ten times more . "
who was the world 's second largest oil producer ?
iran

Sample: 175

on june 4 , 2014 , the nfl announced that the practice of branding super bowl games with roman numerals , a practice established at super bowl v , would be temporarily suspended , and that the game would be named using arabic numerals as super bowl 50 as opposed to super bowl l. the use of roman numerals will be reinstated for super bowl li . jaime weston , the league 's vice president of brand and creative , explained that a primary reason for the change was the difficulty of designing an aesthetically pleasing logo with the letter " l " using the standardized logo template introduced at super bowl xlv . the logo also deviates from the template by featuring large numerals , colored in gold , behind the vince lombardi trophy , instead of underneath and in silver as in the standard logo .
rather than roman numerals , what did the nfl decide to use ?
arabic numerals

Sample: 176

exceptional examples of the bourgeois architecture of the later periods were not restored by the communist authorities after the war ( like mentioned kronenberg palace and insurance company rosja building ) or they were rebuilt in socialist realism style ( like warsaw philharmony edifice originally inspired by palais garnier in paris ) . despite that the warsaw university of technology building ( 1899–1902 ) is the most interesting of the late 19th-century architecture . some 19th-century buildings in the praga district ( the vistula ’ s right bank ) have been restored although many have been poorly maintained . warsaw ’ s municipal government authorities have decided to rebuild the saxon palace and the brühl palace , the most distinctive buildings in prewar warsaw .
what building is the most interesting of the late 19th-century architecture ?
warsaw university of technology building

Sample: 177

the premier of victoria is the leader of the political party or coalition with the most seats in the legislative assembly . the premier is the public face of government and , with cabinet , sets the legislative and political agenda . cabinet consists of representatives elected to either house of parliament . it is responsible for managing areas of government that are not exclusively the commonwealth 's , by the australian constitution , such as education , health and law enforcement . the current premier of victoria is daniel andrews .
who can be in the victorian cabinet ?
representatives

Sample: 178

as of 2012 , quality private schools in the united states charged substantial tuition , close to $ 40,000 annually for day schools in new york city , and nearly $ 50,000 for boarding schools . however , tuition did not cover operating expenses , particularly at boarding schools . the leading schools such as the groton school had substantial endowments running to hundreds of millions of dollars supplemented by fundraising drives . boarding schools with a reputation for quality in the united states have a student body drawn from throughout the country , indeed the globe , and a list of applicants which far exceeds their capacity .
about how much did a new york city day school cost annually in 2012 ?
$ 40,000

Sample: 179

the most recent episodes of the network 's shows are usually made available on watch abc , hulu and abc on demand the day after their original broadcast . in addition , abc on demand ( like the video-on-demand television services provided by the other u.s. broadcast networks ) disallows fast forwarding of accessed content . restrictions implemented by disney–abc television group on january 7 , 2014 restrict streaming of the most recent episode of any abc program on hulu and watch abc until eight days after their initial broadcast , in order to encourage live or same-week ( via both dvr and cable on demand ) viewing , with day-after-air streaming on either service limited to subscribers of participating pay television providers ( such as comcast , verizon fios and time warner cable ) using an isp account via an authenticated user login .
what does abc on demand disallow for online viewers ?
fast forwarding of accessed content

Sample: 180

super bowl 50 featured numerous records from individuals and teams . denver won despite being massively outgained in total yards ( 315 to 194 ) and first downs ( 21 to 11 ) . their 194 yards and 11 first downs were both the lowest totals ever by a super bowl winning team . the previous record was 244 yards by the baltimore ravens in super bowl xxxv . only seven other teams had ever gained less than 200 yards in a super bowl , and all of them had lost . the broncos ' seven sacks tied a super bowl record set by the chicago bears in super bowl xx . kony ealy tied a super bowl record with three sacks . jordan norwood 's 61-yard punt return set a new record , surpassing the old record of 45 yards set by john taylor in super bowl xxiii . denver was just 1-of-14 on third down , while carolina was barely better at 3-of-15 . the two teams ' combined third down conversion percentage of 13.8 was a super bowl low . manning and newton had quarterback passer ratings of 56.6 and 55.4 , respectively , and their added total of 112 is a record lowest aggregate passer rating for a super bowl . manning became the oldest quarterback ever to win a super bowl at age 39 , and the first quarterback ever to win a super bowl with two different teams , while gary kubiak became the first head coach to win a super bowl with the same franchise he went to the super bowl with as a player .
what team had the lowest downs and yards ever in the super bowl as of super bowl 50 ?
the broncos

Sample: 181

in one experiment , lavoisier observed that there was no overall increase in weight when tin and air were heated in a closed container . he noted that air rushed in when he opened the container , which indicated that part of the trapped air had been consumed . he also noted that the tin had increased in weight and that increase was the same as the weight of the air that rushed back in . this and other experiments on combustion were documented in his book sur la combustion en général , which was published in 1777 . in that work , he proved that air is a mixture of two gases ; 'vital air ' , which is essential to combustion and respiration , and azote ( gk . ἄζωτον " lifeless " ) , which did not support either . azote later became nitrogen in english , although it has kept the name in french and several other european languages .
what did lavoisier perceive the air had lost as much as the tin had gained
weight

Sample: 182

before the st. elizabeth 's flood ( 1421 ) , the meuse flowed just south of today 's line merwede-oude maas to the north sea and formed an archipelago-like estuary with waal and lek . this system of numerous bays , estuary-like extended rivers , many islands and constant changes of the coastline , is hard to imagine today . from 1421 to 1904 , the meuse and waal merged further upstream at gorinchem to form merwede . for flood protection reasons , the meuse was separated from the waal through a lock and diverted into a new outlet called " bergse maas " , then amer and then flows into the former bay hollands diep .
where did the meuse flow before the flood ?
merwede-oude maas

Sample: 183

oxygen storage methods include high pressure oxygen tanks , cryogenics and chemical compounds . for reasons of economy , oxygen is often transported in bulk as a liquid in specially insulated tankers , since one liter of liquefied oxygen is equivalent to 840 liters of gaseous oxygen at atmospheric pressure and 20 °c ( 68 °f ) . such tankers are used to refill bulk liquid oxygen storage containers , which stand outside hospitals and other institutions with a need for large volumes of pure oxygen gas . liquid oxygen is passed through heat exchangers , which convert the cryogenic liquid into gas before it enters the building . oxygen is also stored and shipped in smaller cylinders containing the compressed gas ; a form that is useful in certain portable medical applications and oxy-fuel welding and cutting .
what type of organization would need large quantities of pure oxygen ?
hospitals

Sample: 184

as of august 2010 , victoria had 1,548 public schools , 489 catholic schools and 214 independent schools . just under 540,800 students were enrolled in public schools , and just over 311,800 in private schools . over 61 per cent of private students attend catholic schools . more than 462,000 students were enrolled in primary schools and more than 390,000 in secondary schools . retention rates for the final two years of secondary school were 77 per cent for public school students and 90 per cent for private school students . victoria has about 63,519 full-time teachers .
how many students were enrolled in public schools in victoria ?
540,800

Sample: 185

private schooling in the united states has been debated by educators , lawmakers and parents , since the beginnings of compulsory education in massachusetts in 1852 . the supreme court precedent appears to favor educational choice , so long as states may set standards for educational accomplishment . some of the most relevant supreme court case law on this is as follows : runyon v. mccrary , 427 u.s. 160 ( 1976 ) ; wisconsin v. yoder , 406 u.s. 205 ( 1972 ) ; pierce v. society of sisters , 268 u.s. 510 ( 1925 ) ; meyer v. nebraska , 262 u.s. 390 ( 1923 ) .
who was the opposing party in the runyon case ?
mccrary

Sample: 186

on the other hand , higher economic inequality tends to increase entrepreneurship rates at the individual level ( self-employment ) . however , most of it is often based on necessity rather than opportunity . necessity-based entrepreneurship is motivated by survival needs such as income for food and shelter ( " push " motivations ) , whereas opportunity-based entrepreneurship is driven by achievement-oriented motivations ( " pull " ) such as vocation and more likely to involve the pursue of new products , services , or underserved market needs . the economic impact of the former type of entrepreneurialism tends to be redistributive while the latter is expected to foster technological progress and thus have a more positive impact on economic growth .
what type of entrepreneurship leads to advancements in technology ?
opportunity-based entrepreneurship

Sample: 187

the lunar module ( lm ) was designed to descend from lunar orbit to land two astronauts on the moon and take them back to orbit to rendezvous with the command module . not designed to fly through the earth 's atmosphere or return to earth , its fuselage was designed totally without aerodynamic considerations , and was of an extremely lightweight construction . it consisted of separate descent and ascent stages , each with its own engine . the descent stage contained storage for the descent propellant , surface stay consumables , and surface exploration equipment . the ascent stage contained the crew cabin , ascent propellant , and a reaction control system . the initial lm model weighed approximately 33,300 pounds ( 15,100 kg ) , and allowed surface stays up to around 34 hours . an extended lunar module weighed over 36,200 pounds ( 16,400 kg ) , and allowed surface stays of over 3 days .
for about how long would the extended lm allow a surface stay on the moon ?
3 days

Sample: 188

the league announced on october 16 , 2012 , that the two finalists were sun life stadium and levi 's stadium . the south florida/miami area has previously hosted the event 10 times ( tied for most with new orleans ) , with the most recent one being super bowl xliv in 2010 . the san francisco bay area last hosted in 1985 ( super bowl xix ) , held at stanford stadium in stanford , california , won by the home team 49ers . the miami bid depended on whether the stadium underwent renovations . however , on may 3 , 2013 , the florida legislature refused to approve the funding plan to pay for the renovations , dealing a significant blow to miami 's chances .
what was the most recent super bowl hosted in the south florida/miami area ?
super bowl xliv

Sample: 189

a cylindrical service module ( sm ) supported the command module , with a service propulsion engine and an rcs with propellants , and a fuel cell power generation system with liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen reactants . a high-gain s-band antenna was used for long-distance communications on the lunar flights . on the extended lunar missions , an orbital scientific instrument package was carried . the service module was discarded just before re-entry . the module was 24.6 feet ( 7.5 m ) long and 12.83 feet ( 3.91 m ) in diameter . the initial lunar flight version weighed approximately 51,300 pounds ( 23,300 kg ) fully fueled , while a later version designed to carry a lunar orbit scientific instrument package weighed just over 54,000 pounds ( 24,000 kg ) .
what type of antenna was used for communication on the lunar flights ?
high-gain s-band antenna

Sample: 190

contrary to popular belief , genghis khan did not conquer all the areas ultimately part of the mongol empire . at the time of his death , the mongol empire stretched from the caspian sea to the sea of japan . the empire 's expansion continued for a generation or more after genghis 's death in 1227 . under genghis 's successor ögedei khan the speed of expansion reached its peak . mongol armies pushed into persia , finished off the western xia and the remnants of the khwarezmids , and came into conflict with the imperial song dynasty of china , starting a war that lasted until 1279 and that concluded with the mongols gaining control of all of china . they also pushed further into russia and eastern europe .
what year was the conflict with the song dynasty concluded ?
1279

Sample: 191

in 1516 , johann tetzel , a dominican friar and papal commissioner for indulgences , was sent to germany by the roman catholic church to sell indulgences to raise money to rebuild st. peter 's basilica in rome . roman catholic theology stated that faith alone , whether fiduciary or dogmatic , can not justify man ; justification rather depends only on such faith as is active in charity and good works ( fides caritate formata ) . the benefits of good works could be obtained by donating money to the church .
when was johann tetzel sent by the roman catholic church to germany to sell indulgences ?
1516

Sample: 192

luther next set about reversing or modifying the new church practices . by working alongside the authorities to restore public order , he signalled his reinvention as a conservative force within the reformation . after banishing the zwickau prophets , he now faced a battle against not only the established church but also the radical reformers who threatened the new order by fomenting social unrest and violence .
besides the radicals who else did luther have to deal with ?
established church

Sample: 193

apollo 5 ( as-204 ) was the first unmanned test flight of lm in earth orbit , launched from pad 37 on january 22 , 1968 , by the saturn ib that would have been used for apollo 1 . the lm engines were successfully test-fired and restarted , despite a computer programming error which cut short the first descent stage firing . the ascent engine was fired in abort mode , known as a " fire-in-the-hole " test , where it was lit simultaneously with jettison of the descent stage . although grumman wanted a second unmanned test , george low decided the next lm flight would be manned .
what was the nickname for the test where , during abort mode , the ascent engine was started and fired ?
" fire-in-the-hole "

Sample: 194

for the next several years , hoelun and her children lived in poverty , surviving primarily on wild fruits and ox carcasses , marmots , and other small game killed by temüjin and his brothers . begter , temujin 's older half-brother , began to exercise the power of the eldest male in the family and eventually temujin 's mother hoelun ( not begter 's mother ) would have to accept him as her husband if and when he became an adult . temujin 's resentment erupted during one hunting excursion that temüjin and his brother khasar killed their half-brother begter .
when was temüjin 's half-brother begter killed ?
during one hunting excursion

Sample: 195

doctor who follows the adventures of the primary character , a rogue time lord from the planet gallifrey , who simply goes by the name " the doctor " . he fled from gallifrey in a stolen mark i type 40 tardis – " time and relative dimension in space " – time machine which allows him to travel across time and space . the tardis has a " chameleon circuit " which normally allows the machine to take on the appearance of local objects as a disguise . however , the doctor 's tardis remains fixed as a blue british police box due to a malfunction in the chameleon circuit .
why does doctor who 's tardis always look the same ?
due to a malfunction in the chameleon circuit

Sample: 196

the original logo used for the first doctor ( and briefly for the second doctor ) was reused in a slightly modified format for the 50th anniversary special " the day of the doctor " during the eleventh doctor 's run . the logo used in the television movie featuring the eighth doctor was an updated version of the logo used for the third doctor . the logo from 1973–80 was used for the third doctor 's final season and for the majority of the fourth doctor 's tenure . the following logo , while most associated with the fifth doctor , was also used for the fourth doctor 's final season . the logo used for the ninth doctor was slightly edited for the tenth doctor , but it retained the same general appearance . the logo used for the eleventh doctor had the " dw " tardis insignia placed to the right in 2012 , but the same font remained , albeit with a slight edit to the texture every episode , with the texture relating to some aspect of the story . the logo for the twelfth doctor had the " dw " tardis insignia removed and the font was subtly altered , as well as made slightly larger . as of 2014 , the logo used for the third and eighth doctors is the primary logo used on all media and merchandise relating to past doctors , and the current doctor who logo is used for all merchandise relating to the current doctor .
what logo is used for all merchandise that features past doctors ?
the logo used for the third and eighth doctors

Sample: 197

current faculty include the anthropologist marshall sahlins , historian dipesh chakrabarty , paleontologists neil shubin and paul sereno , evolutionary biologist jerry coyne , nobel prize winning physicist yoichiro nambu , nobel prize winning physicist james cronin , nobel prize winning economists eugene fama , james heckman , lars peter hansen , roger myerson and robert lucas , jr. , freakonomics author and noted economist steven levitt , current governor of india 's central bank raghuram rajan , the 74th united states secretary of the treasury and former goldman sachs chairman and ceo hank paulson , former chairman of president barack obama 's council of economic advisors austan goolsbee , shakespeare scholar david bevington , and renowned political scientists john mearsheimer and robert pape .
what shakespeare scholar is currently on the university 's faculty ?
david bevington

Sample: 198

elders are called by god , affirmed by the church , and ordained by a bishop to a ministry of word , sacrament , order and service within the church . they may be appointed to the local church , or to other valid extension ministries of the church . elders are given the authority to preach the word of god , administer the sacraments of the church , to provide care and counseling , and to order the life of the church for ministry and mission . elders may also be assigned as district superintendents , and they are eligible for election to the episcopacy . elders serve a term of 2–3 years as provisional elders prior to their ordination .
who is called by god , affirmed by the church and ordained by a bishop ?
elders

Sample: 199

the concept of prime number is so important that it has been generalized in different ways in various branches of mathematics . generally , " prime " indicates minimality or indecomposability , in an appropriate sense . for example , the prime field is the smallest subfield of a field f containing both 0 and 1 . it is either q or the finite field with p elements , whence the name . often a second , additional meaning is intended by using the word prime , namely that any object can be , essentially uniquely , decomposed into its prime components . for example , in knot theory , a prime knot is a knot that is indecomposable in the sense that it can not be written as the knot sum of two nontrivial knots . any knot can be uniquely expressed as a connected sum of prime knots . prime models and prime 3-manifolds are other examples of this type .
what does it mean for a knot to be considered indecomposable ?
it can not be written as the knot sum of two nontrivial knots

Sample: 200

an important factor in the creation of inequality is variation in individuals ' access to education . education , especially in an area where there is a high demand for workers , creates high wages for those with this education , however , increases in education first increase and then decrease growth as well as income inequality . as a result , those who are unable to afford an education , or choose not to pursue optional education , generally receive much lower wages . the justification for this is that a lack of education leads directly to lower incomes , and thus lower aggregate savings and investment . conversely , education raises incomes and promotes growth because it helps to unleash the productive potential of the poor .
what does lack of education lead directly to ?
lower incomes

Sample: 201

abc maintains several video on demand services for delayed viewing of the network 's programming , including a traditional vod service called abc on demand , which is carried on most traditional cable and iptv providers . the walt disney company is also a part-owner of hulu ( as part of a consortium that includes , among other parties , the respective parent companies of nbc and fox , nbcuniversal and 21st century fox ) , and has offered full-length episodes of most of abc 's programming through the streaming service since july 6 , 2009 ( which are available for viewing on hulu 's website and mobile app ) , as part of an agreement reached in april that year that also allowed disney to acquire a 27 % ownership stake in hulu .
when did hulu begin offering abc 's programs for streaming ?
july 6 , 2009

Sample: 202

super bowl 50 featured numerous records from individuals and teams . denver won despite being massively outgained in total yards ( 315 to 194 ) and first downs ( 21 to 11 ) . their 194 yards and 11 first downs were both the lowest totals ever by a super bowl winning team . the previous record was 244 yards by the baltimore ravens in super bowl xxxv . only seven other teams had ever gained less than 200 yards in a super bowl , and all of them had lost . the broncos ' seven sacks tied a super bowl record set by the chicago bears in super bowl xx . kony ealy tied a super bowl record with three sacks . jordan norwood 's 61-yard punt return set a new record , surpassing the old record of 45 yards set by john taylor in super bowl xxiii . denver was just 1-of-14 on third down , while carolina was barely better at 3-of-15 . the two teams ' combined third down conversion percentage of 13.8 was a super bowl low . manning and newton had quarterback passer ratings of 56.6 and 55.4 , respectively , and their added total of 112 is a record lowest aggregate passer rating for a super bowl . manning became the oldest quarterback ever to win a super bowl at age 39 , and the first quarterback ever to win a super bowl with two different teams , while gary kubiak became the first head coach to win a super bowl with the same franchise he went to the super bowl with as a player .
how many yards did denver have for super bowl 50 ?
194

Sample: 203

the descendants of rollo 's vikings and their frankish wives would replace the norse religion and old norse language with catholicism ( christianity ) and the gallo-romance language of the local people , blending their maternal frankish heritage with old norse traditions and customs to synthesize a unique " norman " culture in the north of france . the norman language was forged by the adoption of the indigenous langue d'oïl branch of romance by a norse-speaking ruling class , and it developed into the regional language that survives today .
what was the norman religion ?
catholicism

Sample: 204

the first full-scale working railway steam locomotive was built by richard trevithick in the united kingdom and , on 21 february 1804 , the world 's first railway journey took place as trevithick 's unnamed steam locomotive hauled a train along the tramway from the pen-y-darren ironworks , near merthyr tydfil to abercynon in south wales . the design incorporated a number of important innovations that included using high-pressure steam which reduced the weight of the engine and increased its efficiency . trevithick visited the newcastle area later in 1804 and the colliery railways in north-east england became the leading centre for experimentation and development of steam locomotives .
where did the world 's first railway journey terminate ?
abercynon

Sample: 205

residential construction practices , technologies , and resources must conform to local building authority regulations and codes of practice . materials readily available in the area generally dictate the construction materials used ( e.g . brick versus stone , versus timber ) . cost of construction on a per square meter ( or per square foot ) basis for houses can vary dramatically based on site conditions , local regulations , economies of scale ( custom designed homes are often more expensive to build ) and the availability of skilled tradespeople . as residential construction ( as well as all other types of construction ) can generate a lot of waste , careful planning again is needed here .
residential construction can generate what is not carefully planned ?
a lot of waste

Sample: 206

the annual conference , roughly the equivalent of a diocese in the anglican communion and the roman catholic church or a synod in some lutheran denominations such as the evangelical lutheran church in america , is the basic unit of organization within the umc . the term annual conference is often used to refer to the geographical area it covers as well as the frequency of meeting . clergy are members of their annual conference rather than of any local congregation , and are appointed to a local church or other charge annually by the conference 's resident bishop at the meeting of the annual conference . in many ways , the united methodist church operates in a connectional organization of the annual conferences , and actions taken by one conference are not binding upon another .
clergy are members of what group rather than of any local congregation ?
their annual conference

Sample: 207

the united methodist church is one tradition within the christian church . the united methodist church is active in ecumenical relations with other christian groups and denominations . it is a member of the national council of churches , the world council of churches , churches uniting in christ , and christian churches together . in addition , it voted to seek observer status in the national association of evangelicals and in the world evangelical fellowship . however , there are some in the united methodist church who feel that false ecumenism might result in the " blurring of theological and confessional differences in the interests of unity . "
what is one tradition within the christian church ?
united methodist church

Sample: 208

victoria ( abbreviated as vic ) is a state in the south-east of australia . victoria is australia 's most densely populated state and its second-most populous state overall . most of its population is concentrated in the area surrounding port phillip bay , which includes the metropolitan area of its capital and largest city , melbourne , which is australia 's second-largest city . geographically the smallest state on the australian mainland , victoria is bordered by bass strait and tasmania to the south , [ note 1 ] new south wales to the north , the tasman sea to the east , and south australia to the west .
compared to other australian cities , what is the size of melbourne ?
second-largest

Sample: 209

meanwhile , abc news , which formed as a newly separate division , sought to become a global leader in television news . in 1977 , roone arledge was named president of the new abc news in addition to being president of abc sports . that same year , abc launched a major expansion of its office facilities in new york city . the company first constructed a new 10-story building on land previously occupied by an abandoned warehouse on the corner of columbus avenue and west 66th street ; the facility that was built in its place is nicknamed " 7 lincoln square " ( although it is actually located at 149 columbus avenue ) . meanwhile , a former parking lot , located at 30 west 67th street , was transformed into an impressive 15-story building . both buildings were completed in june 1979 . wabc-tv moved its operations from offices at 77 west 66th street to 149 columbus avenue , freeing up space for the abc network to house some of its operations .
when was 7 lincoln square completed ?
june 1979

Sample: 210

on tesla 's 75th birthday in 1931 , time magazine put him on its cover . the cover caption " all the world 's his power house " noted his contribution to electrical power generation . he received congratulatory letters from more than 70 pioneers in science and engineering , including albert einstein .
for what occasion was he put on the cover ?
75th birthday

Sample: 211

warsaw was occupied by germany from 4 august 1915 until november 1918 . the allied armistice terms required in article 12 that germany withdraw from areas controlled by russia in 1914 , which included warsaw . germany did so , and underground leader piłsudski returned to warsaw on 11 november and set up what became the second polish republic , with warsaw the capital . in the course of the polish-bolshevik war of 1920 , the huge battle of warsaw was fought on the eastern outskirts of the city in which the capital was successfully defended and the red army defeated . poland stopped by itself the full brunt of the red army and defeated an idea of the " export of the revolution " .
who set up what became the second polish republic ?
underground leader piłsudski

Sample: 212

another cause is the rate at which income is taxed coupled with the progressivity of the tax system . a progressive tax is a tax by which the tax rate increases as the taxable base amount increases . in a progressive tax system , the level of the top tax rate will often have a direct impact on the level of inequality within a society , either increasing it or decreasing it , provided that income does not change as a result of the change in tax regime . additionally , steeper tax progressivity applied to social spending can result in a more equal distribution of income across the board . the difference between the gini index for an income distribution before taxation and the gini index after taxation is an indicator for the effects of such taxation .
what can result in more equal distribution of income ?
steeper tax

Sample: 213

the centrifugal governor was adopted by james watt for use on a steam engine in 1788 after watt ’ s partner boulton saw one at a flour mill boulton & watt were building . the governor could not actually hold a set speed , because it would assume a new constant speed in response to load changes . the governor was able to handle smaller variations such as those caused by fluctuating heat load to the boiler . also , there was a tendency for oscillation whenever there was a speed change . as a consequence , engines equipped only with this governor were not suitable for operations requiring constant speed , such as cotton spinning . the governor was improved over time and coupled with variable steam cut off , good speed control in response to changes in load was attainable near the end of the 19th century .
what is an examine of work that a centrifugal governor-equipped steam engine was n't suitable for ?
cotton spinning

Sample: 214

one of the principal advantages the rankine cycle holds over others is that during the compression stage relatively little work is required to drive the pump , the working fluid being in its liquid phase at this point . by condensing the fluid , the work required by the pump consumes only 1 % to 3 % of the turbine power and contributes to a much higher efficiency for a real cycle . the benefit of this is lost somewhat due to the lower heat addition temperature . gas turbines , for instance , have turbine entry temperatures approaching 1500 °c . nonetheless , the efficiencies of actual large steam cycles and large modern gas turbines are fairly well matched . [ citation needed ]
during the compression stage of the rankine cycle , what state is the working fluid in ?
liquid

Sample: 215

the availability of the bible in vernacular languages was important to the spread of the protestant movement and development of the reformed church in france . the country had a long history of struggles with the papacy by the time the protestant reformation finally arrived . around 1294 , a french version of the scriptures was prepared by the roman catholic priest , guyard de moulin . a two-volume illustrated folio paraphrase version based on his manuscript , by jean de rély , was printed in paris in 1487 .
jean de rely 's illustrated french-language scriptures were first published in what city ?
paris

Sample: 216

despite being relatively unaffected by the embargo , the uk nonetheless faced an oil crisis of its own - a series of strikes by coal miners and railroad workers over the winter of 1973–74 became a major factor in the change of government . heath asked the british to heat only one room in their houses over the winter . the uk , germany , italy , switzerland and norway banned flying , driving and boating on sundays . sweden rationed gasoline and heating oil . the netherlands imposed prison sentences for those who used more than their ration of electricity .
what caused uk to have an oil crisis in its own country ?
a series of strikes

Sample: 217

to accurately map the amazon 's biomass and subsequent carbon related emissions , the classification of tree growth stages within different parts of the forest is crucial . in 2006 tatiana kuplich organized the trees of the amazon into four categories : ( 1 ) mature forest , ( 2 ) regenerating forest [ less than three years ] , ( 3 ) regenerating forest [ between three and five years of regrowth ] , and ( 4 ) regenerating forest [ eleven to eighteen years of continued development ] . the researcher used a combination of synthetic aperture radar ( sar ) and thematic mapper ( tm ) to accurately place the different portions of the amazon into one of the four classifications .
what type of radar was used to classify trees into four categories ?
synthetic aperture radar ( sar )

Sample: 218

cryptophytes , or cryptomonads are a group of algae that contain a red-algal derived chloroplast . cryptophyte chloroplasts contain a nucleomorph that superficially resembles that of the chlorarachniophytes . cryptophyte chloroplasts have four membranes , the outermost of which is continuous with the rough endoplasmic reticulum . they synthesize ordinary starch , which is stored in granules found in the periplastid space—outside the original double membrane , in the place that corresponds to the red alga 's cytoplasm . inside cryptophyte chloroplasts is a pyrenoid and thylakoids in stacks of two .
what is another word for cryptophytes ?
cryptomonads

Sample: 219

in december 1901 , marconi successfully transmitted the letter s from england to newfoundland , terminating tesla 's relationship with morgan . [ improper synthesis ? ] over the next five years , tesla wrote over 50 letters to morgan , pleading for and demanding additional funding to complete the construction of wardenclyffe . tesla continued the project for another nine months . the tower was erected to its full 187 feet ( 57 m ) . in july 1903 , tesla wrote to morgan that in addition to wireless communication , wardenclyffe would be capable of wireless transmission of electric power . on 14 october 1904 , morgan finally replied through his secretary , stating , " it will be impossible for [ me ] to do anything in the matter , " after tesla had written to morgan when the financier was meeting with the archbishop of canterbury in an attempt to appeal to his christian spirit .
what happened in 1901 ?
marconi successfully transmitted the letter s from england to newfoundland

Sample: 220

montpellier was among the most important of the 66 " villes de sûreté " that the edict of 1598 granted to the huguenots . the city 's political institutions and the university were all handed over to the huguenots . tension with paris led to a siege by the royal army in 1622 . peace terms called for the dismantling of the city 's fortifications . a royal citadel was built and the university and consulate were taken over by the catholic party . even before the edict of alès ( 1629 ) , protestant rule was dead and the ville de sûreté was no more . [ citation needed ]
france laid siege to montpellier in what year ?
1622

Sample: 221

as a result , by 1206 temüjin had managed to unite or subdue the merkits , naimans , mongols , keraites , tatars , uyghurs , and other disparate smaller tribes under his rule . it was a monumental feat for the " mongols " ( as they became known collectively ) . at a khuruldai , a council of mongol chiefs , temüjin was acknowledged as " khan " of the consolidated tribes and took the new title " genghis khan " . the title khagan was not conferred on genghis until after his death , when his son and successor , ögedei , took the title for himself and extended it posthumously to his father ( as he was also to be posthumously declared the founder of the yuan dynasty ) . this unification of all confederations by genghis khan established peace between previously warring tribes and a single political and military force under genghis khan .
who gave genghis khan the title khadan ?
ögedei

Sample: 222

there are a variety of bodies designed to instill , preserve and update the knowledge and professional standing of teachers . around the world many governments operate teacher 's colleges , which are generally established to serve and protect the public interest through certifying , governing and enforcing the standards of practice for the teaching profession .
who is taught at teacher 's colleges ?
teachers

Sample: 223

each sitting day , normally at 5 pm , msps decide on all the motions and amendments that have been moved that day . this " decision time " is heralded by the sounding of the division bell , which is heard throughout the parliamentary campus and alerts msps who are not in the chamber to return and vote . at decision time , the presiding officer puts questions on the motions and amendments by reading out the name of the motion or amendment as well as the proposer and asking " are we all agreed ? " , to which the chamber first votes orally . if there is audible dissent , the presiding officer announces " there will be a division " and members vote by means of electronic consoles on their desks . each msp has a unique access card with a microchip which , when inserted into the console , identifies them and allows them to vote . as a result , the outcome of each division is known in seconds .
what is heralded by the sounding of the division bell ?
" decision time "

Sample: 224

the amazon rainforest ( portuguese : floresta amazônica or amazônia ; spanish : selva amazónica , amazonía or usually amazonia ; french : forêt amazonienne ; dutch : amazoneregenwoud ) , also known in english as amazonia or the amazon jungle , is a moist broadleaf forest that covers most of the amazon basin of south america . this basin encompasses 7,000,000 square kilometres ( 2,700,000 sq mi ) , of which 5,500,000 square kilometres ( 2,100,000 sq mi ) are covered by the rainforest . this region includes territory belonging to nine nations . the majority of the forest is contained within brazil , with 60 % of the rainforest , followed by peru with 13 % , colombia with 10 % , and with minor amounts in venezuela , ecuador , bolivia , guyana , suriname and french guiana . states or departments in four nations contain " amazonas " in their names . the amazon represents over half of the planet 's remaining rainforests , and comprises the largest and most biodiverse tract of tropical rainforest in the world , with an estimated 390 billion individual trees divided into 16,000 species .
how many square kilometers of rainforest is covered in the basin ?
5,500,000 square kilometres ( 2,100,000 sq mi ) are covered by the rainforest .

Sample: 225

oxygen was discovered independently by carl wilhelm scheele , in uppsala , in 1773 or earlier , and joseph priestley in wiltshire , in 1774 , but priestley is often given priority because his work was published first . the name oxygen was coined in 1777 by antoine lavoisier , whose experiments with oxygen helped to discredit the then-popular phlogiston theory of combustion and corrosion . its name derives from the greek roots ὀξύς oxys , " acid " , literally " sharp " , referring to the sour taste of acids and -γενής -genes , " producer " , literally " begetter " , because at the time of naming , it was mistakenly thought that all acids required oxygen in their composition . common uses of oxygen includes the production cycle of steel , plastics and textiles , brazing , welding and cutting of steels and other metals , rocket propellant , in oxygen therapy and life support systems in aircraft , submarines , spaceflight and diving .
when did carl wilhelm scheele discover oxygen ?
1773

Sample: 226

the second main legislative body is the council , which is composed of different ministers of the member states . the heads of government of member states also convene a " european council " ( a distinct body ) that the teu article 15 defines as providing the 'necessary impetus for its development and shall define the general political directions and priorities ' . it meets each six months and its president ( currently former poland prime minister donald tusk ) is meant to 'drive forward its work ' , but it does not itself 'legislative functions ' . the council does this : in effect this is the governments of the member states , but there will be a different minister at each meeting , depending on the topic discussed ( e.g . for environmental issues , the member states ' environment ministers attend and vote ; for foreign affairs , the foreign ministers , etc. ) . the minister must have the authority to represent and bin the member states in decisions . when voting takes place it is weighted inversely to member state size , so smaller member states are not dominated by larger member states . in total there are 352 votes , but for most acts there must be a qualified majority vote , if not consensus . teu article 16 ( 4 ) and tfeu article 238 ( 3 ) define this to mean at least 55 per cent of the council members ( not votes ) representing 65 per cent of the population of the eu : currently this means around 74 per cent , or 260 of the 352 votes . this is critical during the legislative process .
the legislative body , the council , are made up of what type of individuals ?
different ministers of the member states

Sample: 227

greater london has over 900,000 muslims , ( most of south asian origins and concentrated in the east london boroughs of newham , tower hamlets and waltham forest ) , and among them are some with a strong islamist outlook . their presence , combined with a perceived british policy of allowing them free rein , heightened by exposés such as the 2007 channel 4 documentary programme undercover mosque , has given rise to the term londonistan . following the 9/11 attacks , however , abu hamza al-masri , the imam of the finsbury park mosque , was arrested and charged with incitement to terrorism which has caused many islamists to leave the uk to avoid internment . [ citation needed ]
the perceived british policy of being hands off of its muslim population has resulted in what derogatory term for london ?
londonistan

Sample: 228

the network 's troubles with sustaining existing series and gaining new hits spilled over into its 2010–11 schedule : abc 's dramas during that season continued to fail , with the midseason forensic investigation drama body of proof being the only one that was renewed for a second season . the network also struggled to establish new comedies to support the previous year 's debuts , with only late-season premiere happy endings earning a second season . meanwhile , the new lows hit by brothers & sisters led to its cancellation , and the previous year 's only drama renewal , v , also failed to earn another season after a low-rated midseason run . despite this and another noticeable ratings decline , abc would manage to outrate nbc for third place by a larger margin than the previous year .
what was the only comedy to earn a second season for the 2010-11 schedule ?
happy endings

Sample: 229

following the conquest of dali in 1253 , the former ruling duan dynasty were appointed as governors-general , recognized as imperial officials by the yuan , ming , and qing-era governments , principally in the province of yunnan . succession for the yuan dynasty , however , was an intractable problem , later causing much strife and internal struggle . this emerged as early as the end of kublai 's reign . kublai originally named his eldest son , zhenjin , as the crown prince , but he died before kublai in 1285 . thus , zhenjin 's third son , with the support of his mother kökejin and the minister bayan , succeeded the throne and ruled as temür khan , or emperor chengzong , from 1294 to 1307 . temür khan decided to maintain and continue much of the work begun by his grandfather . he also made peace with the western mongol khanates as well as neighboring countries such as vietnam , which recognized his nominal suzerainty and paid tributes for a few decades . however , the corruption in the yuan dynasty began during the reign of temür khan .
what was temur khan 's chinese-style name ?
emperor chengzong

Sample: 230

institutionally , the normans combined the administrative machinery of the byzantines , arabs , and lombards with their own conceptions of feudal law and order to forge a unique government . under this state , there was great religious freedom , and alongside the norman nobles existed a meritocratic bureaucracy of jews , muslims and christians , both catholic and eastern orthodox . the kingdom of sicily thus became characterized by norman , byzantine greek , arab , lombard and " native " sicilian populations living in harmony , and its norman rulers fostered plans of establishing an empire that would have encompassed fatimid egypt as well as the crusader states in the levant . one of the great geographical treatises of the middle ages , the " tabula rogeriana " , was written by the andalusian al-idrisi for king roger ii of sicily , and entitled " kitab rudjdjar " ( " the book of roger " ) .
what does kitab rudjdjar mean in english ?
the book of roger

Sample: 231

the french protestant church of london was established by royal charter in 1550 . it is now located at soho square . huguenot refugees flocked to shoreditch , london . they established a major weaving industry in and around spitalfields ( see petticoat lane and the tenterground ) in east london . in wandsworth , their gardening skills benefited the battersea market gardens . the old truman brewery , then known as the black eagle brewery , was founded in 1724 . the flight of huguenot refugees from tours , france drew off most of the workers of its great silk mills which they had built . [ citation needed ] some of these immigrants moved to norwich , which had accommodated an earlier settlement of walloon weavers . the french added to the existing immigrant population , then comprising about a third of the population of the city .
when was the charter for this church signed ?
1550

Sample: 232

apicoplasts have lost all photosynthetic function , and contain no photosynthetic pigments or true thylakoids . they are bounded by four membranes , but the membranes are not connected to the endoplasmic reticulum . the fact that apicomplexans still keep their nonphotosynthetic chloroplast around demonstrates how the chloroplast carries out important functions other than photosynthesis . plant chloroplasts provide plant cells with many important things besides sugar , and apicoplasts are no different—they synthesize fatty acids , isopentenyl pyrophosphate , iron-sulfur clusters , and carry out part of the heme pathway . this makes the apicoplast an attractive target for drugs to cure apicomplexan-related diseases . the most important apicoplast function is isopentenyl pyrophosphate synthesis—in fact , apicomplexans die when something interferes with this apicoplast function , and when apicomplexans are grown in an isopentenyl pyrophosphate-rich medium , they dump the organelle .
what kind of diseases do drugs target apicoplasts for ?
apicomplexan-related diseases

Sample: 233

following their loss in the divisional round of the previous season 's playoffs , the denver broncos underwent numerous coaching changes , including a mutual parting with head coach john fox ( who had won four divisional championships in his four years as broncos head coach ) , and the hiring of gary kubiak as the new head coach . under kubiak , the broncos planned to install a run-oriented offense with zone blocking to blend in with quarterback peyton manning 's shotgun passing skills , but struggled with numerous changes and injuries to the offensive line , as well as manning having his worst statistical season since his rookie year with the indianapolis colts in 1998 , due to a plantar fasciitis injury in his heel that he had suffered since the summer , and the simple fact that manning was getting old , as he turned 39 in the 2015 off-season . although the team had a 7–0 start , manning led the nfl in interceptions . in week 10 , manning suffered a partial tear of the plantar fasciitis in his left foot . he set the nfl 's all-time record for career passing yards in this game , but was benched after throwing four interceptions in favor of backup quarterback brock osweiler , who took over as the starter for most of the remainder of the regular season . osweiler was injured , however , leading to manning 's return during the week 17 regular season finale , where the broncos were losing 13–7 against the 4–11 san diego chargers , resulting in manning re-claiming the starting quarterback position for the playoffs by leading the team to a key 27–20 win that enabled the team to clinch the number one overall afc seed . under defensive coordinator wade phillips , the broncos ' defense ranked number one in total yards allowed , passing yards allowed and sacks , and like the previous three seasons , the team has continued to set numerous individual , league and franchise records . with the defense carrying the team despite the issues with the offense , the broncos finished the regular season with a 12–4 record and earned home-field advantage throughout the afc playoffs .
how old was manning at the beginning of the 2015 season ?
39

Sample: 234

in another incident , around 1177 , he was captured in a raid and held prisoner by his father 's former allies , the tayichi'ud . the tayichi'ud enslaved temüjin ( reportedly with a cangue , a sort of portable stocks ) , but with the help of a sympathetic guard , the father of chilaun ( who later became a general of genghis khan ) , he was able to escape from the ger ( yurt ) in the middle of the night by hiding in a river crevice . [ citation needed ] it was around this time that jelme and bo'orchu , two of genghis khan 's future generals , joined forces with him . temüjin 's reputation also became widespread after his escape from the tayichi'ud .
which of his future general 's fathers helped temüjin escape the tayichi'ud ?
chilaun

Sample: 235

much of the city 's tax base dissipated , leading to problems with funding education , sanitation , and traffic control within the city limits . in addition , residents in unincorporated suburbs had difficulty obtaining municipal services , such as sewage and building code enforcement . in 1958 , a study recommended that the city of jacksonville begin annexing outlying communities in order to create the needed tax base to improve services throughout the county . voters outside the city limits rejected annexation plans in six referendums between 1960 and 1965 .
in what part of the city did residents suffer from a lack of city services ?
unincorporated suburbs

Sample: 236

as far as programming is concerned , four of abc 's marquee shows of the 1970s ended their runs during the mid-1980s : laverne & shirley ended its run in 1983 , happy days and three 's company ended in 1984 ( with the latter producing a short-lived spinoff that year ) , while the love boat ended its run in 1986 . after nearly a decade of ratings trouble , nbc had regained the ratings lead among the big three networks in 1984 on the success of series such as the cosby show , cheers and miami vice . to counteract nbc , abc decided to refocus itself on comedies and family-oriented series beginning in the mid-1980s including mr. belvedere , roseanne , who 's the boss ? , just the ten of us , the wonder years , full house and perfect strangers .
which sitcom produced a spinoff for abc after ending its run in 1984 ?
three 's company

Sample: 237

the contracted batch of 15 saturn vs were enough for lunar landing missions through apollo 20 . nasa publicized a preliminary list of eight more planned landing sites , with plans to increase the mass of the csm and lm for the last five missions , along with the payload capacity of the saturn v. these final missions would combine the i and j types in the 1967 list , allowing the cmp to operate a package of lunar orbital sensors and cameras while his companions were on the surface , and allowing them to stay on the moon for over three days . these missions would also carry the lunar roving vehicle ( lrv ) increasing the exploration area and allowing televised liftoff of the lm . also , the block ii spacesuit was revised for the extended missions to allow greater flexibility and visibility for driving the lrv .
how long would the astronauts be project to be able to stay on the moon for in the latter missions ?
over three days

Sample: 238

the first european to travel the length of the amazon river was francisco de orellana in 1542 . the bbc 's unnatural histories presents evidence that orellana , rather than exaggerating his claims as previously thought , was correct in his observations that a complex civilization was flourishing along the amazon in the 1540s . it is believed that the civilization was later devastated by the spread of diseases from europe , such as smallpox . since the 1970s , numerous geoglyphs have been discovered on deforested land dating between ad 0–1250 , furthering claims about pre-columbian civilizations . ondemar dias is accredited with first discovering the geoglyphs in 1977 and alceu ranzi with furthering their discovery after flying over acre . the bbc 's unnatural histories presented evidence that the amazon rainforest , rather than being a pristine wilderness , has been shaped by man for at least 11,000 years through practices such as forest gardening and terra preta .
during what time did civilization in the amazon was flourishing when orellana made his observations ?
1540s

Sample: 239

the shah 's army was split by diverse internecine feuds and by the shah 's decision to divide his army into small groups concentrated in various cities . this fragmentation was decisive in khwarezmia 's defeats , as it allowed the mongols , although exhausted from the long journey , to immediately set about defeating small fractions of the khwarzemi forces instead of facing a unified defense . the mongol army quickly seized the town of otrar , relying on superior strategy and tactics . genghis khan ordered the wholesale massacre of many of the civilians , enslaved the rest of the population and executed inalchuq by pouring molten silver into his ears and eyes , as retribution for his actions . near the end of the battle the shah fled rather than surrender . genghis khan ordered subutai and jebe to hunt him down , giving them 20,000 men and two years to do this . the shah died under mysterious circumstances on a small island within his empire .
what did the shah do when faced with defeat by genghis khan 's forces ?
fled

Sample: 240

formed in 1946 , sierra sky park airport is a residential airport community born of a unique agreement in transportation law to allow personal aircraft and automobiles to share certain roads . sierra sky park was the first aviation community to be built [ citation needed ] and there are now numerous such communities across the united states and around the world . developer william smilie created the nation 's first planned aviation community . still in operation today , the public use airport provides a unique neighborhood that spawned interest and similar communities nationwide .
what is the name of the first aviation community built ?
sierra sky park

Sample: 241

another factor in the early 1990s that worked to radicalize the islamist movement was the gulf war , which brought several hundred thousand us and allied non-muslim military personnel to saudi arabian soil to put an end to saddam hussein 's occupation of kuwait . prior to 1990 saudi arabia played an important role in restraining the many islamist groups that received its aid . but when saddam , secularist and ba'athist dictator of neighboring iraq , attacked saudi arabia ( his enemy in the war ) , western troops came to protect the saudi monarchy . islamists accused the saudi regime of being a puppet of the west .
whose occupation of kuwait did the us military personal seek to put an end to ?
saddam hussein

Sample: 242

the mid 1890s saw the conglomerate general electric , backed by financier j. p. morgan , involved in takeover attempts and patent battles with westinghouse electric . although a patent-sharing agreement was signed between the two companies in 1896 westinghouse was still cash-strapped from the financial warfare . to secure further loans , westinghouse was forced to revisit tesla 's ac patent , which bankers considered a financial strain on the company ( at that point westinghouse had paid out an estimated $ 200,000 in licenses and royalties to tesla , brown , and peck ) . in 1897 , westinghouse explained his financial difficulties to tesla in stark terms , saying that if things continue the way they were he would no longer be in control of westinghouse electric and tesla would have to " deal with the bankers " to try to collect future royalties . westinghouse convinced tesla to release his company from the licensing agreement over tesla 's ac patents in exchange for westinghouse electric purchasing the patents for a lump sum payment of $ 216,000 ; this provided westinghouse a break from what , due to alternating current 's rapid gain in popularity , had turned out to be an overly generous $ 2.50 per ac horsepower royalty .
when was a patent-sharing agreement signed between westinghouse electric and general electric ?
1896

Sample: 243

the book of discipline is the guidebook for local churches and pastors and describes in considerable detail the organizational structure of local united methodist churches . all um churches must have a board of trustees with at least three members and no more than nine members and it is recommended that no gender should hold more than a 2/3 majority . all churches must also have a nominations committee , a finance committee and a church council or administrative council . other committees are suggested but not required such as a missions committee , or evangelism or worship committee . term limits are set for some committees but not for all . the church conference is an annual meeting of all the officers of the church and any interested members . this committee has the exclusive power to set pastors ' salaries ( compensation packages for tax purposes ) and to elect officers to the committees .
what is the least number of members a board of trustees can have ?
three

Sample: 244

super bowl 50 featured numerous records from individuals and teams . denver won despite being massively outgained in total yards ( 315 to 194 ) and first downs ( 21 to 11 ) . their 194 yards and 11 first downs were both the lowest totals ever by a super bowl winning team . the previous record was 244 yards by the baltimore ravens in super bowl xxxv . only seven other teams had ever gained less than 200 yards in a super bowl , and all of them had lost . the broncos ' seven sacks tied a super bowl record set by the chicago bears in super bowl xx . kony ealy tied a super bowl record with three sacks . jordan norwood 's 61-yard punt return set a new record , surpassing the old record of 45 yards set by john taylor in super bowl xxiii . denver was just 1-of-14 on third down , while carolina was barely better at 3-of-15 . the two teams ' combined third down conversion percentage of 13.8 was a super bowl low . manning and newton had quarterback passer ratings of 56.6 and 55.4 , respectively , and their added total of 112 is a record lowest aggregate passer rating for a super bowl . manning became the oldest quarterback ever to win a super bowl at age 39 , and the first quarterback ever to win a super bowl with two different teams , while gary kubiak became the first head coach to win a super bowl with the same franchise he went to the super bowl with as a player .
what team di the broncos tie a super bowl record for in sacks ?
chicago bears

Sample: 245

in 1893 , george westinghouse won the bid to light the 1893 world 's columbian exposition in chicago with alternating current , beating out a general electric bid by one million dollars . this world 's fair devoted a building to electrical exhibits . it was a key event in the history of ac power , as westinghouse demonstrated the safety , reliability , and efficiency of a fully integrated alternating current system to the american public . at the columbian exposition , under a banner announcing the " tesla polyphase system " , tesla demonstrated a series of electrical effects previously performed throughout america and europe , :76 included using high-voltage , high-frequency alternating current to light a wireless gas-discharge lamp . :79 an observer noted :
where was the 1893 world 's columbian exposition held ?
chicago

Sample: 246

the path of violence and military struggle was then taken up by the egyptian islamic jihad organization responsible for the assassination of anwar sadat in 1981 . unlike earlier anti-colonial movements the extremist group directed its attacks against what it believed were " apostate " leaders of muslim states , leaders who held secular leanings or who had introduced or promoted western/foreign ideas and practices into islamic societies . its views were outlined in a pamphlet written by muhammad abd al-salaam farag , in which he states :
what sin were the leaders the extremists attacked guilty of ?
promoted western/foreign ideas and practices into islamic societies

Sample: 247

to fix carbon dioxide into sugar molecules in the process of photosynthesis , chloroplasts use an enzyme called rubisco . rubisco has a problem—it has trouble distinguishing between carbon dioxide and oxygen , so at high oxygen concentrations , rubisco starts accidentally adding oxygen to sugar precursors . this has the end result of atp energy being wasted and co2 being released , all with no sugar being produced . this is a big problem , since o2 is produced by the initial light reactions of photosynthesis , causing issues down the line in the calvin cycle which uses rubisco .
what do chloroplasts use to fix carbon dioxide into sugar ?
an enzyme called rubisco

Sample: 248

the beroida , also known as nuda , have no feeding appendages , but their large pharynx , just inside the large mouth and filling most of the saclike body , bears " macrocilia " at the oral end . these fused bundles of several thousand large cilia are able to " bite " off pieces of prey that are too large to swallow whole – almost always other ctenophores . in front of the field of macrocilia , on the mouth " lips " in some species of beroe , is a pair of narrow strips of adhesive epithelial cells on the stomach wall that " zip " the mouth shut when the animal is not feeding , by forming intercellular connections with the opposite adhesive strip . this tight closure streamlines the front of the animal when it is pursuing prey .
what does the beroida have instead of feeding appendages ?
large pharynx

Sample: 249

during the 1970s and sometimes later , western and pro-western governments often supported sometimes fledgling islamists and islamist groups that later came to be seen as dangerous enemies . islamists were considered by western governments bulwarks against—what were thought to be at the time—more dangerous leftist/communist/nationalist insurgents/opposition , which islamists were correctly seen as opposing . the us spent billions of dollars to aid the mujahideen muslim afghanistan enemies of the soviet union , and non-afghan veterans of the war returned home with their prestige , " experience , ideology , and weapons " , and had considerable impact .
what did the non-afghan veterans returning home have in addition to their prestige ?
considerable impact

Sample: 250

tesla was a good friend of francis marion crawford , robert underwood johnson , stanford white , fritz lowenstein , george scherff , and kenneth swezey . in middle age , tesla became a close friend of mark twain ; they spent a lot of time together in his lab and elsewhere . twain notably described tesla 's induction motor invention as " the most valuable patent since the telephone . " in the late 1920s , tesla also befriended george sylvester viereck , a poet , writer , mystic , and later , a nazi propagandist . tesla occasionally attended dinner parties held by viereck and his wife .
what famous writer was tesla 's good friend ?
mark twain

Sample: 251

various gold-themed promotions and initiatives were held throughout the 2015 nfl season to tie into the " golden super bowl " ; gold-tinted logos were implemented across the nfl 's properties and painted on fields , the numbering of the 50-yard line on fields was colored gold , and beginning on week 7 , all sideline jackets and hats featured gold-trimmed logos . gold footballs were given to each high school that has had a player or coach appear in the super bowl , and " homecoming " events were also held by super bowl-winning teams at games .
what yard line was a gold color for all teams during the season ?
the 50-yard line

Sample: 252

the property of being prime ( or not ) is called primality . a simple but slow method of verifying the primality of a given number n is known as trial division . it consists of testing whether n is a multiple of any integer between 2 and . algorithms much more efficient than trial division have been devised to test the primality of large numbers . these include the miller–rabin primality test , which is fast but has a small probability of error , and the aks primality test , which always produces the correct answer in polynomial time but is too slow to be practical . particularly fast methods are available for numbers of special forms , such as mersenne numbers . as of january 2016 [ update ] , the largest known prime number has 22,338,618 decimal digits .
what is the name of one algorithm useful for conveniently testing the primality of large numbers ?
the miller–rabin primality test

Sample: 253

can have infinitely many primes only when a and q are coprime , i.e. , their greatest common divisor is one . if this necessary condition is satisfied , dirichlet 's theorem on arithmetic progressions asserts that the progression contains infinitely many primes . the picture below illustrates this with q = 9 : the numbers are " wrapped around " as soon as a multiple of 9 is passed . primes are highlighted in red . the rows ( =progressions ) starting with a = 3 , 6 , or 9 contain at most one prime number . in all other rows ( a = 1 , 2 , 4 , 5 , 7 , and 8 ) there are infinitely many prime numbers . what is more , the primes are distributed equally among those rows in the long run—the density of all primes congruent a modulo 9 is 1/6 .
if a and q are coprime , which theorem holds that an arithmetic progression has an infinite number of primes ?
dirichlet 's theorem

Sample: 254

the original logo used for the first doctor ( and briefly for the second doctor ) was reused in a slightly modified format for the 50th anniversary special " the day of the doctor " during the eleventh doctor 's run . the logo used in the television movie featuring the eighth doctor was an updated version of the logo used for the third doctor . the logo from 1973–80 was used for the third doctor 's final season and for the majority of the fourth doctor 's tenure . the following logo , while most associated with the fifth doctor , was also used for the fourth doctor 's final season . the logo used for the ninth doctor was slightly edited for the tenth doctor , but it retained the same general appearance . the logo used for the eleventh doctor had the " dw " tardis insignia placed to the right in 2012 , but the same font remained , albeit with a slight edit to the texture every episode , with the texture relating to some aspect of the story . the logo for the twelfth doctor had the " dw " tardis insignia removed and the font was subtly altered , as well as made slightly larger . as of 2014 , the logo used for the third and eighth doctors is the primary logo used on all media and merchandise relating to past doctors , and the current doctor who logo is used for all merchandise relating to the current doctor .
which logo had the dw tardis insignia removed ?
the logo for the twelfth doctor

Sample: 255

the reason for the majority rule is the high risk of a conflict of interest and/or the avoidance of absolute powers . otherwise , the physician has a financial self-interest in " diagnosing " as many conditions as possible , and in exaggerating their seriousness , because he or she can then sell more medications to the patient . such self-interest directly conflicts with the patient 's interest in obtaining cost-effective medication and avoiding the unnecessary use of medication that may have side-effects . this system reflects much similarity to the checks and balances system of the u.s. and many other governments . [ citation needed ]
why might a physician diagnose a large number of conditions ?
because he or she can then sell more medications to the patient

Sample: 256

newton 's third law is a result of applying symmetry to situations where forces can be attributed to the presence of different objects . the third law means that all forces are interactions between different bodies , [ note 3 ] and thus that there is no such thing as a unidirectional force or a force that acts on only one body . whenever a first body exerts a force f on a second body , the second body exerts a force −f on the first body . f and −f are equal in magnitude and opposite in direction . this law is sometimes referred to as the action-reaction law , with f called the " action " and −f the " reaction " . the action and the reaction are simultaneous :
when forces are from the presence of differnet objects , what law gives symmetry ?
newton 's third

Sample: 257

in 2008 , japan aerospace exploration agency 's selene probe observed evidence of the halo surrounding the apollo 15 lunar module blast crater while orbiting above the lunar surface . in 2009 , nasa 's robotic lunar reconnaissance orbiter , while orbiting 50 kilometers ( 31 mi ) above the moon , began photographing the remnants of the apollo program left on the lunar surface , and photographed each site where manned apollo flights landed . all of the u. s. flags left on the moon during the apollo missions were found to still be standing , with the exception of the one left during the apollo 11 mission , which was blown over during that mission 's lift-off from the lunar surface and return to the mission command module in lunar orbit ; the degree to which these flags retain their original colors remains unknown .
which nasa orbiter photographed evidence of each site on the moon that a manned apollo mission landing occurred ?
lunar reconnaissance orbiter

Sample: 258

there are eleven lea-funded 11 to 18 schools and seven independent schools with sixth forms in newcastle . there are a number of successful state schools , including walker technology college , gosforth high school , heaton manor school , st cuthbert 's high school , st. mary 's catholic comprehensive school , kenton school , george stephenson high school , sacred heart and benfield school . the largest co-ed independent school is the royal grammar school . the largest girls ' independent school is newcastle high school for girls . both schools are located on the same street in jesmond . newcastle school for boys is the only independent boys ' only school in the city and is situated in gosforth . newcastle college is the largest general further education college in the north east and is a beacon status college ; there are two smaller colleges in the newcastle area . st cuthbert 's high school and sacred heart are the two primary state-catholic run high schools , and are both achieving results on par with the independent schools in newcastle .
how many of the schools in newcastle are independent ?
seven

Sample: 259

on 23 june 2005 , rep. joe barton , chairman of the house committee on energy and commerce wrote joint letters with ed whitfield , chairman of the subcommittee on oversight and investigations demanding full records on climate research , as well as personal information about their finances and careers , from mann , bradley and hughes . sherwood boehlert , chairman of the house science committee , said this was a " misguided and illegitimate investigation " apparently aimed at intimidating scientists , and at his request the u.s. national academy of sciences arranged for its national research council to set up a special investigation . the national research council 's report agreed that there were some statistical failings , but these had little effect on the graph , which was generally correct . in a 2006 letter to nature , mann , bradley , and hughes pointed out that their original article had said that " more widespread high-resolution data are needed before more confident conclusions can be reached " and that the uncertainties were " the point of the article " .
who was chairman of the house science committee ?
sherwood boehlert

Sample: 260

for its part , the television network produced a few new hits during 1977 : january saw the premiere of roots , a miniseries based on an alex haley novel that was published the previous year ; in september , the love boat , a comedy-drama anthology series produced by aaron spelling which was based around the crew of a cruise ship and featured three stories centered partly on the ship 's various passengers ; although critically lambasted , the series turned out to be a ratings success and lasted nine seasons . roots went on to become one of the highest-rated programs in american television history , with unprecedented ratings for its finale . the success of roots , happy days and the love boat allowed the network to take first place in the ratings for the first time in the 1976–77 season . on september 13 , 1977 , the network debuted soap , a controversial soap opera parody which became known for being the first television series to feature an openly gay main character ( played by a then-unknown billy crystal ) ; it last ran on the network on april 20 , 1981 .
who produced the comedy-drama the love boat ?
aaron spelling

Sample: 261

at the outbreak of world war i in august 1914 , the governors of british east africa ( as the protectorate was generally known ) and german east africa agreed a truce in an attempt to keep the young colonies out of direct hostilities . lt col paul von lettow-vorbeck took command of the german military forces , determined to tie down as many british resources as possible . completely cut off from germany , von lettow conducted an effective guerrilla warfare campaign , living off the land , capturing british supplies , and remaining undefeated . he eventually surrendered in northern rhodesia ( today zambia ) fourteen days after the armistice was signed in 1918 .
where did von lettow surrender at ?
northern rhodesia

Sample: 262

the name rijn , from here on , is used only for smaller streams farther to the north , which together formed the main river rhine in roman times . though they retained the name , these streams no longer carry water from the rhine , but are used for draining the surrounding land and polders . from wijk bij duurstede , the old north branch of the rhine is called kromme rijn ( " bent rhine " ) past utrecht , first leidse rijn ( " rhine of leiden " ) and then , oude rijn ( " old rhine " ) . the latter flows west into a sluice at katwijk , where its waters can be discharged into the north sea . this branch once formed the line along which the limes germanicus were built . during periods of lower sea levels within the various ice ages , the rhine took a left turn , creating the channel river , the course of which now lies below the english channel .
what is the name for the smaller streams along the region northern germany ?
rijn

Sample: 263

some modern scholars , such as fielding h. garrison , are of the opinion that the origin of the science of geology can be traced to persia after the muslim conquests had come to an end . abu al-rayhan al-biruni ( 973–1048 ce ) was one of the earliest persian geologists , whose works included the earliest writings on the geology of india , hypothesizing that the indian subcontinent was once a sea . drawing from greek and indian scientific literature that were not destroyed by the muslim conquests , the persian scholar ibn sina ( avicenna , 981–1037 ) proposed detailed explanations for the formation of mountains , the origin of earthquakes , and other topics central to modern geology , which provided an essential foundation for the later development of the science . in china , the polymath shen kuo ( 1031–1095 ) formulated a hypothesis for the process of land formation : based on his observation of fossil animal shells in a geological stratum in a mountain hundreds of miles from the ocean , he inferred that the land was formed by erosion of the mountains and by deposition of silt .
fielding h. garrison believes that the science of geology can be traced to where ?
persia

Sample: 264

in 1937 , at a luncheon in his honor concerning the death ray , tesla stated , " but it is not an experiment ... i have built , demonstrated and used it . only a little time will pass before i can give it to the world . " his records indicate that the device is based on a narrow stream of small tungsten pellets that are accelerated via high voltage ( by means akin to his magnifying transformer ) .
when did tesla claim to have built the weapon ?
1937

Sample: 265

the inverted repeat regions are highly conserved among land plants , and accumulate few mutations . similar inverted repeats exist in the genomes of cyanobacteria and the other two chloroplast lineages ( glaucophyta and rhodophyceæ ) , suggesting that they predate the chloroplast , though some chloroplast dnas have since lost or flipped the inverted repeats ( making them direct repeats ) . it is possible that the inverted repeats help stabilize the rest of the chloroplast genome , as chloroplast dnas which have lost some of the inverted repeat segments tend to get rearranged more .
what seldom mutates ?
the inverted repeat regions

Sample: 266

legislative power in warsaw is vested in a unicameral warsaw city council ( rada miasta ) , which comprises 60 members . council members are elected directly every four years . like most legislative bodies , the city council divides itself into committees which have the oversight of various functions of the city government . bills passed by a simple majority are sent to the mayor ( the president of warsaw ) , who may sign them into law . if the mayor vetoes a bill , the council has 30 days to override the veto by a two-thirds majority vote .
what does the city council divide itself into ?
committees

Sample: 267

teaching may be carried out informally , within the family , which is called homeschooling , or in the wider community . formal teaching may be carried out by paid professionals . such professionals enjoy a status in some societies on a par with physicians , lawyers , engineers , and accountants ( chartered or cpa ) .
what is another type of accountant other than a cpa ?
chartered

Sample: 268

the annual nfl experience was held at the moscone center in san francisco . in addition , " super bowl city " opened on january 30 at justin herman plaza on the embarcadero , featuring games and activities that will highlight the bay area 's technology , culinary creations , and cultural diversity . more than 1 million people are expected to attend the festivities in san francisco during super bowl week . san francisco mayor ed lee said of the highly visible homeless presence in this area " they are going to have to leave " . san francisco city supervisor jane kim unsuccessfully lobbied for the nfl to reimburse san francisco for city services in the amount of $ 5 million .
in what city is the moscone center located ?
san francisco

Sample: 269

land-based steam engines could exhaust much of their steam , as feed water was usually readily available . prior to and during world war i , the expansion engine dominated marine applications where high vessel speed was not essential . it was however superseded by the british invention steam turbine where speed was required , for instance in warships , such as the dreadnought battleships , and ocean liners . hms dreadnought of 1905 was the first major warship to replace the proven technology of the reciprocating engine with the then-novel steam turbine . [ citation needed ]
what was an example of a type of warship that required high speed ?
dreadnought battleships

Sample: 270

the " big five " game animals of africa , that is the lion , leopard , buffalo , rhinoceros , and elephant , can be found in kenya and in the masai mara in particular . a significant population of other wild animals , reptiles and birds can be found in the national parks and game reserves in the country . the annual animal migration occurs between june and september with millions of animals taking part , attracting valuable foreign tourism . two million wildebeest migrate a distance of 2,900 kilometres ( 1,802 mi ) from the serengeti in neighbouring tanzania to the masai mara in kenya , in a constant clockwise fashion , searching for food and water supplies . this serengeti migration of the wildebeest is a curious spectacle listed among the 10 natural wonders of africa .
how far do the wildebeest migrate searching for food and water ?
2,900 kilometres ( 1,802 mi )

Sample: 271

in early 2012 , nfl commissioner roger goodell stated that the league planned to make the 50th super bowl " spectacular " and that it would be " an important game for us as a league " .
in early 2012 , goodell said that super bowl 50 would be what ?
spectacular

Sample: 272

möngke khan commenced a military campaign against the chinese song dynasty in southern china . the mongol force that invaded southern china was far greater than the force they sent to invade the middle east in 1256 . he died in 1259 without a successor . kublai returned from fighting the song in 1260 when he learned that his brother , ariq böke , was challenging his claim to the throne . kublai convened a kurultai in kaiping that elected him great khan . a rival kurultai in mongolia proclaimed ariq böke great khan , beginning a civil war . kublai depended on the cooperation of his chinese subjects to ensure that his army received ample resources . he bolstered his popularity among his subjects by modeling his government on the bureaucracy of traditional chinese dynasties and adopting the chinese era name of zhongtong . ariq böke was hampered by inadequate supplies and surrendered in 1264 . all of the three western khanates ( golden horde , chagatai khanate and ilkhanate ) became functionally autonomous , although only the ilkhans truly recognized kublai as great khan . civil strife had permanently divided the mongol empire .
who challenged kublai khan 's right to succeed mongke khan ?
ariq böke

Sample: 273

starting in 1965 , donald davies at the national physical laboratory , uk , independently developed the same message routing methodology as developed by baran . he called it packet switching , a more accessible name than baran 's , and proposed to build a nationwide network in the uk . he gave a talk on the proposal in 1966 , after which a person from the ministry of defence ( mod ) told him about baran 's work . a member of davies ' team ( roger scantlebury ) met lawrence roberts at the 1967 acm symposium on operating system principles and suggested it for use in the arpanet .
what did davies want to build
proposed to build a nationwide network in the uk

Sample: 274

uptake of o 2 from the air is the essential purpose of respiration , so oxygen supplementation is used in medicine . treatment not only increases oxygen levels in the patient 's blood , but has the secondary effect of decreasing resistance to blood flow in many types of diseased lungs , easing work load on the heart . oxygen therapy is used to treat emphysema , pneumonia , some heart disorders ( congestive heart failure ) , some disorders that cause increased pulmonary artery pressure , and any disease that impairs the body 's ability to take up and use gaseous oxygen .
what does oxygen therapy promote the body to take up ?
gaseous oxygen .

Sample: 275

new techniques of building construction are being researched , made possible by advances in 3d printing technology . in a form of additive building construction , similar to the additive manufacturing techniques for manufactured parts , building printing is making it possible to flexibly construct small commercial buildings and private habitations in around 20 hours , with built-in plumbing and electrical facilities , in one continuous build , using large 3d printers . working versions of 3d-printing building technology are already printing 2 metres ( 6 ft 7 in ) of building material per hour as of january 2013 [ update ] , with the next-generation printers capable of 3.5 metres ( 11 ft ) per hour , sufficient to complete a building in a week . dutch architect janjaap ruijssenaars 's performative architecture 3d-printed building is scheduled to be built in 2014 .
dutch architect janjaap ruijssenaars 's performative architecture 3d-printed building is scheduled to be built when ?
working versions of 3d-printing building technology are already printing

Sample: 276

the first recorded travels by europeans to china and back date from this time . the most famous traveler of the period was the venetian marco polo , whose account of his trip to " cambaluc , " the capital of the great khan , and of life there astounded the people of europe . the account of his travels , il milione ( or , the million , known in english as the travels of marco polo ) , appeared about the year 1299 . some argue over the accuracy of marco polo 's accounts due to the lack of mentioning the great wall of china , tea houses , which would have been a prominent sight since europeans had yet to adopt a tea culture , as well the practice of foot binding by the women in capital of the great khan . some suggest that marco polo acquired much of his knowledge through contact with persian traders since many of the places he named were in persian .
who was the first known european to visit china and return ?
marco polo

Sample: 277

the harvard crimson competes in 42 intercollegiate sports in the ncaa division i ivy league . harvard has an intense athletic rivalry with yale university culminating in the game , although the harvard–yale regatta predates the football game . this rivalry , though , is put aside every two years when the harvard and yale track and field teams come together to compete against a combined oxford university and cambridge university team , a competition that is the oldest continuous international amateur competition in the world .
how many intercollegiate sports does harvard compete in ncaa division i
42

Sample: 278

from here , the situation becomes more complicated , as the dutch name rijn no longer coincides with the main flow of water . two thirds of the water flow volume of the rhine flows farther west , through the waal and then , via the merwede and nieuwe merwede ( de biesbosch ) , merging with the meuse , through the hollands diep and haringvliet estuaries , into the north sea . the beneden merwede branches off , near hardinxveld-giessendam and continues as the noord , to join the lek , near the village of kinderdijk , to form the nieuwe maas ; then flows past rotterdam and continues via het scheur and the nieuwe waterweg , to the north sea . the oude maas branches off , near dordrecht , farther down rejoining the nieuwe maas to form het scheur .
what 's the name of where the rhine branches off near dordrecht ?
the oude maas

Sample: 279

steam engines can be said to have been the moving force behind the industrial revolution and saw widespread commercial use driving machinery in factories , mills and mines ; powering pumping stations ; and propelling transport appliances such as railway locomotives , ships , steamboats and road vehicles . their use in agriculture led to an increase in the land available for cultivation . there have at one time or another been steam-powered farm tractors , motorcycles ( without much success ) and even automobiles as the stanley steamer .
what is an example of a steam-powered automobile ?
stanley steamer

Sample: 280

the development of plate tectonics provided a physical basis for many observations of the solid earth . long linear regions of geologic features could be explained as plate boundaries . mid-ocean ridges , high regions on the seafloor where hydrothermal vents and volcanoes exist , were explained as divergent boundaries , where two plates move apart . arcs of volcanoes and earthquakes were explained as convergent boundaries , where one plate subducts under another . transform boundaries , such as the san andreas fault system , resulted in widespread powerful earthquakes . plate tectonics also provided a mechanism for alfred wegener 's theory of continental drift , in which the continents move across the surface of the earth over geologic time . they also provided a driving force for crustal deformation , and a new setting for the observations of structural geology . the power of the theory of plate tectonics lies in its ability to combine all of these observations into a single theory of how the lithosphere moves over the convecting mantle .
whose theory was the theory of continental drift ?
alfred wegener

Sample: 281

problems that can be solved in theory ( e.g. , given large but finite time ) , but which in practice take too long for their solutions to be useful , are known as intractable problems . in complexity theory , problems that lack polynomial-time solutions are considered to be intractable for more than the smallest inputs . in fact , the cobham–edmonds thesis states that only those problems that can be solved in polynomial time can be feasibly computed on some computational device . problems that are known to be intractable in this sense include those that are exptime-hard . if np is not the same as p , then the np-complete problems are also intractable in this sense . to see why exponential-time algorithms might be unusable in practice , consider a program that makes 2n operations before halting . for small n , say 100 , and assuming for the sake of example that the computer does 1012 operations each second , the program would run for about 4 × 1010 years , which is the same order of magnitude as the age of the universe . even with a much faster computer , the program would only be useful for very small instances and in that sense the intractability of a problem is somewhat independent of technological progress . nevertheless , a polynomial time algorithm is not always practical . if its running time is , say , n15 , it is unreasonable to consider it efficient and it is still useless except on small instances .
problems capable of theoretical solutions but consuming unreasonable time in practical application are known as what ?
intractable problems

Sample: 282

apollo 5 ( as-204 ) was the first unmanned test flight of lm in earth orbit , launched from pad 37 on january 22 , 1968 , by the saturn ib that would have been used for apollo 1 . the lm engines were successfully test-fired and restarted , despite a computer programming error which cut short the first descent stage firing . the ascent engine was fired in abort mode , known as a " fire-in-the-hole " test , where it was lit simultaneously with jettison of the descent stage . although grumman wanted a second unmanned test , george low decided the next lm flight would be manned .
which apollo was the first testing of the lm , unmanned , in earth 's orbit ?
apollo 5

Sample: 283

civil disobedience is usually defined as pertaining to a citizen 's relation to the state and its laws , as distinguished from a constitutional impasse in which two public agencies , especially two equally sovereign branches of government , conflict . for instance , if the head of government of a country were to refuse to enforce a decision of that country 's highest court , it would not be civil disobedience , since the head of government would be acting in her or his capacity as public official rather than private citizen .
civil disobedience is mainly performed by what population group ?
private citizen

Sample: 284

the hydrography of the current delta is characterized by the delta 's main arms , disconnected arms ( hollandse ijssel , linge , vecht , etc . ) and smaller rivers and streams . many rivers have been closed ( " dammed " ) and now serve as drainage channels for the numerous polders . the construction of delta works changed the delta in the second half of the 20th century fundamentally . currently rhine water runs into the sea , or into former marine bays now separated from the sea , in five places , namely at the mouths of the nieuwe merwede , nieuwe waterway ( nieuwe maas ) , dordtse kil , spui and ijssel .
what changed the rhine 's delta ?
construction of delta works

Sample: 285

the immune system is a system of many biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease . to function properly , an immune system must detect a wide variety of agents , known as pathogens , from viruses to parasitic worms , and distinguish them from the organism 's own healthy tissue . in many species , the immune system can be classified into subsystems , such as the innate immune system versus the adaptive immune system , or humoral immunity versus cell-mediated immunity . in humans , the blood–brain barrier , blood–cerebrospinal fluid barrier , and similar fluid–brain barriers separate the peripheral immune system from the neuroimmune system which protects the brain .
what is the immune system ?
a system of many biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease

Sample: 286

the panthers offense , which led the nfl in scoring ( 500 points ) , was loaded with talent , boasting six pro bowl selections . pro bowl quarterback cam newton had one of his best seasons , throwing for 3,837 yards and rushing for 636 , while recording a career-high and league-leading 45 total touchdowns ( 35 passing , 10 rushing ) , a career-low 10 interceptions , and a career-best quarterback rating of 99.4 . newton 's leading receivers were tight end greg olsen , who caught a career-high 77 passes for 1,104 yards and seven touchdowns , and wide receiver ted ginn , jr. , who caught 44 passes for 739 yards and 10 touchdowns ; ginn also rushed for 60 yards and returned 27 punts for 277 yards . other key receivers included veteran jerricho cotchery ( 39 receptions for 485 yards ) , rookie devin funchess ( 31 receptions for 473 yards and five touchdowns ) , and second-year receiver corey brown ( 31 receptions for 447 yards ) . the panthers backfield featured pro bowl running back jonathan stewart , who led the team with 989 rushing yards and six touchdowns in 13 games , along with pro bowl fullback mike tolbert , who rushed for 256 yards and caught 18 passes for another 154 yards . carolina 's offensive line also featured two pro bowl selections : center ryan kalil and guard trai turner .
how many total touchdowns did cam newton score ?
45

Sample: 287

not a maritime power , and not a nation-state , as it would eventually become , germany ’ s participation in western imperialism was negligible until the late 19th century . the participation of austria was primarily as a result of habsburg control of the first empire , the spanish throne , and other royal houses . [ further explanation needed ] after the defeat of napoleon , who caused the dissolution of that holy roman empire , prussia and the german states continued to stand aloof from imperialism , preferring to manipulate the european system through the concert of europe . after prussia unified the other states into the second german empire after the franco-german war , its long-time chancellor , otto von bismarck ( 1862–90 ) , long opposed colonial acquisitions , arguing that the burden of obtaining , maintaining , and defending such possessions would outweigh any potential benefits . he felt that colonies did not pay for themselves , that the german bureaucratic system would not work well in the tropics and the diplomatic disputes over colonies would distract germany from its central interest , europe itself .
what was germany 's central interest ?
europe

Sample: 288

crime rate has also been shown to be correlated with inequality in society . most studies looking into the relationship have concentrated on homicides – since homicides are almost identically defined across all nations and jurisdictions . there have been over fifty studies showing tendencies for violence to be more common in societies where income differences are larger . research has been conducted comparing developed countries with undeveloped countries , as well as studying areas within countries . daly et al . 2001 found that among u.s states and canadian provinces there is a tenfold difference in homicide rates related to inequality . they estimated that about half of all variation in homicide rates can be accounted for by differences in the amount of inequality in each province or state . fajnzylber et al . ( 2002 ) found a similar relationship worldwide . among comments in academic literature on the relationship between homicides and inequality are :
what is it estimated that about half of all variation in homicide rates can be accounted for by ?
differences in the amount of inequality

Sample: 289

committees comprise a small number of msps , with membership reflecting the balance of parties across parliament . there are different committees with their functions set out in different ways . mandatory committees are committees which are set down under the scottish parliament 's standing orders , which govern their remits and proceedings . the current mandatory committees in the fourth session of the scottish parliament are : public audit ; equal opportunities ; european and external relations ; finance ; public petitions ; standards , procedures and public appointments ; and delegated powers and law reform .
different committees have what set out in different ways ?
functions

Sample: 290

in 1999 , another special , doctor who and the curse of fatal death , was made for comic relief and later released on vhs . an affectionate parody of the television series , it was split into four segments , mimicking the traditional serial format , complete with cliffhangers , and running down the same corridor several times when being chased ( the version released on video was split into only two episodes ) . in the story , the doctor ( rowan atkinson ) encounters both the master ( jonathan pryce ) and the daleks . during the special the doctor is forced to regenerate several times , with his subsequent incarnations played by , in order , richard e. grant , jim broadbent , hugh grant and joanna lumley . the script was written by steven moffat , later to be head writer and executive producer to the revived series .
what actress played the last incarnation of the doctor in the special ?
joanna lumley

Sample: 291

the flagship stations of each station in the markets of each team will carry their local play-by-play calls . in denver , koa ( 850 am ) and krfx ( 103.5 fm ) will carry the game , with dave logan on play-by-play and ed mccaffrey on color commentary . in north carolina , wbt ( 1110 am ) will carry the game , with mick mixon on play-by-play and eugene robinson and jim szoke on color commentary . wbt will also simulcast the game on its sister station wbt-fm ( 99.3 fm ) , which is based in chester , south carolina . as koa and wbt are both clear-channel stations , the local broadcasts will be audible over much of the western united states after sunset ( for denver ) and the eastern united states throughout the game ( for carolina ) . in accordance with contractual rules , the rest of the stations in the broncos and panthers radio networks will either carry the westwood one feed or not carry the game at all .
what is the frequency of the radio station wbt in north carolina ?
1110 am

Sample: 292

in the sandgate area , to the east of the city and beside the river , resided the close-knit community of keelmen and their families . they were so called because they worked on the keels , boats that were used to transfer coal from the river banks to the waiting colliers , for export to london and elsewhere . in the 1630s about 7,000 out of 20,000 inhabitants of newcastle died of plague , more than one-third of the population . specifically within the year 1636 , it is roughly estimated with evidence held by the society of antiquaries that 47 % of the then population of newcastle died from the epidemic ; this may also have been the most devastating loss in any british city in this period .
how was coal transferred from the river banks to colliers ?
boats

Sample: 293

when considering computational problems , a problem instance is a string over an alphabet . usually , the alphabet is taken to be the binary alphabet ( i.e. , the set { 0,1 } ) , and thus the strings are bitstrings . as in a real-world computer , mathematical objects other than bitstrings must be suitably encoded . for example , integers can be represented in binary notation , and graphs can be encoded directly via their adjacency matrices , or by encoding their adjacency lists in binary .
what is another term for the string of a problem instance ?
bitstrings

Sample: 294

aristotle provided a philosophical discussion of the concept of a force as an integral part of aristotelian cosmology . in aristotle 's view , the terrestrial sphere contained four elements that come to rest at different " natural places " therein . aristotle believed that motionless objects on earth , those composed mostly of the elements earth and water , to be in their natural place on the ground and that they will stay that way if left alone . he distinguished between the innate tendency of objects to find their " natural place " ( e.g. , for heavy bodies to fall ) , which led to " natural motion " , and unnatural or forced motion , which required continued application of a force . this theory , based on the everyday experience of how objects move , such as the constant application of a force needed to keep a cart moving , had conceptual trouble accounting for the behavior of projectiles , such as the flight of arrows . the place where the archer moves the projectile was at the start of the flight , and while the projectile sailed through the air , no discernible efficient cause acts on it . aristotle was aware of this problem and proposed that the air displaced through the projectile 's path carries the projectile to its target . this explanation demands a continuum like air for change of place in general .
where did aristotle believe the natural place for earth and water elements ?
on the ground

Sample: 295

it became a moral justification to lift the world up to french standards by bringing christianity and french culture . in 1884 the leading exponent of colonialism , jules ferry declared france had a civilising mission : " the higher races have a right over the lower races , they have a duty to civilize the inferior " . full citizenship rights – ‘ ’ assimilation ’ ’ – were offered , although in reality assimilation was always on the distant horizon . contrasting from britain , france sent small numbers of settlers to its colonies , with the only notable exception of algeria , where french settlers nevertheless always remained a small minority .
where did the french send a large number of settlers ?
algeria

Sample: 296

rhodoplasts have a double membrane with an intermembrane space and phycobilin pigments organized into phycobilisomes on the thylakoid membranes , preventing their thylakoids from stacking . some contain pyrenoids . rhodoplasts have chlorophyll a and phycobilins for photosynthetic pigments ; the phycobilin phycoerytherin is responsible for giving many red algae their distinctive red color . however , since they also contain the blue-green chlorophyll a and other pigments , many are reddish to purple from the combination . the red phycoerytherin pigment is an adaptation to help red algae catch more sunlight in deep water—as such , some red algae that live in shallow water have less phycoerytherin in their rhodoplasts , and can appear more greenish . rhodoplasts synthesize a form of starch called floridean , which collects into granules outside the rhodoplast , in the cytoplasm of the red alga .
what are rhodoplasts ' phycobilin pigments combined into ?
phycobilisomes

Sample: 297

nasa 's calipso satellite has measured the amount of dust transported by wind from the sahara to the amazon : an average 182 million tons of dust are windblown out of the sahara each year , at 15 degrees west longitude , across 1,600 miles ( 2,600 km ) over the atlantic ocean ( some dust falls into the atlantic ) , then at 35 degrees west longitude at the eastern coast of south america , 27.7 million tons ( 15 % ) of dust fall over the amazon basin , 132 million tons of dust remain in the air , 43 million tons of dust are windblown and falls on the caribbean sea , past 75 degrees west longitude .
how much windblown dust leaves the sahara each year ?
182 million tons

Sample: 298

börte had three more sons , chagatai ( 1187—1241 ) , ögedei ( 1189—1241 ) , and tolui ( 1190–1232 ) . genghis khan also had many other children with his other wives , but they were excluded from the succession . while the names of sons were documented , daughters were not . the names of at least six daughters are known , and while they played significant roles behind the scenes during his lifetime , no documents have survived that definitively provide the number or names of daughters born to the consorts of genghis khan .
how many names of ghengis khan 's daughters are known ?
six

Sample: 299

ctenophores form an animal phylum that is more complex than sponges , about as complex as cnidarians ( jellyfish , sea anemones , etc . ) , and less complex than bilaterians ( which include almost all other animals ) . unlike sponges , both ctenophores and cnidarians have : cells bound by inter-cell connections and carpet-like basement membranes ; muscles ; nervous systems ; and some have sensory organs . ctenophores are distinguished from all other animals by having colloblasts , which are sticky and adhere to prey , although a few ctenophore species lack them .
what do ctenophore use to capture their prey ?
colloblasts

Sample: 300

mean monthly temperatures range from around 53 f in january to 82 f in july . high temperatures average 64 to 92 °f ( 18 to 33 °c ) throughout the year . high heat indices are common for the summer months in the area , with indices above 110 °f ( 43.3 °c ) possible . the highest temperature recorded was 104 °f ( 40 °c ) on july 11 , 1879 and july 28 , 1872 . it is common for thunderstorms to erupt during a typical summer afternoon . these are caused by the rapid heating of the land relative to the water , combined with extremely high humidity .
what is jacksonville 's hottest recorded temperature ?
104 °f

Sample: 301

for the conservatives , the main disappointment was the loss of edinburgh pentlands , the seat of former party leader david mcletchie , to the snp . mcletchie was elected on the lothian regional list and the conservatives suffered a net loss of five seats , with leader annabel goldie claiming that their support had held firm . nevertheless , she too announced she would step down as leader of the party . cameron congratulated the snp on their victory but vowed to campaign for the union in the independence referendum .
who congratulated the snp while vowing to campaign against their referendum ?
cameron

Sample: 302

plague was reportedly first introduced to europe via genoese traders at the port city of kaffa in the crimea in 1347 . after a protracted siege , during which the mongol army under jani beg was suffering from the disease , the army catapulted the infected corpses over the city walls of kaffa to infect the inhabitants . the genoese traders fled , taking the plague by ship into sicily and the south of europe , whence it spread north . whether or not this hypothesis is accurate , it is clear that several existing conditions such as war , famine , and weather contributed to the severity of the black death .
what contributed to the severity of the plague ?
war , famine , and weather

Sample: 303

the programme 's first serial , an unearthly child , shows that the doctor has a granddaughter , susan foreman . in the 1967 serial , tomb of the cybermen , when victoria waterfield doubts the doctor can remember his family because of , " being so ancient " , the doctor says that he can when he really wants to— " the rest of the time they sleep in my mind " . the 2005 series reveals that the ninth doctor thought he was the last surviving time lord , and that his home planet had been destroyed ; in " the empty child " ( 2005 ) , dr. constantine states that , " before the war even began , i was a father and a grandfather . now i am neither . " the doctor remarks in response , " yeah , i know the feeling . " in " smith and jones " ( 2007 ) , when asked if he had a brother , he replied , " no , not any more . " in both " fear her " ( 2006 ) and " the doctor 's daughter " ( 2008 ) , he states that he had , in the past , been a father .
in what episode did doctor who acknowledge having had a brother ?
smith and jones

Sample: 304

where chp is not used , steam turbines in power stations use surface condensers as a cold sink . the condensers are cooled by water flow from oceans , rivers , lakes , and often by cooling towers which evaporate water to provide cooling energy removal . the resulting condensed hot water output from the condenser is then put back into the boiler via a pump . a dry type cooling tower is similar to an automobile radiator and is used in locations where water is costly . evaporative ( wet ) cooling towers use the rejected heat to evaporate water ; this water is kept separate from the condensate , which circulates in a closed system and returns to the boiler . such towers often have visible plumes due to the evaporated water condensing into droplets carried up by the warm air . evaporative cooling towers need less water flow than " once-through " cooling by river or lake water ; a 700 megawatt coal-fired power plant may use about 3600 cubic metres of make-up water every hour for evaporative cooling , but would need about twenty times as much if cooled by river water . [ citation needed ]
what device is a dry cooling tower similar to ?
automobile radiator

Sample: 305

every may since 1987 , the university of chicago has held the university of chicago scavenger hunt , in which large teams of students compete to obtain notoriously esoteric items from a list . since 1963 , the festival of the arts ( fota ) takes over campus for 7–10 days of exhibitions and interactive artistic endeavors . every january , the university holds a week-long winter festival , kuviasungnerk/kangeiko , which include early morning exercise routines and fitness workshops . the university also annually holds a summer carnival and concert called summer breeze that hosts outside musicians , and is home to doc films , a student film society founded in 1932 that screens films nightly at the university . since 1946 , the university has organized the latke-hamantash debate , which involves humorous discussions about the relative merits and meanings of latkes and hamantashen .
what does fota stand for ?
festival of the arts

Sample: 306

the history of the steam engine stretches back as far as the first century ad ; the first recorded rudimentary steam engine being the aeolipile described by greek mathematician hero of alexandria . in the following centuries , the few steam-powered " engines " known were , like the aeolipile , essentially experimental devices used by inventors to demonstrate the properties of steam . a rudimentary steam turbine device was described by taqi al-din in 1551 and by giovanni branca in 1629 . jerónimo de ayanz y beaumont received patents in 1606 for fifty steam powered inventions , including a water pump for draining inundated mines . denis papin , a huguenot refugee , did some useful work on the steam digester in 1679 , and first used a piston to raise weights in 1690 .
who conceptualized the aeolipile ?
hero of alexandria

Sample: 307

the four-year , full-time undergraduate program comprises a minority of enrollments at the university and emphasizes instruction with an " arts and sciences focus " . between 1978 and 2008 , entering students were required to complete a core curriculum of seven classes outside of their concentration . since 2008 , undergraduate students have been required to complete courses in eight general education categories : aesthetic and interpretive understanding , culture and belief , empirical and mathematical reasoning , ethical reasoning , science of living systems , science of the physical universe , societies of the world , and united states in the world . harvard offers a comprehensive doctoral graduate program and there is a high level of coexistence between graduate and undergraduate degrees . the carnegie foundation for the advancement of teaching , the new york times , and some students have criticized harvard for its reliance on teaching fellows for some aspects of undergraduate education ; they consider this to adversely affect the quality of education .
between 1978 an d2008 four year full time undergraduate students were required to complete how many classes outside of their concentration ?
core curriculum of seven classes

Sample: 308

the shah 's army was split by diverse internecine feuds and by the shah 's decision to divide his army into small groups concentrated in various cities . this fragmentation was decisive in khwarezmia 's defeats , as it allowed the mongols , although exhausted from the long journey , to immediately set about defeating small fractions of the khwarzemi forces instead of facing a unified defense . the mongol army quickly seized the town of otrar , relying on superior strategy and tactics . genghis khan ordered the wholesale massacre of many of the civilians , enslaved the rest of the population and executed inalchuq by pouring molten silver into his ears and eyes , as retribution for his actions . near the end of the battle the shah fled rather than surrender . genghis khan ordered subutai and jebe to hunt him down , giving them 20,000 men and two years to do this . the shah died under mysterious circumstances on a small island within his empire .
who did genghis khan charge with finding and punishing the shah ?
subutai and jebe

Sample: 309

bskyb 's standard definition broadcasts are in dvb-compliant mpeg-2 , with the sky movies and sky box office channels including optional dolby digital soundtracks for recent films , although these are only accessible with a sky+ box . sky+ hd material is broadcast using mpeg-4 and most of the hd material uses the dvb-s2 standard . interactive services and 7-day epg use the proprietary opentv system , with set-top boxes including modems for a return path . sky news , amongst other channels , provides a pseudo-video on demand interactive service by broadcasting looping video streams .
what is sky+ hd material broadcast using ?
mpeg-4

Sample: 310

a wide selection of serials are available from bbc video on dvd , on sale in the united kingdom , australia , canada and the united states . every fully extant serial has been released on vhs , and bbc worldwide continues to regularly release serials on dvd . the 2005 series is also available in its entirety on umd for the playstation portable . eight original series serials have been released on laserdisc and many have also been released on betamax tape and video 2000 . one episode of doctor who ( the infinite quest ) was released on vcd . only the series from 2009 onwards are available on blu-ray , except for the 1970 story spearhead from space , released in july 2013 . many early releases have been re-released as special editions , with more bonus features .
what doctor who story from 1970 is available on blu-ray ?
spearhead from space

Sample: 311

the biodiversity of plant species is the highest on earth with one 2001 study finding a quarter square kilometer ( 62 acres ) of ecuadorian rainforest supports more than 1,100 tree species . a study in 1999 found one square kilometer ( 247 acres ) of amazon rainforest can contain about 90,790 tonnes of living plants . the average plant biomass is estimated at 356 ± 47 tonnes per hectare . to date , an estimated 438,000 species of plants of economic and social interest have been registered in the region with many more remaining to be discovered or catalogued . the total number of tree species in the region is estimated at 16,000 .
how many kilometers of acres of the ecuadorian rainforest is supported ?
62 acres

Sample: 312

in large parts , newcastle still retains a medieval street layout . narrow alleys or 'chares ' , most of which can only be traversed by foot , still exist in abundance , particularly around the riverside . stairs from the riverside to higher parts of the city centre and the extant castle keep , originally recorded in the 14th century , remain intact in places . close , sandhill and quayside contain modern buildings as well as structures dating from the 15th–18th centuries , including bessie surtees house , the cooperage and lloyds quayside bars , derwentwater house and " house of tides " , a restaurant situated at a grade i-listed 16th century merchant 's house at 28–30 close .
what kind of buildings are in the towns of close , sandhill and quayside ?
modern

Sample: 313

the first european to travel the length of the amazon river was francisco de orellana in 1542 . the bbc 's unnatural histories presents evidence that orellana , rather than exaggerating his claims as previously thought , was correct in his observations that a complex civilization was flourishing along the amazon in the 1540s . it is believed that the civilization was later devastated by the spread of diseases from europe , such as smallpox . since the 1970s , numerous geoglyphs have been discovered on deforested land dating between ad 0–1250 , furthering claims about pre-columbian civilizations . ondemar dias is accredited with first discovering the geoglyphs in 1977 and alceu ranzi with furthering their discovery after flying over acre . the bbc 's unnatural histories presented evidence that the amazon rainforest , rather than being a pristine wilderness , has been shaped by man for at least 11,000 years through practices such as forest gardening and terra preta .
who is given credit for discovering geoglyphs along the amazon river ?
ondemar dias

Sample: 314

in contrast to product requirements or other laws that hinder market access , the court of justice developed a presumption that " selling arrangements " would be presumed to not fall into tfeu article 34 , if they applied equally to all sellers , and affected them in the same manner in fact . in keck and mithouard two importers claimed that their prosecution under a french competition law , which prevented them selling picon beer under wholesale price , was unlawful . the aim of the law was to prevent cut throat competition , not to hinder trade . the court of justice held , as " in law and in fact " it was an equally applicable " selling arrangement " ( not something that alters a product 's content ) it was outside the scope of article 34 , and so did not need to be justified . selling arrangements can be held to have an unequal effect " in fact " particularly where traders from another member state are seeking to break into the market , but there are restrictions on advertising and marketing . in konsumentombudsmannen v de agostini the court of justice reviewed swedish bans on advertising to children under age 12 , and misleading commercials for skin care products . while the bans have remained ( justifiable under article 36 or as a mandatory requirement ) the court emphasised that complete marketing bans could be disproportionate if advertising were " the only effective form of promotion enabling [ a trader ] to penetrate " the market . in konsumentombudsmannen v gourmet ab the court suggested that a total ban for advertising alcohol on the radio , tv and in magazines could fall within article 34 where advertising was the only way for sellers to overcome consumers ' " traditional social practices and to local habits and customs " to buy their products , but again the national courts would decide whether it was justified under article 36 to protect public health . under the unfair commercial practices directive , the eu harmonised restrictions on restrictions on marketing and advertising , to forbid conduct that distorts average consumer behaviour , is misleading or aggressive , and sets out a list of examples that count as unfair . increasingly , states have to give mutual recognition to each other 's standards of regulation , while the eu has attempted to harmonise minimum ideals of best practice . the attempt to raise standards is hoped to avoid a regulatory " race to the bottom " , while allowing consumers access to goods from around the continent .
in which case did the court of justice review swedish bans on advertising to young children under 12 ?
konsumentombudsmannen v de agostini

Sample: 315

education in australia is primarily the responsibility of the individual states and territories . generally , education in australia follows the three-tier model which includes primary education ( primary schools ) , followed by secondary education ( secondary schools/high schools ) and tertiary education ( universities and/or tafe colleges ) .
who is responsible for education in the country of australia ?
the individual states and territories

Sample: 316

the victoria and albert museum ( often abbreviated as the v & a ) , london , is the world 's largest museum of decorative arts and design , housing a permanent collection of over 4.5 million objects . it was founded in 1852 and named after queen victoria and prince albert . the v & a is located in the brompton district of the royal borough of kensington and chelsea , in an area that has become known as " albertopolis " because of its association with prince albert , the albert memorial and the major cultural institutions with which he was associated . these include the natural history museum , the science museum and the royal albert hall . the museum is a non-departmental public body sponsored by the department for culture , media and sport . like other national british museums , entrance to the museum has been free since 2001 .
how many permanent objects are located there ?
a permanent collection of over 4.5 million objects .

Sample: 317

where is the mass of the object , is the velocity of the object and is the distance to the center of the circular path and is the unit vector pointing in the radial direction outwards from the center . this means that the unbalanced centripetal force felt by any object is always directed toward the center of the curving path . such forces act perpendicular to the velocity vector associated with the motion of an object , and therefore do not change the speed of the object ( magnitude of the velocity ) , but only the direction of the velocity vector . the unbalanced force that accelerates an object can be resolved into a component that is perpendicular to the path , and one that is tangential to the path . this yields both the tangential force , which accelerates the object by either slowing it down or speeding it up , and the radial ( centripetal ) force , which changes its direction .
what is another word for centripetal force ?
radial

Sample: 318

richard allen and absalom jones became the first african americans ordained by the methodist church . they were licensed by st. george 's church in 1784 . three years later , protesting racial segregation in the worship services , allen led most of the black members out of st. george 's ; eventually they founded the mother bethel a.m.e. church and the african methodist episcopal denomination . absalom jones became an episcopal priest . in 1836 , the church 's basement was excavated to make room for a sunday school . in the 1920s a court case saved the church from being demolished to make way for the benjamin franklin bridge . the case resulted in the bridge being relocated . historic st georges welcomes visitors and is home to archives and a museum on methodism .
richard allen and absalom jones were licensed by st. george 's church in what year ?
1784

Sample: 319

newton 's first law of motion states that objects continue to move in a state of constant velocity unless acted upon by an external net force or resultant force . this law is an extension of galileo 's insight that constant velocity was associated with a lack of net force ( see a more detailed description of this below ) . newton proposed that every object with mass has an innate inertia that functions as the fundamental equilibrium " natural state " in place of the aristotelian idea of the " natural state of rest " . that is , the first law contradicts the intuitive aristotelian belief that a net force is required to keep an object moving with constant velocity . by making rest physically indistinguishable from non-zero constant velocity , newton 's first law directly connects inertia with the concept of relative velocities . specifically , in systems where objects are moving with different velocities , it is impossible to determine which object is " in motion " and which object is " at rest " . in other words , to phrase matters more technically , the laws of physics are the same in every inertial frame of reference , that is , in all frames related by a galilean transformation .
what insight of galileo was associated with constant velocity ?
lack of net force

Sample: 320

the official opening by queen victoria was on 22 june 1857 . in the following year , late night openings were introduced , made possible by the use of gas lighting . this was to enable in the words of cole " to ascertain practically what hours are most convenient to the working classes " —this was linked to the use of the collections of both applied art and science as educational resources to help boost productive industry . in these early years the practical use of the collection was very much emphasised as opposed to that of " high art " at the national gallery and scholarship at the british museum . george wallis ( 1811–1891 ) , the first keeper of fine art collection , passionately promoted the idea of wide art education through the museum collections . this led to the transfer to the museum of the school of design that had been founded in 1837 at somerset house ; after the transfer it was referred to as the art school or art training school , later to become the royal college of art which finally achieved full independence in 1949 . from the 1860s to the 1880s the scientific collections had been moved from the main museum site to various improvised galleries to the west of exhibition road . in 1893 the " science museum " had effectively come into existence when a separate director was appointed .
who officially opened the v & a ?
queen victoria

Sample: 321

one key figure in the plans for what would come to be known as american empire , was a geographer named isiah bowman . bowman was the director of the american geographical society in 1914 . three years later in 1917 , he was appointed to then president woodrow wilson 's inquiry in 1917 . the inquiry was the idea of president wilson and the american delegation from the paris peace conference . the point of this inquiry was to build a premise that would allow for u.s authorship of a 'new world ' which was to be characterized by geographical order . as a result of his role in the inquiry , isiah bowman would come to be known as wilson 's geographer .
who was the director of the american geographical society in 1914 ?
isiah bowman

Sample: 322

a job where there are many workers willing to work a large amount of time ( high supply ) competing for a job that few require ( low demand ) will result in a low wage for that job . this is because competition between workers drives down the wage . an example of this would be jobs such as dish-washing or customer service . competition amongst workers tends to drive down wages due to the expendable nature of the worker in relation to his or her particular job . a job where there are few able or willing workers ( low supply ) , but a large need for the positions ( high demand ) , will result in high wages for that job . this is because competition between employers for employees will drive up the wage . examples of this would include jobs that require highly developed skills , rare abilities , or a high level of risk . competition amongst employers tends to drive up wages due to the nature of the job , since there is a relative shortage of workers for the particular position . professional and labor organizations may limit the supply of workers which results in higher demand and greater incomes for members . members may also receive higher wages through collective bargaining , political influence , or corruption .
what type of wages result from jobs where there is low supply but high demand ?
high

Sample: 323

in the u.s. federal health care system ( including the va , the indian health service , and nih ) ambulatory care pharmacists are given full independent prescribing authority . in some states such north carolina and new mexico these pharmacist clinicians are given collaborative prescriptive and diagnostic authority . in 2011 the board of pharmaceutical specialties approved ambulatory care pharmacy practice as a separate board certification . the official designation for pharmacists who pass the ambulatory care pharmacy specialty certification exam will be board certified ambulatory care pharmacist and these pharmacists will carry the initials bcacp .
what will a pharmacist who passes the ambulatory pharmacist exam be called ?
board certified ambulatory care pharmacist

Sample: 324

kenya has a warm and humid tropical climate on its indian ocean coastline . the climate is cooler in the savannah grasslands around the capital city , nairobi , and especially closer to mount kenya , which has snow permanently on its peaks . further inland , in the nyanza region , there is a hot and dry climate which becomes humid around lake victoria , the largest tropical fresh-water lake in the world . this gives way to temperate and forested hilly areas in the neighboring western region . the north-eastern regions along the border with somalia and ethiopia are arid and semi-arid areas with near-desert landscapes . kenya is known for its safaris , diverse climate and geography , and expansive wildlife reserves and national parks such as the east and west tsavo national park , the maasai mara , lake nakuru national park , and aberdares national park . kenya has several world heritage sites such as lamu and numerous beaches , including in diani , bamburi and kilifi , where international yachting competitions are held every year .
what is kenya known for ?
its safaris , diverse climate and geography , and expansive wildlife reserves and national parks

Sample: 325

as indigenous territories continue to be destroyed by deforestation and ecocide , such as in the peruvian amazon indigenous peoples ' rainforest communities continue to disappear , while others , like the urarina continue to struggle to fight for their cultural survival and the fate of their forested territories . meanwhile , the relationship between non-human primates in the subsistence and symbolism of indigenous lowland south american peoples has gained increased attention , as have ethno-biology and community-based conservation efforts .
there is growing interest in what indigenous group in the amazon ?
lowland south american

Sample: 326

in terms of housing stock , the authority is one of few authorities to see the proportion of detached homes rise in the 2010 census ( to 7.8 % ) , in this instance this was coupled with a similar rise in flats and waterside apartments to 25.6 % , and the proportion of converted or shared houses in 2011 renders this dwelling type within the highest of the five colour-coded brackets at 5.9 % , and on a par with oxford and reading , greater than manchester and liverpool and below a handful of historic densely occupied , arguably overinflated markets in the local authorities : harrogate , cheltenham , bath , inner london , hastings , brighton and tunbridge wells .
harrogate market is in the local what ?
authorities

Sample: 327

for most of human history higher material living standards – full stomachs , access to clean water and warmth from fuel – led to better health and longer lives . this pattern of higher incomes-longer lives still holds among poorer countries , where life expectancy increases rapidly as per capita income increases , but in recent decades it has slowed down among middle income countries and plateaued among the richest thirty or so countries in the world . americans live no longer on average ( about 77 years in 2004 ) than greeks ( 78 years ) or new zealanders ( 78 ) , though the usa has a higher gdp per capita . life expectancy in sweden ( 80 years ) and japan ( 82 ) – where income was more equally distributed – was longer .
how are incomes distributed in sweden ?
more equally

Sample: 328

in the fall of 1937 , after midnight one night , tesla left the hotel new yorker to make his regular commute to the cathedral and the library to feed the pigeons . while crossing a street a couple of blocks from the hotel , tesla was unable to dodge a moving taxicab and was thrown heavily to the ground . tesla 's back was severely wrenched and three of his ribs were broken in the accident ( the full extent of his injuries will never be known ; tesla refused to consult a doctor—an almost lifelong custom ) . tesla did n't raise any question as to who was at fault and refused medical aid , only asking to be taken to his hotel via cab . tesla was bedridden for some months and was unable to continue feeding pigeons from his window ; soon , they failed to come . in early 1938 , tesla was able to get up . he at once resumed the pigeon-feeding walks on a much more limited scale , but frequently had a messenger act for him .
when did the accident occur ?
the fall of 1937

Sample: 329

in its focus on the caliphate , the party takes a different view of muslim history than some other islamists such as muhammad qutb . ht sees islam 's pivotal turning point as occurring not with the death of ali , or one of the other four rightly guided caliphs in the 7th century , but with the abolition of the ottoman caliphate in 1924 . this is believed to have ended the true islamic system , something for which it blames " the disbelieving ( kafir ) colonial powers " working through turkish modernist mustafa kemal atatürk .
when did the four rightly guided caliphs die ?
7th century

Sample: 330

not only the work of british artists and craftspeople is on display , but also work produced by european artists that was purchased or commissioned by british patrons , as well as imports from asia , including porcelain , cloth and wallpaper . designers and artists whose work is on display in the galleries include gian lorenzo bernini , grinling gibbons , daniel marot , louis laguerre , antonio verrio , sir james thornhill , william kent , robert adam , josiah wedgwood , matthew boulton , canova , thomas chippendale , pugin , william morris . patrons who have influenced taste are also represented by works of art from their collections , these include : horace walpole ( a major influence on the gothic revival ) , william thomas beckford and thomas hope .
which italian that is credited with the creating the baroque style of sculpture is represented in the v & a 's british galleries ?
gian lorenzo bernini

Sample: 331

for the canadian broadcast , christopher eccleston recorded special video introductions for each episode ( including a trivia question as part of a viewer contest ) and excerpts from the doctor who confidential documentary were played over the closing credits ; for the broadcast of " the christmas invasion " on 26 december 2005 , billie piper recorded a special video introduction . cbc began airing series two on 9 october 2006 at 20:00 e/p ( 20:30 in newfoundland and labrador ) , shortly after that day 's cfl double header on thanksgiving in most of the country . [ citation needed ]
what holiday coincided with the first showing of series two ?
thanksgiving

Sample: 332

published comments on kenya 's capital fm website by liu guangyuan , china 's ambassador to kenya , at the time of president kenyatta 's 2013 trip to beijing , said , " chinese investment in kenya ... reached $ 474 million , representing kenya 's largest source of foreign direct investment , and ... bilateral trade ... reached $ 2.84 billion " in 2012 . kenyatta was " [ a ] ccompanied by 60 kenyan business people [ and hoped to ] ... gain support from china for a planned $ 2.5 billion railway from the southern kenyan port of mombasa to neighboring uganda , as well as a nearly $ 1.8 billion dam " , according to a statement from the president 's office also at the time of the trip . base titanium , a subsidiary of base resources of australia , shipped its first major consignment of minerals to china . about 25,000 tonnes of ilmenite was flagged off the kenyan coastal town of kilifi . the first shipment was expected to earn kenya about shs15 – shs20 billion in earnings . china has been causing environmental and social problems that include the recent suspension of the railway project .
what does china 's investment mean for kenya ?
kenya 's largest source of foreign direct investment

Sample: 333

the total number of seats in the parliament are allocated to parties proportionally to the number of votes received in the second vote of the ballot using the d'hondt method . for example , to determine who is awarded the first list seat , the number of list votes cast for each party is divided by one plus the number of seats the party won in the region ( at this point just constituency seats ) . the party with the highest quotient is awarded the seat , which is then added to its constituency seats in allocating the second seat . this is repeated iteratively until all available list seats are allocated .
what method is used for tallying votes in the second vote of the ballot ?
the d'hondt method

Sample: 334

tesla gained experience in telephony and electrical engineering before emigrating to the united states in 1884 to work for thomas edison in new york city . he soon struck out on his own with financial backers , setting up laboratories and companies to develop a range of electrical devices . his patented ac induction motor and transformer were licensed by george westinghouse , who also hired tesla for a short time as a consultant . his work in the formative years of electric power development was involved in a corporate alternating current/direct current " war of currents " as well as various patent battles .
in what year did nikola tesla emigrate to the united states ?
1884

Sample: 335

jacksonville , like most large cities in the united states , suffered from negative effects of rapid urban sprawl after world war ii . the construction of highways led residents to move to newer housing in the suburbs . after world war ii , the government of the city of jacksonville began to increase spending to fund new public building projects in the boom that occurred after the war . mayor w. haydon burns ' jacksonville story resulted in the construction of a new city hall , civic auditorium , public library and other projects that created a dynamic sense of civic pride . however , the development of suburbs and a subsequent wave of middle class " white flight " left jacksonville with a much poorer population than before . the city 's most populous ethnic group , non-hispanic white , declined from 75.8 % in 1970 to 55.1 % by 2010 .
what term referred to middle class citizens leaving the suburbs ?
" white flight "

Sample: 336

the war of the austrian succession ( whose north american theater is known as king george 's war ) formally ended in 1748 with the signing of the treaty of aix-la-chapelle . the treaty was primarily focused on resolving issues in europe . the issues of conflicting territorial claims between british and french colonies in north america were turned over to a commission to resolve , but it reached no decision . frontiers from between nova scotia and acadia in the north , to the ohio country in the south , were claimed by both sides . the disputes also extended into the atlantic ocean , where both powers wanted access to the rich fisheries of the grand banks off newfoundland .
what was the end of the war of the austrian succession ?
1748 with the signing of the treaty of aix-la-chapelle

Sample: 337

following a referendum in 1997 , in which the scottish electorate voted for devolution , the current parliament was convened by the scotland act 1998 , which sets out its powers as a devolved legislature . the act delineates the legislative competence of the parliament – the areas in which it can make laws – by explicitly specifying powers that are " reserved " to the parliament of the united kingdom . the scottish parliament has the power to legislate in all areas that are not explicitly reserved to westminster . the british parliament retains the ability to amend the terms of reference of the scottish parliament , and can extend or reduce the areas in which it can make laws . the first meeting of the new parliament took place on 12 may 1999 .
what act set out the parliament 's powers as a devolved legislature ?
scotland act 1998

Sample: 338

an important decision for civil disobedients is whether or not to plead guilty . there is much debate on this point , as some believe that it is a civil disobedient 's duty to submit to the punishment prescribed by law , while others believe that defending oneself in court will increase the possibility of changing the unjust law . it has also been argued that either choice is compatible with the spirit of civil disobedience . act-up 's civil disobedience training handbook states that a civil disobedient who pleads guilty is essentially stating , " yes , i committed the act of which you accuse me . i do n't deny it ; in fact , i am proud of it . i feel i did the right thing by violating this particular law ; i am guilty as charged , " but that pleading not guilty sends a message of , " guilt implies wrong-doing . i feel i have done no wrong . i may have violated some specific laws , but i am guilty of doing no wrong . i therefore plead not guilty . " a plea of no contest is sometimes regarded as a compromise between the two . one defendant accused of illegally protesting nuclear power , when asked to enter his plea , stated , " i plead for the beauty that surrounds us " ; this is known as a " creative plea , " and will usually be interpreted as a plea of not guilty .
which duty do some people believe civil disobedients have ?
submit to the punishment prescribed by law

Sample: 339

in 1882 , tesla began working for the continental edison company in france , designing and making improvements to electrical equipment . in june 1884 , he relocated to new york city:57–60 where he was hired by thomas edison to work at his edison machine works on manhattan 's lower east side . tesla 's work for edison began with simple electrical engineering and quickly progressed to solving more difficult problems .
who hired tesla in new york ?
thomas edison

Sample: 340

when a person ’ s capabilities are lowered , they are in some way deprived of earning as much income as they would otherwise . an old , ill man can not earn as much as a healthy young man ; gender roles and customs may prevent a woman from receiving an education or working outside the home . there may be an epidemic that causes widespread panic , or there could be rampant violence in the area that prevents people from going to work for fear of their lives . as a result , income and economic inequality increases , and it becomes more difficult to reduce the gap without additional aid . to prevent such inequality , this approach believes it ’ s important to have political freedom , economic facilities , social opportunities , transparency guarantees , and protective security to ensure that people aren ’ t denied their functionings , capabilities , and agency and can thus work towards a better relevant income .
why would rampant violence prevent people from going to work ?
for fear of their lives

Sample: 341

in the united kingdom and several other commonwealth countries including australia and canada , the use of the term is generally restricted to primary and secondary educational levels ; it is almost never used of universities and other tertiary institutions . private education in north america covers the whole gamut of educational activity , ranging from pre-school to tertiary level institutions . annual tuition fees at k-12 schools range from nothing at so called 'tuition-free ' schools to more than $ 45,000 at several new england preparatory schools .
what region does use the term 'private schools ' to refer to universities ?
north america

Sample: 342

luther was the most widely read author of his generation , and within germany he acquired the status of a prophet . according to the prevailing view among historians , his anti-jewish rhetoric contributed significantly to the development of antisemitism in germany , and in the 1930s and 1940s provided an " ideal underpinning " for the nazis ' attacks on jews . reinhold lewin writes that anybody who " wrote against the jews for whatever reason believed he had the right to justify himself by triumphantly referring to luther . " according to michael , just about every anti-jewish book printed in the third reich contained references to and quotations from luther . heinrich himmler wrote admiringly of his writings and sermons on the jews in 1940 . the city of nuremberg presented a first edition of on the jews and their lies to julius streicher , editor of the nazi newspaper der stürmer , on his birthday in 1937 ; the newspaper described it as the most radically anti-semitic tract ever published . it was publicly exhibited in a glass case at the nuremberg rallies and quoted in a 54-page explanation of the aryan law by dr. e.h. schulz and dr. r. frercks .
who was the most widely read writer of his generation ?
luther

Sample: 343

building construction is the process of adding structure to real property or construction of buildings . the majority of building construction jobs are small renovations , such as addition of a room , or renovation of a bathroom . often , the owner of the property acts as laborer , paymaster , and design team for the entire project . although building construction projects typically include various common elements , such as design , financial , estimating and legal considerations , many projects of varying sizes reach undesirable end results , such as structural collapse , cost overruns , and/or litigation . for this reason , those with experience in the field make detailed plans and maintain careful oversight during the project to ensure a positive outcome .
what do those in the field do to ensure a positive outcome ?
make detailed plans and maintain careful oversight

Sample: 344

the panthers defense gave up just 308 points , ranking sixth in the league , while also leading the nfl in interceptions with 24 and boasting four pro bowl selections . pro bowl defensive tackle kawann short led the team in sacks with 11 , while also forcing three fumbles and recovering two . fellow lineman mario addison added 6½ sacks . the panthers line also featured veteran defensive end jared allen , a 5-time pro bowler who was the nfl 's active career sack leader with 136 , along with defensive end kony ealy , who had 5 sacks in just 9 starts . behind them , two of the panthers three starting linebackers were also selected to play in the pro bowl : thomas davis and luke kuechly . davis compiled 5½ sacks , four forced fumbles , and four interceptions , while kuechly led the team in tackles ( 118 ) forced two fumbles , and intercepted four passes of his own . carolina 's secondary featured pro bowl safety kurt coleman , who led the team with a career high seven interceptions , while also racking up 88 tackles and pro bowl cornerback josh norman , who developed into a shutdown corner during the season and had four interceptions , two of which were returned for touchdowns .
how many tackles did luke kuechly register ?
118

Sample: 345

the first european to travel the length of the amazon river was francisco de orellana in 1542 . the bbc 's unnatural histories presents evidence that orellana , rather than exaggerating his claims as previously thought , was correct in his observations that a complex civilization was flourishing along the amazon in the 1540s . it is believed that the civilization was later devastated by the spread of diseases from europe , such as smallpox . since the 1970s , numerous geoglyphs have been discovered on deforested land dating between ad 0–1250 , furthering claims about pre-columbian civilizations . ondemar dias is accredited with first discovering the geoglyphs in 1977 and alceu ranzi with furthering their discovery after flying over acre . the bbc 's unnatural histories presented evidence that the amazon rainforest , rather than being a pristine wilderness , has been shaped by man for at least 11,000 years through practices such as forest gardening and terra preta .
for how many years was evidence shown that humans shaped the the amazon ?
11,000 years

Sample: 346

a few galleries were redesigned in the 1990s including the indian , japanese , chinese , iron work , the main glass galleries and the main silverware gallery which was further enhanced in 2002 when some of the victorian decoration was recreated . this included two of the ten columns having their ceramic decoration replaced and the elaborate painted designs restored on the ceiling . as part of the 2006 renovation the mosaic floors in the sculpture gallery were restored—most of the victorian floors were covered in linoleum after the second world war . after the success of the british galleries , opened in 2001 , it was decided to embark on a major redesign of all the galleries in the museum ; this is known as " futureplan " , and was created in consultation with the exhibition designers and masterplanners metaphor . the plan is expected to take about ten years and was started in 2002 . to date several galleries have been redesigned , notably , in 2002 : the main silver gallery , contemporary ; in 2003 : photography , the main entrance , the painting galleries ; in 2004 : the tunnel to the subway leading to south kensington tube station , new signage throughout the museum , architecture , v & a and riba reading rooms and stores , metalware , members ' room , contemporary glass , the gilbert bayes sculpture gallery ; in 2005 : portrait miniatures , prints and drawings , displays in room 117 , the garden , sacred silver and stained glass ; in 2006 : central hall shop , islamic middle east , the new café , sculpture galleries . several designers and architects have been involved in this work . eva jiřičná designed the enhancements to the main entrance and rotunda , the new shop , the tunnel and the sculpture galleries . gareth hoskins was responsible for contemporary and architecture , softroom , islamic middle east and the members ' room , mcinnes usher mcknight architects ( muma ) were responsible for the new cafe and designed the new medieval and renaissance galleries which opened in 2009 .
a subway tunnel from the museum leads to which tube station ?
south kensington

Sample: 347

the needs of soy farmers have been used to justify many of the controversial transportation projects that are currently developing in the amazon . the first two highways successfully opened up the rainforest and led to increased settlement and deforestation . the mean annual deforestation rate from 2000 to 2005 ( 22,392 km2 or 8,646 sq mi per year ) was 18 % higher than in the previous five years ( 19,018 km2 or 7,343 sq mi per year ) . although deforestation has declined significantly in the brazilian amazon between 2004 and 2014 , there has been an increase to the present day .
what happened to the rate of deforestation in the amazon region of brazil between 2004 and 2014 ?
deforestation has declined

Sample: 348

cyanobacteria are considered the ancestors of chloroplasts . they are sometimes called blue-green algae even though they are prokaryotes . they are a diverse phylum of bacteria capable of carrying out photosynthesis , and are gram-negative , meaning that they have two cell membranes . cyanobacteria also contain a peptidoglycan cell wall , which is thicker than in other gram-negative bacteria , and which is located between their two cell membranes . like chloroplasts , they have thylakoids within . on the thylakoid membranes are photosynthetic pigments , including chlorophyll a. phycobilins are also common cyanobacterial pigments , usually organized into hemispherical phycobilisomes attached to the outside of the thylakoid membranes ( phycobilins are not shared with all chloroplasts though ) .
what are chloroplasts descended from ?
cyanobacteria

Sample: 349

the alga cyanophora , a glaucophyte , is thought to be one of the first organisms to contain a chloroplast . the glaucophyte chloroplast group is the smallest of the three primary chloroplast lineages , being found in only 13 species , and is thought to be the one that branched off the earliest . glaucophytes have chloroplasts that retain a peptidoglycan wall between their double membranes , like their cyanobacterial parent . for this reason , glaucophyte chloroplasts are also known as muroplasts . glaucophyte chloroplasts also contain concentric unstacked thylakoids , which surround a carboxysome - an icosahedral structure that glaucophyte chloroplasts and cyanobacteria keep their carbon fixation enzyme rubisco in . the starch that they synthesize collects outside the chloroplast . like cyanobacteria , glaucophyte chloroplast thylakoids are studded with light collecting structures called phycobilisomes . for these reasons , glaucophyte chloroplasts are considered a primitive intermediate between cyanobacteria and the more evolved chloroplasts in red algae and plants .
what do concentric unstacked thylakoids surround ?
a carboxysome

Sample: 350

what we now call gravity was not identified as a universal force until the work of isaac newton . before newton , the tendency for objects to fall towards the earth was not understood to be related to the motions of celestial objects . galileo was instrumental in describing the characteristics of falling objects by determining that the acceleration of every object in free-fall was constant and independent of the mass of the object . today , this acceleration due to gravity towards the surface of the earth is usually designated as and has a magnitude of about 9.81 meters per second squared ( this measurement is taken from sea level and may vary depending on location ) , and points toward the center of the earth . this observation means that the force of gravity on an object at the earth 's surface is directly proportional to the object 's mass . thus an object that has a mass of will experience a force :
what is an object 's mass proportional to at the surface of the earth ?
force of gravity

Sample: 351

however , his religious views remain uncertain due to other statements that he made . for example , in his article , " a machine to end war " , published in 1937 , tesla stated :
what article was published in 1937 ?
" a machine to end war "

Sample: 352

kenya has proven deposits of oil in turkana and the commercial viability was just discovered . tullow oil estimates kenya 's oil reserves to be around 10 billion barrels . exploration is still continuing to determine if there are more reserves . kenya currently imports all crude petroleum requirements . kenya , east africa 's largest economy , has no strategic reserves and relies solely on oil marketers ' 21-day oil reserves required under industry regulations . petroleum accounts for 20 % to 25 % of the national import bill .
where does kenya have deposits of oil ?
in turkana

Sample: 353

a steam turbine consists of one or more rotors ( rotating discs ) mounted on a drive shaft , alternating with a series of stators ( static discs ) fixed to the turbine casing . the rotors have a propeller-like arrangement of blades at the outer edge . steam acts upon these blades , producing rotary motion . the stator consists of a similar , but fixed , series of blades that serve to redirect the steam flow onto the next rotor stage . a steam turbine often exhausts into a surface condenser that provides a vacuum . the stages of a steam turbine are typically arranged to extract the maximum potential work from a specific velocity and pressure of steam , giving rise to a series of variably sized high- and low-pressure stages . turbines are only efficient if they rotate at relatively high speed , therefore they are usually connected to reduction gearing to drive lower speed applications , such as a ship 's propeller . in the vast majority of large electric generating stations , turbines are directly connected to generators with no reduction gearing . typical speeds are 3600 revolutions per minute ( rpm ) in the usa with 60 hertz power , 3000 rpm in europe and other countries with 50 hertz electric power systems . in nuclear power applications the turbines typically run at half these speeds , 1800 rpm and 1500 rpm . a turbine rotor is also only capable of providing power when rotating in one direction . therefore , a reversing stage or gearbox is usually required where power is required in the opposite direction . [ citation needed ]
what is another way of referring to stators ?
static discs

Sample: 354

there are over 10,000 objects made from silver or gold in the collection , the display ( about 15 % of the collection ) is divided into secular and sacred covering both christian ( roman catholic , anglican and greek orthodox ) and jewish liturgical vessels and items . the main silver gallery is divided into these areas : british silver pre-1800 ; british silver 1800 to 1900 ; modernist to contemporary silver ; european silver . the collection includes the earliest known piece of english silver with a dated hallmark , a silver gilt beaker dated 1496–97 . silversmiths ' whose work is represented in the collection include paul de lamerie and paul storr whose castlereagh inkstand dated 1817–19 is one of his finest works . the main iron work gallery covers european wrought and cast iron from the mediaeval period to the early 20th century . the master of wrought ironwork jean tijou is represented by both examples of his work and designs on paper . one of the largest items is the hereford screen , weighing nearly 8 tonnes , 10.5 metres high and 11 metres wide , designed by sir george gilbert scott in 1862 for the chancel in hereford cathedral , from which it was removed in 1967 . it was made by skidmore & company . its structure of timber and cast iron is embellished with wrought iron , burnished brass and copper . much of the copper and ironwork is painted in a wide range of colours . the arches and columns are decorated with polished quartz and panels of mosaic .
to which year is the earliest known piece of english silver with a dated hallmark is dated ?
1496–97

Sample: 355

cultural imperialism is when a country 's influence is felt in social and cultural circles , i.e . its soft power , such that it changes the moral , cultural and societal worldview of another . this is more than just " foreign " music , television or film becoming popular with young people , but that popular culture changing their own expectations of life and their desire for their own country to become more like the foreign country depicted . for example , depictions of opulent american lifestyles in the soap opera dallas during the cold war changed the expectations of romanians ; a more recent example is the influence of smuggled south korean drama series in north korea . the importance of soft power is not lost on authoritarian regimes , fighting such influence with bans on foreign popular culture , control of the internet and unauthorised satellite dishes etc . nor is such a usage of culture recent , as part of roman imperialism local elites would be exposed to the benefits and luxuries of roman culture and lifestyle , with the aim that they would then become willing participants .
when imperialism impacts social norms of a state , what is it called ?
cultural imperialism

Sample: 356

many han chinese and khitan defected to the mongols to fight against the jin . two han chinese leaders , shi tianze , liu heima ( 劉黑馬 , liu ni ) , and the khitan xiao zhala ( 蕭札剌 ) defected and commanded the 3 tumens in the mongol army . liu heima and shi tianze served ogödei khan . liu heima and shi tianxiang led armies against western xia for the mongols . there were 4 han tumens and 3 khitan tumens , with each tumen consisting of 10,000 troops . the three khitan generals shimobeidier ( 石抹孛迭兒 ) , tabuyir ( 塔不已兒 ) and xiaozhacizhizizhongxi ( 蕭札刺之子重喜 ) commanded the three khitan tumens and the four han generals zhang rou , yan shi , shi tianze , and liu heima commanded the four han tumens under ogödei khan .
who did the han chinese want to help the mongols fight ?
the jin

Sample: 357

the collection of italian , medieval , renaissance , baroque and neoclassical sculpture ( both original and in cast form ) is unequalled outside of italy . it includes canova 's the three graces , which the museum jointly owns with national galleries of scotland . italian sculptors whose work is held by the museum include : bartolomeo bon , bartolomeo bellano , luca della robbia , giovanni pisano , donatello , agostino di duccio , andrea riccio , antonio rossellino , andrea del verrocchio , antonio lombardo , pier jacopo alari bonacolsi , andrea della robbia , michelozzo di bartolomeo , michelangelo ( represented by a freehand wax model and casts of his most famous sculptures ) , jacopo sansovino , alessandro algardi , antonio calcagni , benvenuto cellini ( medusa 's head dated c. 1547 ) , agostino busti , bartolomeo ammannati , giacomo della porta , giambologna ( samson slaying a philistine ( giambologna ) c. 1562 , his finest work outside italy ) , bernini ( neptune and triton c. 1622–3 ) , giovanni battista foggini , vincenzo foggini ( samson and the philistines ) , massimiliano soldani benzi , antonio corradini , andrea brustolon , giovanni battista piranesi , innocenzo spinazzi , canova , carlo marochetti and raffaelle monti . an unusual sculpture is the ancient roman statue of narcissus restored by valerio cioli c1564 with plaster . there are several small scale bronzes by donatello , alessandro vittoria , tiziano aspetti and francesco fanelli in the collection . the largest item from italy is the chancel chapel from santa chiara florence dated 1493–1500 , designed by giuliano da sangallo it is 11.1 metres in height by 5.4 metres square , it includes a grand sculpted tabernacle by antonio rossellino and coloured terracotta decoration .
who designed the largest item from italy that is part of the v & a sculpture collection ?
giuliano da sangallo

Sample: 358

in the late 17th century , robert boyle proved that air is necessary for combustion . english chemist john mayow ( 1641–1679 ) refined this work by showing that fire requires only a part of air that he called spiritus nitroaereus or just nitroaereus . in one experiment he found that placing either a mouse or a lit candle in a closed container over water caused the water to rise and replace one-fourteenth of the air 's volume before extinguishing the subjects . from this he surmised that nitroaereus is consumed in both respiration and combustion .
what english chemist showed that fire only needed nitoaereus ?
john mayow

Sample: 359

the european commission is the main executive body of the european union . article 17 ( 1 ) of the treaty on european union states the commission should " promote the general interest of the union " while article 17 ( 3 ) adds that commissioners should be " completely independent " and not " take instructions from any government " . under article 17 ( 2 ) , " union legislative acts may only be adopted on the basis of a commission proposal , except where the treaties provide otherwise . " this means that the commission has a monopoly on initiating the legislative procedure , although the council is the " de facto catalyst of many legislative initiatives " . the parliament can also formally request the commission to submit a legislative proposal but the commission can reject such a suggestion , giving reasons . the commission 's president ( currently an ex-luxembourg prime minister , jean-claude juncker ) sets the agenda for the eu 's work . decisions are taken by a simple majority vote , usually through a " written procedure " of circulating the proposals and adopting if there are no objections . [ citation needed ] since ireland refused to consent to changes in the treaty of lisbon 2007 , there remains one commissioner for each of the 28 member states , including the president and the high representative for foreign and security policy ( currently federica mogherini ) . the commissioners ( and most importantly , the portfolios they will hold ) are bargained over intensively by the member states . the commissioners , as a block , are then subject to a qualified majority vote of the council to approve , and majority approval of the parliament . the proposal to make the commissioners be drawn from the elected parliament , was not adopted in the treaty of lisbon . this means commissioners are , through the appointment process , the unelected subordinates of member state governments .
which country refused to content to changes in the treaty of lisbon 2007 ?
ireland

Sample: 360

for the salary year beginning april 2008 , unpromoted teachers in scotland earned from £20,427 for a probationer , up to £32,583 after 6 years teaching , but could then go on to earn up to £39,942 as they complete the modules to earn chartered teacher status ( requiring at least 6 years at up to two modules per year . ) promotion to principal teacher positions attracts a salary of between £34,566 and £44,616 ; deputy head , and head teachers earn from £40,290 to £78,642 . teachers in scotland can be registered members of trade unions with the main ones being the educational institute of scotland and the scottish secondary teachers ' association .
what would a probationer need to do to earn more money , after 6 years ?
earn chartered teacher status

Sample: 361

the french wars of religion in the 16th century and french revolution in the 18th successively destroyed much of what existed in the way of the architectural and artistic remnant of this norman creativity . the former , with their violence , caused the wanton destruction of many norman edifices ; the latter , with its assault on religion , caused the purposeful destruction of religious objects of any type , and its destabilisation of society resulted in rampant pillaging .
when were the french wars of religion ?
16th century

Sample: 362

in addition to the general assembly hall , the parliament also used buildings rented from the city of edinburgh council . the former administrative building of lothian regional council on george iv bridge was used for the msp 's offices . following the move to holyrood in 2004 this building was demolished . the former midlothian county buildings facing parliament square , high street and george iv bridge in edinburgh ( originally built as the headquarters of the pre-1975 midlothian county council ) housed the parliament 's visitors ' centre and shop , whilst the main hall was used as the parliament 's principal committee room .
what happened to the building on george iv bridge when the parliament was done with it ?
demolished

Sample: 363

tesla noted the hazards of working with his circuit and single-node x-ray-producing devices . in his many notes on the early investigation of this phenomenon , he attributed the skin damage to various causes . he believed early on that damage to the skin was not caused by the roentgen rays , but by the ozone generated in contact with the skin , and to a lesser extent , by nitrous acid . tesla incorrectly believed that x-rays were longitudinal waves , such as those produced in waves in plasmas . these plasma waves can occur in force-free magnetic fields .
what did tesla think nitrous acid contributed to ?
skin damage

Sample: 364

the rhine-meuse delta , the most important natural region of the netherlands begins near millingen aan de rijn , close to the dutch-german border with the division of the rhine into waal and nederrijn . since the rhine contributes most of the water , the shorter term rhine delta is commonly used . however , this name is also used for the river delta where the rhine flows into lake constance , so it is clearer to call the larger one rhine-meuse delta , or even rhine–meuse–scheldt delta , as the scheldt ends in the same delta .
where does the delta in the netherlands begin ?
millingen aan de rijn ,

Sample: 365

the lunar module ( lm ) was designed to descend from lunar orbit to land two astronauts on the moon and take them back to orbit to rendezvous with the command module . not designed to fly through the earth 's atmosphere or return to earth , its fuselage was designed totally without aerodynamic considerations , and was of an extremely lightweight construction . it consisted of separate descent and ascent stages , each with its own engine . the descent stage contained storage for the descent propellant , surface stay consumables , and surface exploration equipment . the ascent stage contained the crew cabin , ascent propellant , and a reaction control system . the initial lm model weighed approximately 33,300 pounds ( 15,100 kg ) , and allowed surface stays up to around 34 hours . an extended lunar module weighed over 36,200 pounds ( 16,400 kg ) , and allowed surface stays of over 3 days .
how many astronauts was the lm intended to take from orbit of the moon to the surface of the moon ?
two

Sample: 366

although the famous mughal emperors were proud descendants of genghis khan and particularly timur , they clearly distanced themselves from the mongol atrocities committed against the khwarizim shahs , turks , persians , the citizens of baghdad and damascus , nishapur , bukhara and historical figures such as attar of nishapur and many other notable muslims . however , mughal emperors directly patronized the legacies of genghis khan and timur ; together their names were synonymous with the names of other distinguished personalities particularly among the muslim populations of south asia .
from where was the muslim historical figure attar , whose murder by the mongols was long remembered ?
nishapur

Sample: 367

newcastle replaced him in january 1756 with lord loudoun , with major general james abercrombie as his second in command . neither of these men had as much campaign experience as the trio of officers france sent to north america . french regular army reinforcements arrived in new france in may 1756 , led by major general louis-joseph de montcalm and seconded by the chevalier de lévis and colonel françois-charles de bourlamaque , all experienced veterans from the war of the austrian succession . during that time in europe , on may 18 , 1756 , england formally declared war on france , which expanded the war into europe , which was later to be known as the seven years ' war .
when did england formally declare war on france ?
may 18 , 1756

Sample: 368

during the mid-eocene , it is believed that the drainage basin of the amazon was split along the middle of the continent by the purus arch . water on the eastern side flowed toward the atlantic , while to the west water flowed toward the pacific across the amazonas basin . as the andes mountains rose , however , a large basin was created that enclosed a lake ; now known as the solimões basin . within the last 5–10 million years , this accumulating water broke through the purus arch , joining the easterly flow toward the atlantic .
where did water to the east of the amazon drainage basin flow towards ?
the atlantic

Sample: 369

the first huguenots to leave france sought freedom from persecution in switzerland and the netherlands . [ citation needed ] a group of huguenots was part of the french colonisers who arrived in brazil in 1555 to found france antarctique . a couple of ships with around 500 people arrived at the guanabara bay , present-day rio de janeiro , and settled in a small island . a fort , named fort coligny , was built to protect them from attack from the portuguese troops and brazilian native americans . it was an attempt to establish a french colony in south america . the fort was destroyed in 1560 by the portuguese , who captured part of the huguenots . the portuguese threatened the prisoners with death if they did not convert to catholicism . the huguenots of guanabara , as they are now known , produced a declaration of faith to express their beliefs to the portuguese . this was their death sentence . this document , the guanabara confession of faith , became the first protestant confession of faith in the whole of the americas . [ citation needed ]
what was the brazilian french colony called ?
france antarctique

Sample: 370

super bowl 50 was an american football game to determine the champion of the national football league ( nfl ) for the 2015 season . the american football conference ( afc ) champion denver broncos defeated the national football conference ( nfc ) champion carolina panthers 24–10 to earn their third super bowl title . the game was played on february 7 , 2016 , at levi 's stadium in the san francisco bay area at santa clara , california . as this was the 50th super bowl , the league emphasized the " golden anniversary " with various gold-themed initiatives , as well as temporarily suspending the tradition of naming each super bowl game with roman numerals ( under which the game would have been known as " super bowl l " ) , so that the logo could prominently feature the arabic numerals 50 .
what was the theme of super bowl 50 ?
" golden anniversary "

Sample: 371

the integer factorization problem is the computational problem of determining the prime factorization of a given integer . phrased as a decision problem , it is the problem of deciding whether the input has a factor less than k. no efficient integer factorization algorithm is known , and this fact forms the basis of several modern cryptographic systems , such as the rsa algorithm . the integer factorization problem is in np and in co-np ( and even in up and co-up ) . if the problem is np-complete , the polynomial time hierarchy will collapse to its first level ( i.e. , np will equal co-np ) . the best known algorithm for integer factorization is the general number field sieve , which takes time o ( e ( 64/9 ) 1/3 ( n.log 2 ) 1/3 ( log ( n.log 2 ) ) 2/3 ) to factor an n-bit integer . however , the best known quantum algorithm for this problem , shor 's algorithm , does run in polynomial time . unfortunately , this fact does n't say much about where the problem lies with respect to non-quantum complexity classes .
what is the most well-known algorithm associated with the integer factorization problem ?
the general number field sieve

Sample: 372

there are hints in the surviving records of the ancient egyptians that they had some knowledge of prime numbers : the egyptian fraction expansions in the rhind papyrus , for instance , have quite different forms for primes and for composites . however , the earliest surviving records of the explicit study of prime numbers come from the ancient greeks . euclid 's elements ( circa 300 bc ) contain important theorems about primes , including the infinitude of primes and the fundamental theorem of arithmetic . euclid also showed how to construct a perfect number from a mersenne prime . the sieve of eratosthenes , attributed to eratosthenes , is a simple method to compute primes , although the large primes found today with computers are not generated this way .
what does the sieve of eratosthenes do ?
compute primes

Sample: 373

some forms of civil disobedience , such as illegal boycotts , refusals to pay taxes , draft dodging , distributed denial-of-service attacks , and sit-ins , make it more difficult for a system to function . in this way , they might be considered coercive . brownlee notes that " although civil disobedients are constrained in their use of coercion by their conscientious aim to engage in moral dialogue , nevertheless they may find it necessary to employ limited coercion in order to get their issue onto the table . " the plowshares organization temporarily closed gcsb waihopai by padlocking the gates and using sickles to deflate one of the large domes covering two satellite dishes .
what goal do many of these protests have ?
engage in moral dialogue

Sample: 374

the v & a holds over 19,000 items from the islamic world , ranging from the early islamic period ( the 7th century ) to the early 20th century . the jameel gallery of islamic art , opened in 2006 , houses a representative display of 400 objects with the highlight being the ardabil carpet , the centrepiece of the gallery . the displays in this gallery cover objects from spain , north africa , the middle east , central asia and afghanistan . a masterpiece of islamic art is a 10th-century rock crystal ewer . many examples of qur'āns with exquisite calligraphy dating from various periods are on display . a 15th-century minbar from a cairo mosque with ivory forming complex geometrical patterns inlaid in wood is one of the larger objects on display . extensive examples of ceramics especially iznik pottery , glasswork including 14th-century lamps from mosques and metalwork are on display . the collection of middle eastern and persian rugs and carpets is amongst the finest in the world , many were part of the salting bequest of 1909 . examples of tile work from various buildings including a fireplace dated 1731 from istanbul made of intricately decorated blue and white tiles and turquoise tiles from the exterior of buildings from samarkand are also displayed .
approximately how many items from the islamic world are held in the v & a collection ?
over 19,000

Sample: 375

in the fall of 1949 , abc found itself in the position of an outsider , with less coverage than two of its competing networks , cbs and nbc , even though it was on par with them in some major cities and had a headstart over its third rival at the time , the dumont television network . before the freeze ended in 1952 , there were only 108 existing television stations in the united states ; a few major cities ( such as boston ) had only two television stations , many other cities ( such as pittsburgh and st. louis ) had only one , and still many others ( such as denver and portland ) did not yet have any television service . the result was a strange period where television flourished in certain areas and network radio remained the main source of broadcast entertainment and news in others .
who was abc 's third major rival in 1949 ?
dumont television network

Sample: 376

two block i csms were launched from lc-34 on suborbital flights in 1966 with the saturn ib . the first , as-201 launched on february 26 , reached an altitude of 265.7 nautical miles ( 492.1 km ) and splashed down 4,577 nautical miles ( 8,477 km ) downrange in the atlantic ocean . the second , as-202 on august 25 , reached 617.1 nautical miles ( 1,142.9 km ) altitude and was recovered 13,900 nautical miles ( 25,700 km ) downrange in the pacific ocean . these flights validated the service module engine and the command module heat shield .
how high in miles did the first block , as-201 , reach when launched ?
265.7 nautical miles

Sample: 377

the academic bodies of the university of chicago consist of the college , four divisions of graduate research and seven professional schools . the university also contains a library system , the university of chicago press , the university of chicago laboratory schools , and the university of chicago medical center , and holds ties with a number of independent academic institutions , including fermilab , argonne national laboratory , and the marine biological laboratory . the university is accredited by the higher learning commission .
the academic body of the university is made up of how many professional schools ?
seven

Sample: 378

for example , consider the deterministic sorting algorithm quicksort . this solves the problem of sorting a list of integers that is given as the input . the worst-case is when the input is sorted or sorted in reverse order , and the algorithm takes time o ( n2 ) for this case . if we assume that all possible permutations of the input list are equally likely , the average time taken for sorting is o ( n log n ) . the best case occurs when each pivoting divides the list in half , also needing o ( n log n ) time .
what provides a solution to a list of integers provided as input that ned to be sorted ?
deterministic sorting algorithm quicksort

Sample: 379

the v & a has its origins in the great exhibition of 1851 , with which henry cole , the museum 's first director , was involved in planning ; initially it was known as the museum of manufactures , first opening in may 1852 at marlborough house , but by september had been transferred to somerset house . at this stage the collections covered both applied art and science . several of the exhibits from the exhibition were purchased to form the nucleus of the collection . by february 1854 discussions were underway to transfer the museum to the current site and it was renamed south kensington museum . in 1855 the german architect gottfried semper , at the request of cole , produced a design for the museum , but it was rejected by the board of trade as too expensive . the site was occupied by brompton park house ; this was extended including the first refreshment rooms opened in 1857 , the museum being the first in the world to provide such a facility .
what was the museum originally called ?
museum of manufactures

Sample: 380

during the mass high school education movement from 1910–1940 , there was an increase in skilled workers , which led to a decrease in the price of skilled labor . high school education during the period was designed to equip students with necessary skill sets to be able to perform at work . in fact , it differs from the present high school education , which is regarded as a stepping-stone to acquire college and advanced degrees . this decrease in wages caused a period of compression and decreased inequality between skilled and unskilled workers . education is very important for the growth of the economy , however educational inequality in gender also influence towards the economy . lagerlof and galor stated that gender inequality in education can result to low economic growth , and continued gender inequality in education , thus creating a poverty trap . it is suggested that a large gap in male and female education may indicate backwardness and so may be associated with lower economic growth , which can explain why there is economic inequality between countries .
when was the mass high school education movement ?
from 1910–1940

Sample: 381

while acknowledging the central role economic growth can potentially play in human development , poverty reduction and the achievement of the millennium development goals , it is becoming widely understood amongst the development community that special efforts must be made to ensure poorer sections of society are able to participate in economic growth . the effect of economic growth on poverty reduction – the growth elasticity of poverty – can depend on the existing level of inequality . for instance , with low inequality a country with a growth rate of 2 % per head and 40 % of its population living in poverty , can halve poverty in ten years , but a country with high inequality would take nearly 60 years to achieve the same reduction . in the words of the secretary general of the united nations ban ki-moon : " while economic growth is necessary , it is not sufficient for progress on reducing poverty . "
what was ban ki-moon the secretary general of ?
the united nations

Sample: 382

manning finished the year with a career-low 67.9 passer rating , throwing for 2,249 yards and nine touchdowns , with 17 interceptions . in contrast , osweiler threw for 1,967 yards , 10 touchdowns and six interceptions for a rating of 86.4 . veteran receiver demaryius thomas led the team with 105 receptions for 1,304 yards and six touchdowns , while emmanuel sanders caught 76 passes for 1,135 yards and six scores , while adding another 106 yards returning punts . tight end owen daniels was also a big element of the passing game with 46 receptions for 517 yards . running back c. j. anderson was the team 's leading rusher 863 yards and seven touchdowns , while also catching 25 passes for 183 yards . running back ronnie hillman also made a big impact with 720 yards , five touchdowns , 24 receptions , and a 4.7 yards per carry average . overall , the offense ranked 19th in scoring with 355 points and did not have any pro bowl selections .
how may yards did peyton manning throw ?
2,249

Sample: 383

a 2000 study found that 42 % of uk teachers experienced occupational stress , twice the figure for the average profession . a 2012 study found that teachers experienced double the rate of anxiety , depression , and stress than average workers .
how many teachers were found to have felt occupational stress in a 2000 study ?
42 %

Sample: 384

since teachers can affect how students perceive the course materials , it has been found that teachers who showed enthusiasm towards the course materials and students can affect a positive learning experience towards the course materials . on teacher/course evaluations , it was found that teachers who have a positive disposition towards the course content tend to transfer their passion to receptive students . these teachers do not teach by rote but attempt to find new invigoration for the course materials on a daily basis . one of the difficulties in this approach is that teachers may have repeatedly covered a curriculum until they begin to feel bored with the subject which in turn bores the students as well . students who had enthusiastic teachers tend to rate them higher than teachers who did n't show much enthusiasm for the course materials .
what must a teacher show towards the course materials for increase learning ?
enthusiasm

Sample: 385

concerns were raised over whether levi 's stadium 's field was of a high enough quality to host a super bowl ; during the inaugural season , the field had to be re-sodded multiple times due to various issues , and during a week 6 game earlier in the 2015 season , a portion of the turf collapsed under baltimore ravens kicker justin tucker , causing him to slip and miss a field goal , although the field has not had any major issues since . as is customary for super bowl games played at natural grass stadiums , the nfl re-sodded the field with a new playing surface ; a hybrid bermuda 419 turf . nfl and atlanta braves field director ed mangan stated that the field was in " great shape " for gameday . however , the turf showed problem throughout the game , with a number of players needing to change their cleats during the game and player slipping during plays all throughout the game .
which player did the turf collapse under during a game in the levi 's stadium ?
justin tucker

Sample: 386

in the summer of 1521 , luther widened his target from individual pieties like indulgences and pilgrimages to doctrines at the heart of church practices . in on the abrogation of the private mass , he condemned as idolatry the idea that the mass is a sacrifice , asserting instead that it is a gift , to be received with thanksgiving by the whole congregation . his essay on confession , whether the pope has the power to require it rejected compulsory confession and encouraged private confession and absolution , since " every christian is a confessor . " in november , luther wrote the judgement of martin luther on monastic vows . he assured monks and nuns that they could break their vows without sin , because vows were an illegitimate and vain attempt to win salvation .
when did luther broaden his attacks to include core church doctrines ?
summer of 1521

Sample: 387

the length of the rhine is conventionally measured in " rhine-kilometers " ( rheinkilometer ) , a scale introduced in 1939 which runs from the old rhine bridge at constance ( 0 km ) to hoek van holland ( 1036.20 km ) . the river length is significantly shortened from the river 's natural course due to number of canalisation projects completed in the 19th and 20th century . [ note 7 ] the " total length of the rhine " , to the inclusion of lake constance and the alpine rhine is more difficult to measure objectively ; it was cited as 1,232 kilometres ( 766 miles ) by the dutch rijkswaterstaat in 2010 . [ note 1 ]
when was the scale to measure the rhine introduced ?
1939

Sample: 388

after the death of tugh temür in 1332 and subsequent death of rinchinbal ( emperor ningzong ) the same year , the 13-year-old toghun temür ( emperor huizong ) , the last of the nine successors of kublai khan , was summoned back from guangxi and succeeded to the throne . after el temür 's death , bayan became as powerful an official as el temür had been in the beginning of his long reign . as toghun temür grew , he came to disapprove of bayan 's autocratic rule . in 1340 he allied himself with bayan 's nephew toqto'a , who was in discord with bayan , and banished bayan by coup . with the dismissal of bayan , toghtogha seized the power of the court . his first administration clearly exhibited fresh new spirit . he also gave a few early signs of a new and positive direction in central government . one of his successful projects was to finish the long-stalled official histories of the liao , jin , and song dynasties , which were eventually completed in 1345 . yet , toghtogha resigned his office with the approval of toghun temür , marking the end of his first administration , and he was not called back until 1349 .
when did tugh temur die ?
1332

Sample: 389

huguenot numbers peaked near an estimated two million by 1562 , concentrated mainly in the southern and central parts of france , about one-eighth the number of french catholics . as huguenots gained influence and more openly displayed their faith , catholic hostility grew , in spite of increasingly liberal political concessions and edicts of toleration from the french crown . a series of religious conflicts followed , known as the wars of religion , fought intermittently from 1562 to 1598 . the wars finally ended with the granting of the edict of nantes , which granted the huguenots substantial religious , political and military autonomy .
where was france 's huguenot population largely centered ?
the southern and central parts of france

Sample: 390

as a result , with the exception of the largest markets , abc was relegated to secondary status on one or both of the existing stations , usually via off-hours clearances ( a notable exception during this time was wkst-tv in youngstown , ohio , now wytv , despite the small size of the surrounding market and its close proximity to cleveland and pittsburgh even decades before the city 's economic collapse ) . according to goldenson , this meant that an hour of abc programming reported five times lower viewership than its competitors . however , the network 's intake of money at the time would allow it to accelerate its content production . still , abc 's limited reach would continue to hobble it for the next two decades ; several smaller markets would not grow large enough to support a full-time abc affiliate until the 1960s , with some very small markets having to wait as late as the 1980s or even the advent of digital television in the 2000s , which allowed stations like wtrf-tv in wheeling , west virginia to begin airing abc programming on a digital subchannel after airing the network 's programs outside of recommended timeslots decades before .
abc had secondary status on the existing stations in what ohio town ?
youngstown

Sample: 391

on 1 february 2007 , the eve of the publication of ipcc 's major report on climate , a study was published suggesting that temperatures and sea levels have been rising at or above the maximum rates proposed during the last ipcc report in 2001 . the study compared ipcc 2001 projections on temperature and sea level change with observations . over the six years studied , the actual temperature rise was near the top end of the range given by ipcc 's 2001 projection , and the actual sea level rise was above the top of the range of the ipcc projection .
how did the 2001 ipcc report compare to reality on temperature levels ?
actual temperature rise was near the top end of the range given

Sample: 392

in june 1978 , arledge created the newsmagazine 20/20 ; after its first episode received harshly negative reviews , the program – which debuted as a summer series , before becoming a year-round program in 1979 – was immediately revamped to feature a mix of in-depth stories and interviews , with hugh downs appointed as its anchor ( later paired alongside his former today colleague barbara walters ) . in february 1979 , abc sold its recording division to mca inc. for $ 20 million ; the label was discontinued by march 5 of that year , and all of its 300 employees were laid off ( the rights to the works of abc records and all of mca 's other labels have since been acquired by universal music group ) .
which female anchor from today joined hugh downs on 20/20 ?
barbara walters

Sample: 393

for instance , while traveling in a moving vehicle at a constant velocity , the laws of physics do not change from being at rest . a person can throw a ball straight up in the air and catch it as it falls down without worrying about applying a force in the direction the vehicle is moving . this is true even though another person who is observing the moving vehicle pass by also observes the ball follow a curving parabolic path in the same direction as the motion of the vehicle . it is the inertia of the ball associated with its constant velocity in the direction of the vehicle 's motion that ensures the ball continues to move forward even as it is thrown up and falls back down . from the perspective of the person in the car , the vehicle and everything inside of it is at rest : it is the outside world that is moving with a constant speed in the opposite direction . since there is no experiment that can distinguish whether it is the vehicle that is at rest or the outside world that is at rest , the two situations are considered to be physically indistinguishable . inertia therefore applies equally well to constant velocity motion as it does to rest .
what does n't change from being at rest to movement at a constant velocity ?
laws of physics

Sample: 394

colonel monckton , in the sole british success that year , captured fort beauséjour in june 1755 , cutting the french fortress at louisbourg off from land-based reinforcements . to cut vital supplies to louisbourg , nova scotia 's governor charles lawrence ordered the deportation of the french-speaking acadian population from the area . monckton 's forces , including companies of rogers ' rangers , forcibly removed thousands of acadians , chasing down many who resisted , and sometimes committing atrocities . more than any other factor , the cutting off of supplies to louisbourg led to its demise . the acadian resistance , in concert with native allies , including the mi'kmaq , was sometimes quite stiff , with ongoing frontier raids ( against dartmouth and lunenburg among others ) . other than the campaigns to expel the acadians ( ranging around the bay of fundy , on the petitcodiac and st. john rivers , and île saint-jean ) , the only clashes of any size were at petitcodiac in 1755 and at bloody creek near annapolis royal in 1757 .
how were british able to cut supplies to louisbourg ?
deportation of the french-speaking acadian population from the area .

Sample: 395

the broncos took an early lead in super bowl 50 and never trailed . newton was limited by denver 's defense , which sacked him seven times and forced him into three turnovers , including a fumble which they recovered for a touchdown . denver linebacker von miller was named super bowl mvp , recording five solo tackles , 2½ sacks , and two forced fumbles .
how many solo tackles did von miller make at super bowl 50 ?
five solo tackles

Sample: 396

luther was a prolific hymn-writer , authoring hymns such as " ein feste burg ist unser gott " ( " a mighty fortress is our god " ) , based on psalm 46 , and " vom himmel hoch , da komm ich her " ( " from heaven above to earth i come " ) , based on luke 2:11–12 . luther connected high art and folk music , also all classes , clergy and laity , men , women and children . his tool of choice for this connection was the singing of german hymns in connection with worship , school , home , and the public arena . he often accompanied the sung hymns with a lute , later recreated as the waldzither that became a national instrument of germany in the 20th century .
in what type of work was luther prolific ?
authoring hymns

Sample: 397

teachers in wales can be registered members of trade unions such as atl , nut or nasuwt and reports in recent years suggest that the average age of teachers in wales is falling with teachers being younger than in previous years . a growing cause of concern are that attacks on teachers in welsh schools which reached an all-time high between 2005 and 2010 .
what is happening to the average age of teachers in wales ?
falling

Sample: 398

the age of imperialism , a time period beginning around 1700 , saw ( generally european ) industrializing nations engaging in the process of colonizing , influencing , and annexing other parts of the world in order to gain political power . [ citation needed ] although imperialist practices have existed for thousands of years , the term " age of imperialism " generally refers to the activities of european powers from the early 18th century through to the middle of the 20th century , for example , the " the great game " in persian lands , the " scramble for africa " and the " open door policy " in china .
when did the age of imperialism begin ?
around 1700

Sample: 399

the rhine is the longest river in germany . it is here that the rhine encounters some more of its main tributaries , such as the neckar , the main and , later , the moselle , which contributes an average discharge of more than 300 m3/s ( 11,000 cu ft/s ) . northeastern france drains to the rhine via the moselle ; smaller rivers drain the vosges and jura mountains uplands . most of luxembourg and a very small part of belgium also drain to the rhine via the moselle . as it approaches the dutch border , the rhine has an annual mean discharge of 2,290 m3/s ( 81,000 cu ft/s ) and an average width of 400 m ( 1,300 ft ) .
how much does the rhine discharge at the dutch border ?
2,290 m3/s ( 81,000 cu ft/s )

Sample: 400

the alga cyanophora , a glaucophyte , is thought to be one of the first organisms to contain a chloroplast . the glaucophyte chloroplast group is the smallest of the three primary chloroplast lineages , being found in only 13 species , and is thought to be the one that branched off the earliest . glaucophytes have chloroplasts that retain a peptidoglycan wall between their double membranes , like their cyanobacterial parent . for this reason , glaucophyte chloroplasts are also known as muroplasts . glaucophyte chloroplasts also contain concentric unstacked thylakoids , which surround a carboxysome - an icosahedral structure that glaucophyte chloroplasts and cyanobacteria keep their carbon fixation enzyme rubisco in . the starch that they synthesize collects outside the chloroplast . like cyanobacteria , glaucophyte chloroplast thylakoids are studded with light collecting structures called phycobilisomes . for these reasons , glaucophyte chloroplasts are considered a primitive intermediate between cyanobacteria and the more evolved chloroplasts in red algae and plants .
what kind of structure is a carboxysome ?
icosahedral

Sample: 401

nikola tesla ( serbian cyrillic : никола тесла ; 10 july 1856 – 7 january 1943 ) was a serbian american inventor , electrical engineer , mechanical engineer , physicist , and futurist best known for his contributions to the design of the modern alternating current ( ac ) electricity supply system .
when was nikola tesla born ?
1856

Sample: 402

a few galleries were redesigned in the 1990s including the indian , japanese , chinese , iron work , the main glass galleries and the main silverware gallery which was further enhanced in 2002 when some of the victorian decoration was recreated . this included two of the ten columns having their ceramic decoration replaced and the elaborate painted designs restored on the ceiling . as part of the 2006 renovation the mosaic floors in the sculpture gallery were restored—most of the victorian floors were covered in linoleum after the second world war . after the success of the british galleries , opened in 2001 , it was decided to embark on a major redesign of all the galleries in the museum ; this is known as " futureplan " , and was created in consultation with the exhibition designers and masterplanners metaphor . the plan is expected to take about ten years and was started in 2002 . to date several galleries have been redesigned , notably , in 2002 : the main silver gallery , contemporary ; in 2003 : photography , the main entrance , the painting galleries ; in 2004 : the tunnel to the subway leading to south kensington tube station , new signage throughout the museum , architecture , v & a and riba reading rooms and stores , metalware , members ' room , contemporary glass , the gilbert bayes sculpture gallery ; in 2005 : portrait miniatures , prints and drawings , displays in room 117 , the garden , sacred silver and stained glass ; in 2006 : central hall shop , islamic middle east , the new café , sculpture galleries . several designers and architects have been involved in this work . eva jiřičná designed the enhancements to the main entrance and rotunda , the new shop , the tunnel and the sculpture galleries . gareth hoskins was responsible for contemporary and architecture , softroom , islamic middle east and the members ' room , mcinnes usher mcknight architects ( muma ) were responsible for the new cafe and designed the new medieval and renaissance galleries which opened in 2009 .
who designed the new medieval and renaissance galleries which opened in 2009 ?
mcinnes usher mcknight architects

Sample: 403

quickbooks sponsored a " small business big game " contest , in which death wish coffee had a 30-second commercial aired free of charge courtesy of quickbooks . death wish coffee beat out nine other contenders from across the united states for the free advertisement .
what company had a contest to win a free super bowl commercial ?
quickbooks .

Sample: 404

during reconstruction and the gilded age , jacksonville and nearby st. augustine became popular winter resorts for the rich and famous . visitors arrived by steamboat and later by railroad . president grover cleveland attended the sub-tropical exposition in the city on february 22 , 1888 during his trip to florida . this highlighted the visibility of the state as a worthy place for tourism . the city 's tourism , however , was dealt major blows in the late 19th century by yellow fever outbreaks . in addition , extension of the florida east coast railway further south drew visitors to other areas . from 1893 to 1938 jacksonville was the site of the florida old confederate soldiers and sailors home with a nearby cemetery .
other than the steamboat , what modern form of travel brought visitors to florida ?
railroad

Sample: 405

various gold-themed promotions and initiatives were held throughout the 2015 nfl season to tie into the " golden super bowl " ; gold-tinted logos were implemented across the nfl 's properties and painted on fields , the numbering of the 50-yard line on fields was colored gold , and beginning on week 7 , all sideline jackets and hats featured gold-trimmed logos . gold footballs were given to each high school that has had a player or coach appear in the super bowl , and " homecoming " events were also held by super bowl-winning teams at games .
because of the gold theme , what was super bowl 50 known as ?
golden super bowl

Sample: 406

in the autumn of 1991 , talks were held for the broadcast rights for premier league for a five-year period , from the 1992 season . itv were the current rights holders , and fought hard to retain the new rights . itv had increased its offer from £18m to £34m per year to keep control of the rights . bskyb joined forces with the bbc to make a counter bid . the bbc was given the highlights of most of the matches , while bskyb paying £304m for the premier league rights , would give them a monopoly of all live matches , up to 60 per year from the 1992 season . murdoch described sport as a " battering ram " for pay-television , providing a strong customer base . a few weeks after the deal , itv went to the high court to get an injunction as it believed their bid details had been leaked before the decision was taken . itv also asked the office of fair trading to investigate since it believed rupert murdoch 's media empire via its newspapers had influenced the deal . a few days later neither action took effect , itv believed bskyb was telephoned and informed of its £262m bid , and premier league advised bskyb to increase its counter bid .
when were the talks held for braodcast right to the primier league for a five year period from the 1992 season ?
1991

Sample: 407

after strengthening his government in northern china , kublai pursued an expansionist policy in line with the tradition of mongol and chinese imperialism . he renewed a massive drive against the song dynasty to the south . kublai besieged xiangyang between 1268 and 1273 , the last obstacle in his way to capture the rich yangzi river basin . an unsuccessful naval expedition was undertaken against japan in 1274 . kublai captured the song capital of hangzhou in 1276 , the wealthiest city of china . song loyalists escaped from the capital and enthroned a young child as emperor bing of song . the mongols defeated the loyalists at the battle of yamen in 1279 . the last song emperor drowned , bringing an end to the song dynasty . the conquest of the song reunited northern and southern china for the first time in three hundred years .
how did the final song emperor die ?
drowned

Sample: 408

also part of the library is the aforementioned selznick library , the cinerama productions/palomar theatrical library and the selmur productions catalog that the network acquired some years back , and the in-house productions it continues to produce ( such as america 's funniest home videos , general hospital , and abc news productions ) , although disney–abc domestic television ( formerly known as buena vista television ) handles domestic television distribution , while disney–abc international television ( formerly known as buena vista international television ) handles international television distribution .
what was disney-abc international television previously known as ?
buena vista international television

Sample: 409

almost all ctenophores are predators , taking prey ranging from microscopic larvae and rotifers to the adults of small crustaceans ; the exceptions are juveniles of two species , which live as parasites on the salps on which adults of their species feed . in favorable circumstances , ctenophores can eat ten times their own weight in a day . only 100–150 species have been validated , and possibly another 25 have not been fully described and named . the textbook examples are cydippids with egg-shaped bodies and a pair of retractable tentacles fringed with tentilla ( " little tentacles " ) that are covered with colloblasts , sticky cells that capture prey . the phylum has a wide range of body forms , including the flattened , deep-sea platyctenids , in which the adults of most species lack combs , and the coastal beroids , which lack tentacles and prey on other ctenophores by using huge mouths armed with groups of large , stiffened cilia that act as teeth . these variations enable different species to build huge populations in the same area , because they specialize in different types of prey , which they capture by as wide a range of methods as spiders use .
what do beriods use as teeth ?
groups of large , stiffened cilia

Sample: 410

during his time at his lab , tesla observed unusual signals from his receiver which he concluded may be communications from another planet . he mentioned them in a letter to reporter julian hawthorne at the philadelphia north american on 8 december 1899 and in a december 1900 letter about possible discoveries in the new century to the red cross society where he referred to messages " from another world " that read " 1 ... 2 ... 3 ... " . reporters treated it as a sensational story and jumped to the conclusion tesla was hearing signals from mars . he expanded on the signals he heard in a 9 february 1901 collier 's weekly article " talking with planets " where he said it had not been immediately apparent to him that he was hearing " intelligently controlled signals " and that the signals could come from mars , venus , or other planets . it has been hypothesized that he may have intercepted marconi 's european experiments in july 1899—marconi may have transmitted the letter s ( dot/dot/dot ) in a naval demonstration , the same three impulses that tesla hinted at hearing in colorado—or signals from another experimenter in wireless transmission .
what magazine did tesla talk to about the strange signals ?
collier 's weekly

Sample: 411

since the 2005 revival , the doctor generally travels with a primary female companion , who occupies a larger narrative role . steven moffat described the companion as the main character of the show , as the story begins anew with each companion and she undergoes more change than the doctor . the primary companions of the ninth and tenth doctors were rose tyler ( billie piper ) , martha jones ( freema agyeman ) , and donna noble ( catherine tate ) with mickey smith ( noel clarke ) and jack harkness ( john barrowman ) recurring as secondary companion figures . the eleventh doctor became the first to travel with a married couple , amy pond ( karen gillan ) and rory williams ( arthur darvill ) , whilst out-of-sync meetings with river song ( alex kingston ) and clara oswald ( jenna coleman ) provided ongoing story arcs . the tenth series will introduce pearl mackie as bill , the doctor 's newest traveling companion .
since 2005 , what is the gender of doctor who 's primary traveling companion ?
female

Sample: 412

even though some proofs of complexity-theoretic theorems regularly assume some concrete choice of input encoding , one tries to keep the discussion abstract enough to be independent of the choice of encoding . this can be achieved by ensuring that different representations can be transformed into each other efficiently .
what is the concrete choice typically assumed by most complexity-theoretic theorems ?
input encoding

Sample: 413

tesla was renowned for his achievements and showmanship , eventually earning him a reputation in popular culture as an archetypal " mad scientist " . his patents earned him a considerable amount of money , much of which was used to finance his own projects with varying degrees of success . :121,154 he lived most of his life in a series of new york hotels , through his retirement . tesla died on 7 january 1943 . his work fell into relative obscurity after his death , but in 1960 the general conference on weights and measures named the si unit of magnetic flux density the tesla in his honor . there has been a resurgence in popular interest in tesla since the 1990s .
how did tesla finance his work ?
patents

Sample: 414

on june 16 , 2007 , abc began to phase in a new imaging campaign for the upcoming 2007–08 season , " start here " . also developed by troika , the on-air design was intended to emphasize the availability of abc content across multiple platforms ( in particular , using a system of icons representing different devices , such as television , computers and mobile devices ) , and " simplify and bring a lot more consistency and continuity to the visual representation of abc " . the abc logo was also significantly redesigned as part of the transition , with a glossy " ball " effect that was specifically designed for hd . on-air , the logo was accompanied by animated water and ribbon effects . red ribbons were used to represent the entertainment division , while blue ribbons were used for abc news .
who developed the 2007 imaging campaign for abc ?
troika

Sample: 415

on the other hand , higher economic inequality tends to increase entrepreneurship rates at the individual level ( self-employment ) . however , most of it is often based on necessity rather than opportunity . necessity-based entrepreneurship is motivated by survival needs such as income for food and shelter ( " push " motivations ) , whereas opportunity-based entrepreneurship is driven by achievement-oriented motivations ( " pull " ) such as vocation and more likely to involve the pursue of new products , services , or underserved market needs . the economic impact of the former type of entrepreneurialism tends to be redistributive while the latter is expected to foster technological progress and thus have a more positive impact on economic growth .
survival needs such as income for food and shelter motivates what type of entrepreneurship ?
necessity-based

Sample: 416

renewed religious warfare in the 1620s caused the political and military privileges of the huguenots to be abolished following their defeat . they retained the religious provisions of the edict of nantes until the rule of louis xiv , who progressively increased persecution of them until he issued the edict of fontainebleau ( 1685 ) , which abolished all legal recognition of protestantism in france , and forced the huguenots to convert . while nearly three-quarters eventually were killed or submitted , roughly 500,000 huguenots had fled france by the early 18th century [ citation needed ] .
what proclamation abolished protestantism in france ?
edict of fontainebleau

Sample: 417

an apoplectic stroke deprived him of his speech , and he died shortly afterwards at 2:45 a.m. on 18 february 1546 , aged 62 , in eisleben , the city of his birth . he was buried in the castle church in wittenberg , beneath the pulpit . the funeral was held by his friends johannes bugenhagen and philipp melanchthon . a year later , troops of luther 's adversary charles v , holy roman emperor entered the town , but were ordered by charles not to disturb the grave .
who performed the funeral for martin luther ?
johannes bugenhagen and philipp melanchthon

Sample: 418

jacksonville is in the first coast region of northeast florida and is centered on the banks of the st. johns river , about 25 miles ( 40 km ) south of the georgia state line and about 340 miles ( 550 km ) north of miami . the jacksonville beaches communities are along the adjacent atlantic coast . the area was originally inhabited by the timucua people , and in 1564 was the site of the french colony of fort caroline , one of the earliest european settlements in what is now the continental united states . under british rule , settlement grew at the narrow point in the river where cattle crossed , known as wacca pilatka to the seminole and the cow ford to the british . a platted town was established there in 1822 , a year after the united states gained florida from spain ; it was named after andrew jackson , the first military governor of the florida territory and seventh president of the united states .
what historical figure was jacksonville named after ?
andrew jackson

Sample: 419

it is a common misconception to ascribe the stiffness and rigidity of solid matter to the repulsion of like charges under the influence of the electromagnetic force . however , these characteristics actually result from the pauli exclusion principle . [ citation needed ] since electrons are fermions , they can not occupy the same quantum mechanical state as other electrons . when the electrons in a material are densely packed together , there are not enough lower energy quantum mechanical states for them all , so some of them must be in higher energy states . this means that it takes energy to pack them together . while this effect is manifested macroscopically as a structural force , it is technically only the result of the existence of a finite set of electron states .
what actually causes rigidity in matter ?
the pauli exclusion principle

Sample: 420

tesla went on to pursue his ideas of wireless lighting and electricity distribution in his high-voltage , high-frequency power experiments in new york and colorado springs , and made early ( 1893 ) pronouncements on the possibility of wireless communication with his devices . he tried to put these ideas to practical use in an ill-fated attempt at intercontinental wireless transmission , his unfinished wardenclyffe tower project . in his lab he also conducted a range of experiments with mechanical oscillators/generators , electrical discharge tubes , and early x-ray imaging . he also built a wireless controlled boat , one of the first ever exhibited .
what remote control vehicle did he make ?
boat

Sample: 421

in 2014 , economists with the standard & poor 's rating agency concluded that the widening disparity between the u.s. 's wealthiest citizens and the rest of the nation had slowed its recovery from the 2008-2009 recession and made it more prone to boom-and-bust cycles . to partially remedy the wealth gap and the resulting slow growth , s & p recommended increasing access to education . it estimated that if the average united states worker had completed just one more year of school , it would add an additional $ 105 billion in growth to the country 's economy over five years .
when the recovery between the widening gap between the richest citizens and rest of the nation slow ?
2008-2009

Sample: 422

in the laboratory , stratigraphers analyze samples of stratigraphic sections that can be returned from the field , such as those from drill cores . stratigraphers also analyze data from geophysical surveys that show the locations of stratigraphic units in the subsurface . geophysical data and well logs can be combined to produce a better view of the subsurface , and stratigraphers often use computer programs to do this in three dimensions . stratigraphers can then use these data to reconstruct ancient processes occurring on the surface of the earth , interpret past environments , and locate areas for water , coal , and hydrocarbon extraction .
what can be combined with geophysical data to produce a better view of the subsurface ?
well logs

Sample: 423

legally , only non-profit trusts and societies can run schools in india . they will have to satisfy a number of infrastructure and human resource related criteria to get recognition ( a form of license ) from the government . critics of this system point out that this leads to corruption by school inspectors who check compliance and to fewer schools in a country that has the largest adult illiterate population in the world . while official data does not capture the real extent of private schooling in the country , various studies have reported unpopularity of government schools and an increasing number of private schools . the annual status of education report ( aser ) , which evaluates learning levels in rural india , has been reporting poorer academic achievement in government schools than in private schools . a key difference between the government and private schools is that the medium of education in private schools is english while it is the local language in government schools .
in private schools , what language are classes taught in ?
english

Sample: 424

around 1800 richard trevithick and , separately , oliver evans in 1801 introduced engines using high-pressure steam ; trevithick obtained his high-pressure engine patent in 1802 . these were much more powerful for a given cylinder size than previous engines and could be made small enough for transport applications . thereafter , technological developments and improvements in manufacturing techniques ( partly brought about by the adoption of the steam engine as a power source ) resulted in the design of more efficient engines that could be smaller , faster , or more powerful , depending on the intended application .
high pressure steam engines were small enough that they could be used in what application ?
transport

Sample: 425

for the canadian broadcast , christopher eccleston recorded special video introductions for each episode ( including a trivia question as part of a viewer contest ) and excerpts from the doctor who confidential documentary were played over the closing credits ; for the broadcast of " the christmas invasion " on 26 december 2005 , billie piper recorded a special video introduction . cbc began airing series two on 9 october 2006 at 20:00 e/p ( 20:30 in newfoundland and labrador ) , shortly after that day 's cfl double header on thanksgiving in most of the country . [ citation needed ]
what played during the closing credits of the doctor who episodes ?
excerpts from the doctor who confidential documentary

Sample: 426

abc also owns the times square studios at 1500 broadway on land in times square owned by a development fund for the 42nd street project ; opened in 1999 , good morning america and nightline are broadcast from this particular facility . abc news has premises a little further on west 66th street , in a six-story building occupying a 196 feet ( 60 m ) × 379 feet ( 116 m ) plot at 121–135 west end avenue . the block of west end avenue housing the abc news building was renamed peter jennings way in 2006 in honor of the recently deceased longtime abc news chief anchor and anchor of world news tonight .
what show did peter jennings anchor for abc ?
world news tonight

Sample: 427

until the early 1980s , industry was a major source of water pollution . although many plants and factories can be found along the rhine up into switzerland , it is along the lower rhine that the bulk of them are concentrated , as the river passes the major cities of cologne , düsseldorf and duisburg . duisburg is the home of europe 's largest inland port and functions as a hub to the sea ports of rotterdam , antwerp and amsterdam . the ruhr , which joins the rhine in duisburg , is nowadays a clean river , thanks to a combination of stricter environmental controls , a transition from heavy industry to light industry and cleanup measures , such as the reforestation of slag and brownfields . the ruhr currently provides the region with drinking water . it contributes 70 m3/s ( 2,500 cu ft/s ) to the rhine . other rivers in the ruhr area , above all , the emscher , still carry a considerable degree of pollution .
what did industry do to the rhine until the 1980s ?
pollution

Sample: 428

as well as creating rights for " workers " who generally lack bargaining power in the market , the treaty on the functioning of the european union also protects the " freedom of establishment " in article 49 , and " freedom to provide services " in article 56 . in gebhard v consiglio dell ’ ordine degli avvocati e procuratori di milano the court of justice held that to be " established " means to participate in economic life " on a stable and continuous basis " , while providing " services " meant pursuing activity more " on a temporary basis " . this meant that a lawyer from stuttgart , who had set up chambers in milan and was censured by the milan bar council for not having registered , was entitled to bring a claim under for establishment freedom , rather than service freedom . however , the requirements to be registered in milan before being able to practice would be allowed if they were non-discriminatory , " justified by imperative requirements in the general interest " and proportionately applied . all people or entities that engage in economic activity , particularly the self-employed , or " undertakings " such as companies or firms , have a right to set up an enterprise without unjustified restrictions . the court of justice has held that both a member state government and a private party can hinder freedom of establishment , so article 49 has both " vertical " and " horizontal " direct effect . in reyners v belgium the court of justice held that a refusal to admit a lawyer to the belgian bar because he lacked belgian nationality was unjustified . tfeu article 49 says states are exempt from infringing others ' freedom of establishment when they exercise " official authority " , but this did an advocate 's work ( as opposed to a court 's ) was not official . by contrast in commission v italy the court of justice held that a requirement for lawyers in italy to comply with maximum tariffs unless there was an agreement with a client was not a restriction . the grand chamber of the court of justice held the commission had not proven that this had any object or effect of limiting practitioners from entering the market . therefore , there was no prima facie infringement freedom of establishment that needed to be justified .
in which case did the court of justice hold that requiring italian lawyers to comply with maximum tariffs unless there was an agreement with a client was not a restriction ?
commission v italy

Sample: 429

the " freedom to provide services " under tfeu article 56 applies to people who give services " for remuneration " , especially commercial or professional activity . for example , in van binsbergen v bestuur van de bedrijfvereniging voor de metaalnijverheid a dutch lawyer moved to belgium while advising a client in a social security case , and was told he could not continue because dutch law said only people established in the netherlands could give legal advice . the court of justice held that the freedom to provide services applied , it was directly effective , and the rule was probably unjustified : having an address in the member state would be enough to pursue the legitimate aim of good administration of justice . the court of justice has held that secondary education falls outside the scope of article 56 , because usually the state funds it , though higher education does not . health care generally counts as a service . in geraets-smits v stichting ziekenfonds mrs geraets-smits claimed she should be reimbursed by dutch social insurance for costs of receiving treatment in germany . the dutch health authorities regarded the treatment unnecessary , so she argued this restricted the freedom ( of the german health clinic ) to provide services . several governments submitted that hospital services should not be regarded as economic , and should not fall within article 56 . but the court of justice held health was a " service " even though the government ( rather than the service recipient ) paid for the service . national authorities could be justified in refusing to reimburse patients for medical services abroad if the health care received at home was without undue delay , and it followed " international medical science " on which treatments counted as normal and necessary . the court requires that the individual circumstances of a patient justify waiting lists , and this is also true in the context of the uk 's national health service . aside from public services , another sensitive field of services are those classified as illegal . josemans v burgemeester van maastricht held that the netherlands ' regulation of cannabis consumption , including the prohibitions by some municipalities on tourists ( but not dutch nationals ) going to coffee shops , fell outside article 56 altogether . the court of justice reasoned that narcotic drugs were controlled in all member states , and so this differed from other cases where prostitution or other quasi-legal activity was subject to restriction . if an activity does fall within article 56 , a restriction can be justified under article 52 or overriding requirements developed by the court of justice . in alpine investments bv v minister van financiën a business that sold commodities futures ( with merrill lynch and another banking firms ) attempted to challenge a dutch law that prohibiting cold calling customers . the court of justice held the dutch prohibition pursued a legitimate aim to prevent " undesirable developments in securities trading " including protecting the consumer from aggressive sales tactics , thus maintaining confidence in the dutch markets . in omega spielhallen gmbh v bonn a " laserdrome " business was banned by the bonn council . it bought fake laser gun services from a uk firm called pulsar ltd , but residents had protested against " playing at killing " entertainment . the court of justice held that the german constitutional value of human dignity , which underpinned the ban , did count as a justified restriction on freedom to provide services . in liga portuguesa de futebol v santa casa da misericórdia de lisboa the court of justice also held that the state monopoly on gambling , and a penalty for a gibraltar firm that had sold internet gambling services , was justified to prevent fraud and gambling where people 's views were highly divergent . the ban was proportionate as this was an appropriate and necessary way to tackle the serious problems of fraud that arise over the internet . in the services directive a group of justifications were codified in article 16 that the case law has developed .
the freedom to provide services under tfeu article 56 applies to who ?
to people who give services " for remuneration "

Sample: 430

one of the most dramatic parts of the museum is the cast courts in the sculpture wing , comprising two large , skylighted rooms two storeys high housing hundreds of plaster casts of sculptures , friezes and tombs . one of these is dominated by a full-scale replica of trajan 's column , cut in half in order to fit under the ceiling . the other includes reproductions of various works of italian renaissance sculpture and architecture , including a full-size replica of michelangelo 's david . replicas of two earlier davids by donatello 's david and verrocchio 's david , are also included , although for conservation reasons the verrocchio replica is displayed in a glass case .
the cast courts display plaster casts of what objects ?
sculptures , friezes and tombs

Sample: 431

from their original homelands in scandinavia and northern europe , germanic tribes expanded throughout northern and western europe in the middle period of classical antiquity ; southern europe in late antiquity , conquering celtic and other peoples ; and by 800 ce , forming the holy roman empire , the first german empire . however , there was no real systemic continuity from the western roman empire to its german successor which was famously described as " not holy , not roman , and not an empire " , as a great number of small states and principalities existed in the loosely autonomous confederation . although by 1000 ce , the germanic conquest of central , western , and southern europe ( west of and including italy ) was complete , excluding only muslim iberia . there was , however , little cultural integration or national identity , and " germany " remained largely a conceptual term referring to an amorphous area of central europe .
when did the germanic tribes claim territory in north and west europe ?
middle period of classical antiquity

Sample: 432

trotsky , and others , believed that the revolution could only succeed in russia as part of a world revolution . lenin wrote extensively on the matter and famously declared that imperialism was the highest stage of capitalism . however , after lenin 's death , joseph stalin established 'socialism in one country ' for the soviet union , creating the model for subsequent inward looking stalinist states and purging the early internationalist elements . the internationalist tendencies of the early revolution would be abandoned until they returned in the framework of a client state in competition with the americans during the cold war . with the beginning of the new era , the after stalin period called the " thaw " , in the late 1950s , the new political leader nikita khrushchev put even more pressure on the soviet-american relations starting a new wave of anti-imperialist propaganda . in his speech on the un conference in 1960 , he announced the continuation of the war on imperialism , stating that soon the people of different countries will come together and overthrow their imperialist leaders . although the soviet union declared itself anti-imperialist , critics argue that it exhibited tendencies common to historic empires . some scholars hold that the soviet union was a hybrid entity containing elements common to both multinational empires and nation states . it has also been argued that the ussr practiced colonialism as did other imperial powers and was carrying on the old russian tradition of expansion and control . mao zedong once argued that the soviet union had itself become an imperialist power while maintaining a socialist façade . moreover , the ideas of imperialism were widely spread in action on the higher levels of government . non russian marxists within the russian federation and later the ussr , like sultan galiev and vasyl shakhrai , considered the soviet regime a renewed version of the russian imperialism and colonialism .
who was the leader of russia in the 1960 's ?
nikita khrushchev

Sample: 433

on april 20 , kennedy sent a memo to vice president lyndon b. johnson , asking johnson to look into the status of america 's space program , and into programs that could offer nasa the opportunity to catch up . johnson responded approximately one week later , concluding that " we are neither making maximum effort nor achieving results necessary if this country is to reach a position of leadership . " his memo concluded that a manned moon landing was far enough in the future that it was likely the united states would achieve it first .
what was the general consensus johnson came to regarding america 's progress on going to space and reaching a position of leadership ?
neither making maximum effort nor achieving results necessary

Sample: 434

packet mode communication may be implemented with or without intermediate forwarding nodes ( packet switches or routers ) . packets are normally forwarded by intermediate network nodes asynchronously using first-in , first-out buffering , but may be forwarded according to some scheduling discipline for fair queuing , traffic shaping , or for differentiated or guaranteed quality of service , such as weighted fair queuing or leaky bucket . in case of a shared physical medium ( such as radio or 10base5 ) , the packets may be delivered according to a multiple access scheme .
how are packets normally forwarded
by intermediate network nodes asynchronously using first-in , first-out buffering , but may be forwarded according to some scheduling discipline for fair queuing

Sample: 435

even before the norman conquest of england , the normans had come into contact with wales . edward the confessor had set up the aforementioned ralph as earl of hereford and charged him with defending the marches and warring with the welsh . in these original ventures , the normans failed to make any headway into wales .
where was ralph earl of ?
hereford

Sample: 436

cbs provided digital streams of the game via cbssports.com , and the cbs sports apps on tablets , windows 10 , xbox one and other digital media players ( such as chromecast and roku ) . due to verizon communications exclusivity , streaming on smartphones was only provided to verizon wireless customers via the nfl mobile service . the espn deportes spanish broadcast was made available through watchespn .
which game console could viewers stream the game on ?
xbox one

Sample: 437

the main response of the immune system to tumors is to destroy the abnormal cells using killer t cells , sometimes with the assistance of helper t cells . tumor antigens are presented on mhc class i molecules in a similar way to viral antigens . this allows killer t cells to recognize the tumor cell as abnormal . nk cells also kill tumorous cells in a similar way , especially if the tumor cells have fewer mhc class i molecules on their surface than normal ; this is a common phenomenon with tumors . sometimes antibodies are generated against tumor cells allowing for their destruction by the complement system .
what type of immune cells help to destroy abnormal cells in tumors ?
killer t cells

Sample: 438

the scotland act 1998 , which was passed by the parliament of the united kingdom and given royal assent by queen elizabeth ii on 19 november 1998 , governs the functions and role of the scottish parliament and delimits its legislative competence . the scotland act 2012 extends the devolved competencies . for the purposes of parliamentary sovereignty , the parliament of the united kingdom at westminster continues to constitute the supreme legislature of scotland . however , under the terms of the scotland act , westminster agreed to devolve some of its responsibilities over scottish domestic policy to the scottish parliament . such " devolved matters " include education , health , agriculture and justice . the scotland act enabled the scottish parliament to pass primary legislation on these issues . a degree of domestic authority , and all foreign policy , remain with the uk parliament in westminster . the scottish parliament has the power to pass laws and has limited tax-varying capability . another of the roles of the parliament is to hold the scottish government to account .
what act sets forth the functions of the scottish parliament ?
scotland act 1998

Sample: 439

chloroplasts alone make almost all of a plant cell 's amino acids in their stroma except the sulfur-containing ones like cysteine and methionine . cysteine is made in the chloroplast ( the proplastid too ) but it is also synthesized in the cytosol and mitochondria , probably because it has trouble crossing membranes to get to where it is needed . the chloroplast is known to make the precursors to methionine but it is unclear whether the organelle carries out the last leg of the pathway or if it happens in the cytosol .
what is the problem with cysteine ?
it has trouble crossing membranes to get to where it is needed

Sample: 440

the show has received recognition as one of britain 's finest television programmes , winning the 2006 british academy television award for best drama series and five consecutive ( 2005–2010 ) awards at the national television awards during russell t davies ' tenure as executive producer . in 2011 , matt smith became the first doctor to be nominated for a bafta television award for best actor and in 2016 , michelle gomez became the first female to receive a bafta nomination for the series , getting a best supporting actress nomination for her work as missy .
in what year did a doctor first become nominated for a best actor award ?
2011

Sample: 441

construction is the process of constructing a building or infrastructure . construction differs from manufacturing in that manufacturing typically involves mass production of similar items without a designated purchaser , while construction typically takes place on location for a known client . construction as an industry comprises six to nine percent of the gross domestic product of developed countries . construction starts with planning , [ citation needed ] design , and financing and continues until the project is built and ready for use .
what typically involves mass production of similar items without a designated purchaser ?
manufacturing

Sample: 442

the debating chamber of the scottish parliament has seating arranged in a hemicycle , which reflects the desire to encourage consensus amongst elected members . there are 131 seats in the debating chamber . of the total 131 seats , 129 are occupied by the parliament 's elected msps and 2 are seats for the scottish law officers – the lord advocate and the solicitor general for scotland , who are not elected members of the parliament but are members of the scottish government . as such the law officers may attend and speak in the plenary meetings of the parliament but , as they are not elected msps , can not vote . members are able to sit anywhere in the debating chamber , but typically sit in their party groupings . the first minister , scottish cabinet ministers and law officers sit in the front row , in the middle section of the chamber . the largest party in the parliament sits in the middle of the semicircle , with opposing parties on either side . the presiding officer , parliamentary clerks and officials sit opposite members at the front of the debating chamber .
what can the non-elected members from the scottish government not do ?
vote

Sample: 443

during the divestment from south africa movement in the late 1980s , student activists erected a symbolic " shantytown " on harvard yard and blockaded a speech given by south african vice consul duke kent-brown . the harvard management company repeatedly refused to divest , stating that " operating expenses must not be subject to financially unrealistic strictures or carping by the unsophisticated or by special interest groups . " however , the university did eventually reduce its south african holdings by $ 230 million ( out of $ 400 million ) in response to the pressure .
when was the divestment from south africa movement ?
late 1980s

Sample: 444

the national science foundation network ( nsfnet ) was a program of coordinated , evolving projects sponsored by the national science foundation ( nsf ) beginning in 1985 to promote advanced research and education networking in the united states . nsfnet was also the name given to several nationwide backbone networks operating at speeds of 56 kbit/s , 1.5 mbit/s ( t1 ) , and 45 mbit/s ( t3 ) that were constructed to support nsf 's networking initiatives from 1985-1995 . initially created to link researchers to the nation 's nsf-funded supercomputing centers , through further public funding and private industry partnerships it developed into a major part of the internet backbone .
what is nsfnet
the national science foundation network

Sample: 445

the v & a holds over 19,000 items from the islamic world , ranging from the early islamic period ( the 7th century ) to the early 20th century . the jameel gallery of islamic art , opened in 2006 , houses a representative display of 400 objects with the highlight being the ardabil carpet , the centrepiece of the gallery . the displays in this gallery cover objects from spain , north africa , the middle east , central asia and afghanistan . a masterpiece of islamic art is a 10th-century rock crystal ewer . many examples of qur'āns with exquisite calligraphy dating from various periods are on display . a 15th-century minbar from a cairo mosque with ivory forming complex geometrical patterns inlaid in wood is one of the larger objects on display . extensive examples of ceramics especially iznik pottery , glasswork including 14th-century lamps from mosques and metalwork are on display . the collection of middle eastern and persian rugs and carpets is amongst the finest in the world , many were part of the salting bequest of 1909 . examples of tile work from various buildings including a fireplace dated 1731 from istanbul made of intricately decorated blue and white tiles and turquoise tiles from the exterior of buildings from samarkand are also displayed .
what is considered the centerpiece of the jameel gallery of islamic art ?
ardabil carpet

Sample: 446

from the eocene onwards , the ongoing alpine orogeny caused a n–s rift system to develop in this zone . the main elements of this rift are the upper rhine graben , in southwest germany and eastern france and the lower rhine embayment , in northwest germany and the southeastern netherlands . by the time of the miocene , a river system had developed in the upper rhine graben , that continued northward and is considered the first rhine river . at that time , it did not yet carry discharge from the alps ; instead , the watersheds of the rhone and danube drained the northern flanks of the alps .
the rhine and what other river drained the northern flanks of the alps ?
danube

Sample: 447

paul revere was descended from huguenot refugees , as was henry laurens , who signed the articles of confederation for south carolina ; jack jouett , who made the ride from cuckoo tavern to warn thomas jefferson and others that tarleton and his men were on their way to arrest him for crimes against the king ; francis marion , and a number of other leaders of the american revolution and later statesmen . the last active huguenot congregation in north america worships in charleston , south carolina , at a church that dates to 1844 . the huguenot society of america maintains manakin episcopal church in virginia as an historic shrine with occasional services . the society has chapters in numerous states , with the one in texas being the largest .
what revolutionary war midnight rider was a huguenot descendant ?
paul revere

Sample: 448

the most common dinophyte chloroplast is the peridinin-type chloroplast , characterized by the carotenoid pigment peridinin in their chloroplasts , along with chlorophyll a and chlorophyll c2 . peridinin is not found in any other group of chloroplasts . the peridinin chloroplast is bounded by three membranes ( occasionally two ) , having lost the red algal endosymbiont 's original cell membrane . the outermost membrane is not connected to the endoplasmic reticulum . they contain a pyrenoid , and have triplet-stacked thylakoids . starch is found outside the chloroplast an important feature of these chloroplasts is that their chloroplast dna is highly reduced and fragmented into many small circles . most of the genome has migrated to the nucleus , and only critical photosynthesis-related genes remain in the chloroplast .
where is peridinin found ?
peridinin-type chloroplast

Sample: 449

the game 's media day , which was typically held on the tuesday afternoon prior to the game , was moved to the monday evening and re-branded as super bowl opening night . the event was held on february 1 , 2016 at sap center in san jose . alongside the traditional media availabilities , the event featured an opening ceremony with player introductions on a replica of the golden gate bridge .
what day of the week was media day held on for super bowl 50 ?
monday

Sample: 450

most of the huguenot congregations ( or individuals ) in north america eventually affiliated with other protestant denominations with more numerous members . the huguenots adapted quickly and often married outside their immediate french communities , which led to their assimilation . their descendants in many families continued to use french first names and surnames for their children well into the nineteenth century . assimilated , the french made numerous contributions to united states economic life , especially as merchants and artisans in the late colonial and early federal periods . for example , e.i . du pont , a former student of lavoisier , established the eleutherian gunpowder mills .
for how long did huguenots continue to use french names ?
into the nineteenth century

Sample: 451

there would be no more scoring in the third quarter , but early in the fourth , the broncos drove to the panthers 41-yard line . on the next play , ealy knocked the ball out of manning 's hand as he was winding up for a pass , and then recovered it for carolina on the 50-yard line . a 16-yard reception by devin funchess and a 12-yard run by stewart then set up gano 's 39-yard field goal , cutting the panthers deficit to one score at 16–10 . the next three drives of the game would end in punts .
early in the fourth quarter , the broncos drove to what yard line of the panthers ?
41-yard line .

Sample: 452

the swahili built mombasa into a major port city and established trade links with other nearby city-states , as well as commercial centres in persia , arabia , and even india . by the 15th-century , portuguese voyager duarte barbosa claimed that " mombasa is a place of great traffic and has a good harbour in which there are always moored small craft of many kinds and also great ships , both of which are bound from sofala and others which come from cambay and melinde and others which sail to the island of zanzibar . "
what is the name of the port city that was created ?
mombasa

Sample: 453

some elements of the brotherhood , though perhaps against orders , did engage in violence against the government , and its founder al-banna was assassinated in 1949 in retaliation for the assassination of egypt 's premier mahmud fami naqrashi three months earlier . the brotherhood has suffered periodic repression in egypt and has been banned several times , in 1948 and several years later following confrontations with egyptian president gamal abdul nasser , who jailed thousands of members for several years .
what egyptian president jailed thousands of members of the brotherhood ?
gamal abdul nasser

Sample: 454

the grainger market replaced an earlier market originally built in 1808 called the butcher market . the grainger market itself , was opened in 1835 and was newcastle 's first indoor market . at the time of its opening in 1835 it was said to be one of the largest and most beautiful markets in europe . the opening was celebrated with a grand dinner attended by 2000 guests , and the laing art gallery has a painting of this event . with the exception of the timber roof which was destroyed by a fire in 1901 and replaced by latticed-steel arches the market is largely in its original condition . the grainger market architecture , like most in grainger town , which are either grade i or ii listed , was listed grade i in 1954 by english heritage .
when did newcastle 's first indoor market open ?
1835

Sample: 455

published comments on kenya 's capital fm website by liu guangyuan , china 's ambassador to kenya , at the time of president kenyatta 's 2013 trip to beijing , said , " chinese investment in kenya ... reached $ 474 million , representing kenya 's largest source of foreign direct investment , and ... bilateral trade ... reached $ 2.84 billion " in 2012 . kenyatta was " [ a ] ccompanied by 60 kenyan business people [ and hoped to ] ... gain support from china for a planned $ 2.5 billion railway from the southern kenyan port of mombasa to neighboring uganda , as well as a nearly $ 1.8 billion dam " , according to a statement from the president 's office also at the time of the trip . base titanium , a subsidiary of base resources of australia , shipped its first major consignment of minerals to china . about 25,000 tonnes of ilmenite was flagged off the kenyan coastal town of kilifi . the first shipment was expected to earn kenya about shs15 – shs20 billion in earnings . china has been causing environmental and social problems that include the recent suspension of the railway project .
what has caused china to suspend their railway project ?
environmental and social problems

Sample: 456

the panthers defense gave up just 308 points , ranking sixth in the league , while also leading the nfl in interceptions with 24 and boasting four pro bowl selections . pro bowl defensive tackle kawann short led the team in sacks with 11 , while also forcing three fumbles and recovering two . fellow lineman mario addison added 6½ sacks . the panthers line also featured veteran defensive end jared allen , a 5-time pro bowler who was the nfl 's active career sack leader with 136 , along with defensive end kony ealy , who had 5 sacks in just 9 starts . behind them , two of the panthers three starting linebackers were also selected to play in the pro bowl : thomas davis and luke kuechly . davis compiled 5½ sacks , four forced fumbles , and four interceptions , while kuechly led the team in tackles ( 118 ) forced two fumbles , and intercepted four passes of his own . carolina 's secondary featured pro bowl safety kurt coleman , who led the team with a career high seven interceptions , while also racking up 88 tackles and pro bowl cornerback josh norman , who developed into a shutdown corner during the season and had four interceptions , two of which were returned for touchdowns .
how many panthers defense players were selected for the pro bowl ?
four

Sample: 457

the university experienced its share of student unrest during the 1960s , beginning in 1962 , when students occupied president george beadle 's office in a protest over the university 's off-campus rental policies . after continued turmoil , a university committee in 1967 issued what became known as the kalven report . the report , a two-page statement of the university 's policy in " social and political action , " declared that " to perform its mission in the society , a university must sustain an extraordinary environment of freedom of inquiry and maintain an independence from political fashions , passions , and pressures . " the report has since been used to justify decisions such as the university 's refusal to divest from south africa in the 1980s and darfur in the late 2000s .
what policy did the kelven report contain ?
social and political action

Sample: 458

apollo 8 was planned to be the d mission in december 1968 , crewed by mcdivitt , scott and schweickart , launched on a saturn v instead of two saturn ibs . in the summer it had become clear that the lm would not be ready in time . rather than waste the saturn v on another simple earth-orbiting mission , aspo manager george low suggested the bold step of sending apollo 8 to orbit the moon instead , deferring the d mission to the next mission in march 1969 , and eliminating the e mission . this would keep the program on track . the soviet union had sent animals around the moon on september 15 , 1968 , aboard zond 5 , and it was believed they might soon repeat the feat with human cosmonauts . the decision was not announced publicly until successful completion of apollo 7 . gemini veterans frank borman and james lovell , and rookie william anders captured the world 's attention by making 10 lunar orbits in 20 hours , transmitting television pictures of the lunar surface on christmas eve , and returning safely to earth .
what spacecraft did the soviets use to send animals to space and around the moon 's orbit ?
zond 5

Sample: 459

most species are hermaphrodites—a single animal can produce both eggs and sperm , meaning it can fertilize its own egg , not needing a mate . some are simultaneous hermaphrodites , which can produce both eggs and sperm at the same time . others are sequential hermaphrodites , in which the eggs and sperm mature at different times . fertilization is generally external , although platyctenids ' eggs are fertilized inside their parents ' bodies and kept there until they hatch . the young are generally planktonic and in most species look like miniature cydippids , gradually changing into their adult shapes as they grow . the exceptions are the beroids , whose young are miniature beroids with large mouths and no tentacles , and the platyctenids , whose young live as cydippid-like plankton until they reach near-adult size , but then sink to the bottom and rapidly metamorphose into the adult form . in at least some species , juveniles are capable of reproduction before reaching the adult size and shape . the combination of hermaphroditism and early reproduction enables small populations to grow at an explosive rate .
what can a simultaneous hermaphrodite do ?
can produce both eggs and sperm at the same time

Sample: 460

in accordance with his father 's wishes , luther enrolled in law school at the same university that year but dropped out almost immediately , believing that law represented uncertainty . luther sought assurances about life and was drawn to theology and philosophy , expressing particular interest in aristotle , william of ockham , and gabriel biel . he was deeply influenced by two tutors , bartholomaeus arnoldi von usingen and jodocus trutfetter , who taught him to be suspicious of even the greatest thinkers and to test everything himself by experience . philosophy proved to be unsatisfying , offering assurance about the use of reason but none about loving god , which to luther was more important . reason could not lead men to god , he felt , and he thereafter developed a love-hate relationship with aristotle over the latter 's emphasis on reason . for luther , reason could be used to question men and institutions , but not god . human beings could learn about god only through divine revelation , he believed , and scripture therefore became increasingly important to him .
what did luther think the study of law meant ?
uncertainty

Sample: 461

in the laboratory , biostratigraphers analyze rock samples from outcrop and drill cores for the fossils found in them . these fossils help scientists to date the core and to understand the depositional environment in which the rock units formed . geochronologists precisely date rocks within the stratigraphic section in order to provide better absolute bounds on the timing and rates of deposition . magnetic stratigraphers look for signs of magnetic reversals in igneous rock units within the drill cores . other scientists perform stable isotope studies on the rocks to gain information about past climate .
who dates rocks , precisely , within the stratigraphic section ?
geochronologists

Sample: 462

the european commission is the main executive body of the european union . article 17 ( 1 ) of the treaty on european union states the commission should " promote the general interest of the union " while article 17 ( 3 ) adds that commissioners should be " completely independent " and not " take instructions from any government " . under article 17 ( 2 ) , " union legislative acts may only be adopted on the basis of a commission proposal , except where the treaties provide otherwise . " this means that the commission has a monopoly on initiating the legislative procedure , although the council is the " de facto catalyst of many legislative initiatives " . the parliament can also formally request the commission to submit a legislative proposal but the commission can reject such a suggestion , giving reasons . the commission 's president ( currently an ex-luxembourg prime minister , jean-claude juncker ) sets the agenda for the eu 's work . decisions are taken by a simple majority vote , usually through a " written procedure " of circulating the proposals and adopting if there are no objections . [ citation needed ] since ireland refused to consent to changes in the treaty of lisbon 2007 , there remains one commissioner for each of the 28 member states , including the president and the high representative for foreign and security policy ( currently federica mogherini ) . the commissioners ( and most importantly , the portfolios they will hold ) are bargained over intensively by the member states . the commissioners , as a block , are then subject to a qualified majority vote of the council to approve , and majority approval of the parliament . the proposal to make the commissioners be drawn from the elected parliament , was not adopted in the treaty of lisbon . this means commissioners are , through the appointment process , the unelected subordinates of member state governments .
who is the current president and the high representative for foreign and security policy ?
federica mogherini

Sample: 463

tesla obtained around 300 patents worldwide for his inventions . some of tesla 's patents are not accounted for , and various sources have discovered some that have lain hidden in patent archives . there are a minimum of 278 patents issued to tesla in 26 countries that have been accounted for . many of tesla 's patents were in the united states , britain , and canada , but many other patents were approved in countries around the globe . :62 many inventions developed by tesla were not put into patent protection .
where were missing patents later found ?
patent archives

Sample: 464

in 1990 , thomas s. murphy delegated his position as president to daniel b. burke while remaining abc 's chairman and ceo . capital cities/abc reported revenues of $ 465 million . now at a strong second place , the network entered the 1990s with additional family-friendly hits including america 's funniest home videos ( which has gone on to become the longest-running prime time entertainment program in the network 's history ) , step by step , hangin ' with mr. cooper , boy meets world and perfect strangers spinoff family matters , as well as series such as doogie howser , m.d. , life goes on , cult favorite twin peaks and the commish . in september 1991 , the network premiered home improvement , a sitcom starring stand-up comic tim allen centering on the family and work life of an accident-prone host of a cable-access home improvement show . lasting nine seasons , its success led abc to greenlight additional sitcom projects helmed by comedians during the 1990s including the drew carey show ; brett butler vehicle grace under fire ; and ellen , which became notable for a 1997 episode which served as the coming out of series star ellen degeneres ( as well as her character in the series ) as a lesbian .
how much did capital cities/abc report in revenues in 1990 ?
$ 465 million

Sample: 465

pathogens can rapidly evolve and adapt , and thereby avoid detection and neutralization by the immune system ; however , multiple defense mechanisms have also evolved to recognize and neutralize pathogens . even simple unicellular organisms such as bacteria possess a rudimentary immune system , in the form of enzymes that protect against bacteriophage infections . other basic immune mechanisms evolved in ancient eukaryotes and remain in their modern descendants , such as plants and invertebrates . these mechanisms include phagocytosis , antimicrobial peptides called defensins , and the complement system . jawed vertebrates , including humans , have even more sophisticated defense mechanisms , including the ability to adapt over time to recognize specific pathogens more efficiently . adaptive ( or acquired ) immunity creates immunological memory after an initial response to a specific pathogen , leading to an enhanced response to subsequent encounters with that same pathogen . this process of acquired immunity is the basis of vaccination .
which other ancient organism formed basic immune mechanisms ?
eukaryotes

Sample: 466

courts have distinguished between two types of civil disobedience : " indirect civil disobedience involves violating a law which is not , itself , the object of protest , whereas direct civil disobedience involves protesting the existence of a particular law by breaking that law . " during the vietnam war , courts typically refused to excuse the perpetrators of illegal protests from punishment on the basis of their challenging the legality of the vietnam war ; the courts ruled it was a political question . the necessity defense has sometimes been used as a shadow defense by civil disobedients to deny guilt without denouncing their politically motivated acts , and to present their political beliefs in the courtroom . however , court cases such as u.s. v. schoon have greatly curtailed the availability of the political necessity defense . likewise , when carter wentworth was charged for his role in the clamshell alliance 's 1977 illegal occupation of the seabrook station nuclear power plant , the judge instructed the jury to disregard his competing harms defense , and he was found guilty . fully informed jury association activists have sometimes handed out educational leaflets inside courthouses despite admonitions not to ; according to fija , many of them have escaped prosecution because " prosecutors have reasoned ( correctly ) that if they arrest fully informed jury leafleters , the leaflets will have to be given to the leafleter 's own jury as evidence . "
what type of defense is sometimes used in court by protestors ?
competing harms defense

Sample: 467

the annual nfl experience was held at the moscone center in san francisco . in addition , " super bowl city " opened on january 30 at justin herman plaza on the embarcadero , featuring games and activities that will highlight the bay area 's technology , culinary creations , and cultural diversity . more than 1 million people are expected to attend the festivities in san francisco during super bowl week . san francisco mayor ed lee said of the highly visible homeless presence in this area " they are going to have to leave " . san francisco city supervisor jane kim unsuccessfully lobbied for the nfl to reimburse san francisco for city services in the amount of $ 5 million .
which building was the nfl experience held at for super bowl 50 ?
moscone center

Sample: 468

the bbc drama department 's serials division produced the programme for 26 seasons , broadcast on bbc 1 . falling viewing numbers , a decline in the public perception of the show and a less-prominent transmission slot saw production suspended in 1989 by jonathan powell , controller of bbc 1 . although ( as series co-star sophie aldred reported in the documentary doctor who : more than 30 years in the tardis ) it was effectively , if not formally , cancelled with the decision not to commission a planned 27th series of the show for transmission in 1990 , the bbc repeatedly affirmed that the series would return .
who ended the series in 1989 ?
jonathan powell

Sample: 469

also part of the library is the aforementioned selznick library , the cinerama productions/palomar theatrical library and the selmur productions catalog that the network acquired some years back , and the in-house productions it continues to produce ( such as america 's funniest home videos , general hospital , and abc news productions ) , although disney–abc domestic television ( formerly known as buena vista television ) handles domestic television distribution , while disney–abc international television ( formerly known as buena vista international television ) handles international television distribution .
what library contains the selmur productions catalogue ?
selznick library

Sample: 470

the islamic republic has also maintained its hold on power in iran in spite of us economic sanctions , and has created or assisted like-minded shia terrorist groups in iraq , egypt , syria , jordan ( sciri ) and lebanon ( hezbollah ) ( two muslim countries that also have large shiite populations ) . during the 2006 israel-lebanon conflict , the iranian government enjoyed something of a resurgence in popularity amongst the predominantly sunni " arab street , " due to its support for hezbollah and to president mahmoud ahmadinejad 's vehement opposition to the united states and his call that israel shall vanish .
who stated he wanted israel to vanish ?
president mahmoud ahmadinejad

Sample: 471

in contrast , during wake periods differentiated effector cells , such as cytotoxic natural killer cells and ctls ( cytotoxic t lymphocytes ) , peak in order to elicit an effective response against any intruding pathogens . as well during awake active times , anti-inflammatory molecules , such as cortisol and catecholamines , peak . there are two theories as to why the pro-inflammatory state is reserved for sleep time . first , inflammation would cause serious cognitive and physical impairments if it were to occur during wake times . second , inflammation may occur during sleep times due to the presence of melatonin . inflammation causes a great deal of oxidative stress and the presence of melatonin during sleep times could actively counteract free radical production during this time .
what are examples of differentiated effector cells that peak during wake periods ?
cytotoxic natural killer cells and ctls ( cytotoxic t lymphocytes )

Sample: 472

in most countries , the dispensary is subject to pharmacy legislation ; with requirements for storage conditions , compulsory texts , equipment , etc. , specified in legislation . where it was once the case that pharmacists stayed within the dispensary compounding/dispensing medications , there has been an increasing trend towards the use of trained pharmacy technicians while the pharmacist spends more time communicating with patients . pharmacy technicians are now more dependent upon automation to assist them in their new role dealing with patients ' prescriptions and patient safety issues .
what responsibilities were pharmacy technicians formerly limited to ?
within the dispensary compounding/dispensing medications

Sample: 473

in december 1878 , tesla left graz and severed all relations with his family to hide the fact that he dropped out of school . his friends thought that he had drowned in the mur river . tesla went to maribor ( now in slovenia ) , where he worked as a draftsman for 60 florins a month . he spent his spare time playing cards with local men on the streets . in march 1879 , milutin tesla went to maribor to beg his son to return home , but nikola refused . nikola suffered a nervous breakdown at around the same time .
what was tesla 's friends ' theory as to what became of him ?
his friends thought that he had drowned in the mur river .

Sample: 474

harbor improvements since the late 19th century have made jacksonville a major military and civilian deep-water port . its riverine location facilitates two united states navy bases and the port of jacksonville , florida 's third largest seaport . the two us navy bases , blount island command and the nearby naval submarine base kings bay form the third largest military presence in the united states . significant factors in the local economy include services such as banking , insurance , healthcare and logistics . as with much of florida , tourism is also important to the jacksonville area , particularly tourism related to golf . people from jacksonville may be called " jacksonvillians " or " jaxsons " ( also spelled " jaxons " ) .
what are those from jacksonville sometimes called ?
" jacksonvillians " or " jaxsons "

Sample: 475

the immune system is a system of many biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease . to function properly , an immune system must detect a wide variety of agents , known as pathogens , from viruses to parasitic worms , and distinguish them from the organism 's own healthy tissue . in many species , the immune system can be classified into subsystems , such as the innate immune system versus the adaptive immune system , or humoral immunity versus cell-mediated immunity . in humans , the blood–brain barrier , blood–cerebrospinal fluid barrier , and similar fluid–brain barriers separate the peripheral immune system from the neuroimmune system which protects the brain .
what is the immune system of the brained known as ?
neuroimmune system

Sample: 476

the invasions of baghdad , samarkand , urgench , kiev , vladimir among others caused mass murders , such as when portions of southern khuzestan were completely destroyed . his descendant hulagu khan destroyed much of iran 's northern part and sacked baghdad although his forces were halted by the mamluks of egypt , but hulagu 's descendant ghazan khan would return to beat the egyptian mamluks right out of levant , palestine and even gaza . according to the works of the persian historian rashid-al-din hamadani , the mongols killed more than 70,000 people in merv and more than 190,000 in nishapur . in 1237 batu khan , a grandson of genghis khan , launched an invasion into kievan rus ' . over the course of three years , the mongols destroyed and annihilated all of the major cities of eastern europe with the exceptions of novgorod and pskov .
which major cities in eastern europe were not destroyed by the mongol invasion ?
novgorod and pskov

Sample: 477

subordinate to the general conference are the jurisdictional and central conferences which also meet every four years . the united states is divided into five jurisdictions : northeastern , southeastern , north central , south central and western . outside the united states the church is divided into seven central conferences : africa , congo , west africa , central & southern europe , germany , northern europe and the philippines . the main purpose of the jurisdictions and central conferences is to elect and appoint bishops , the chief administrators of the church . bishops thus elected serve episcopal areas , which consist of one or more annual conferences .
how many central conferences are outside of the united states ?
seven

Sample: 478

from italy , the disease spread northwest across europe , striking france , spain , portugal and england by june 1348 , then turned and spread east through germany and scandinavia from 1348 to 1350 . it was introduced in norway in 1349 when a ship landed at askøy , then spread to bjørgvin ( modern bergen ) and iceland . finally it spread to northwestern russia in 1351 . the plague was somewhat less common in parts of europe that had smaller trade relations with their neighbours , including the kingdom of poland , the majority of the basque country , isolated parts of belgium and the netherlands , and isolated alpine villages throughout the continent .
where was the disease spreading between 1348 and 1350 ?
germany and scandinavia

Sample: 479

the first four saturn i test flights were launched from lc-34 , with only live first stages , carrying dummy upper stages filled with water . the first flight with a live s-iv was launched from lc-37 . this was followed by five launches of boilerplate csms ( designated as-101 through as-105 ) into orbit in 1964 and 1965 . the last three of these further supported the apollo program by also carrying pegasus satellites , which verified the safety of the translunar environment by measuring the frequency and severity of micrometeorite impacts .
what did the last few of the boilerplate csm launches carry with them ?
pegasus satellites

Sample: 480

other forms of plague have been implicated by modern scientists . the modern bubonic plague has a mortality rate of 30–75 % and symptoms including fever of 38–41 °c ( 100–106 °f ) , headaches , painful aching joints , nausea and vomiting , and a general feeling of malaise . left untreated , of those that contract the bubonic plague , 80 percent die within eight days . pneumonic plague has a mortality rate of 90 to 95 percent . symptoms include fever , cough , and blood-tinged sputum . as the disease progresses , sputum becomes free flowing and bright red . septicemic plague is the least common of the three forms , with a mortality rate near 100 % . symptoms are high fevers and purple skin patches ( purpura due to disseminated intravascular coagulation ) . in cases of pneumonic and particularly septicemic plague , the progress of the disease is so rapid that there would often be no time for the development of the enlarged lymph nodes that were noted as buboes .
how high do plague fevers run ?
100–106 °f

Sample: 481

as of the census of 2000 , there were 427,652 people , 140,079 households , and 97,915 families residing in the city . the population density was 4,097.9 people per square mile ( 1,582.2/km² ) . there were 149,025 housing units at an average density of 1,427.9 square miles ( 3,698 km2 ) . the racial makeup of the city was 50.2 % white , 8.4 % black or african american , 1.6 % native american , 11.2 % asian ( about a third of which is hmong ) , 0.1 % pacific islander , 23.4 % from other races , and 5.2 % from two or more races . hispanic or latino of any race were 39.9 % of the population .
how many housing units were there in 2000 ?
149,025

Sample: 482

on 30 july 1891 , at the age of 35 , tesla became a naturalized citizen of the united states , and established his south fifth avenue laboratory , and later another at 46 e. houston street , in new york . he lit electric lamps wirelessly at both locations , demonstrating the potential of wireless power transmission . in the same year , he patented the tesla coil .
how old was tesla when he became a us citizen ?
35

Sample: 483

the 2013–14 season was a slight improvement for abc with three new hits in the goldbergs , agents of s.h.i.e.l.d . and resurrection , all of which were renewed ; however , that season saw the cancellations of holdovers the neighbors ( which languished in its new friday time slot despite being bookended by last man standing and shark tank ) and suburgatory . nbc , which had lagged behind abc for eight years , finished the season in first place in the 18–49 demographic for the first time since 2004 , and in second place in total viewership behind long-dominant cbs . abc itself would finish the season in third place as fox crashed to fourth in both demographics .
what comic book series did abc debut in 2013-14 ?
agents of s.h.i.e.l.d .

Sample: 484

while its radio network was undergoing reconstruction , abc found it difficult to avoid falling behind on the new medium of television . to ensure a space , in 1947 , abc submitted five applications for television station licenses , one for each market where it owned and operated a radio station ( new york city , los angeles , chicago , san francisco and detroit ) . these applications all requested for the stations to broadcast on vhf channel 7 , as frank marx , then abc 's vice-president of engineering , thought that the low-band vhf frequencies ( corresponding to channels 2 through 6 ) would be requisitioned from broadcasting use and reallocated for the u.s. army .
which channel did the 5 applications request for broadcast ?
vhf channel 7

Sample: 485

ctenophores used to be regarded as " dead ends " in marine food chains because it was thought their low ratio of organic matter to salt and water made them a poor diet for other animals . it is also often difficult to identify the remains of ctenophores in the guts of possible predators , although the combs sometimes remain intact long enough to provide a clue . detailed investigation of chum salmon , oncorhynchus keta , showed that these fish digest ctenophores 20 times as fast as an equal weight of shrimps , and that ctenophores can provide a good diet if there are enough of them around . beroids prey mainly on other ctenophores . some jellyfish and turtles eat large quantities of ctenophores , and jellyfish may temporarily wipe out ctenophore populations . since ctenophores and jellyfish often have large seasonal variations in population , most fish that prey on them are generalists , and may have a greater effect on populations than the specialist jelly-eaters . this is underlined by an observation of herbivorous fishes deliberately feeding on gelatinous zooplankton during blooms in the red sea . the larvae of some sea anemones are parasites on ctenophores , as are the larvae of some flatworms that parasitize fish when they reach adulthood .
what is the oncorhynchus also called ?
chum salmon

Sample: 486

another example of scientific research which suggests that previous estimates by the ipcc , far from overstating dangers and risks , have actually understated them is a study on projected rises in sea levels . when the researchers ' analysis was " applied to the possible scenarios outlined by the intergovernmental panel on climate change ( ipcc ) , the researchers found that in 2100 sea levels would be 0.5–1.4 m [ 50–140 cm ] above 1990 levels . these values are much greater than the 9–88 cm as projected by the ipcc itself in its third assessment report , published in 2001 " . this may have been due , in part , to the expanding human understanding of climate .
how much do researchers now think sea levels will rise from 1990 to 2100 ?
50–140 cm

Sample: 487

some buyers lamented the small size of the first japanese compacts , and both toyota and nissan ( then known as datsun ) introduced larger cars such as the toyota corona mark ii , the toyota cressida , the mazda 616 and datsun 810 , which added passenger space and amenities such as air conditioning , power steering , am-fm radios , and even power windows and central locking without increasing the price of the vehicle . a decade after the 1973 oil crisis , honda , toyota and nissan , affected by the 1981 voluntary export restraints , opened us assembly plants and established their luxury divisions ( acura , lexus and infiniti , respectively ) to distinguish themselves from their mass-market brands .
name a luxury division of toyota .
lexus

Sample: 488

jacksonville is in the first coast region of northeast florida and is centered on the banks of the st. johns river , about 25 miles ( 40 km ) south of the georgia state line and about 340 miles ( 550 km ) north of miami . the jacksonville beaches communities are along the adjacent atlantic coast . the area was originally inhabited by the timucua people , and in 1564 was the site of the french colony of fort caroline , one of the earliest european settlements in what is now the continental united states . under british rule , settlement grew at the narrow point in the river where cattle crossed , known as wacca pilatka to the seminole and the cow ford to the british . a platted town was established there in 1822 , a year after the united states gained florida from spain ; it was named after andrew jackson , the first military governor of the florida territory and seventh president of the united states .
prior to the arrival of the french , the area now known as jacksonville was previously inhabited by what people ?
the timucua

Sample: 489

the complexity class p is often seen as a mathematical abstraction modeling those computational tasks that admit an efficient algorithm . this hypothesis is called the cobham–edmonds thesis . the complexity class np , on the other hand , contains many problems that people would like to solve efficiently , but for which no efficient algorithm is known , such as the boolean satisfiability problem , the hamiltonian path problem and the vertex cover problem . since deterministic turing machines are special non-deterministic turing machines , it is easily observed that each problem in p is also member of the class np .
what complexity class is commonly characterized by unknown algorithms to enhance solvability ?
np

Sample: 490

shi tianze was a han chinese who lived in the jin dynasty . interethnic marriage between han and jurchen became common at this time . his father was shi bingzhi ( 史秉直 , shih ping-chih ) . shi bingzhi was married to a jurchen woman ( surname na-ho ) and a han chinese woman ( surname chang ) ; it is unknown which of them was shi tianze 's mother . shi tianze was married to two jurchen women , a han chinese woman , and a korean woman , and his son shi gang was born to one of his jurchen wives . the surnames of his jurchen wives were mo-nien and na-ho ; the surname of his korean wife was li ; and the surname of his han chinese wife was shi . shi tianze defected to mongol forces upon their invasion of the jin dynasty . his son shi gang married a kerait woman ; the kerait were mongolified turkic people and were considered part of the " mongol nation " . shi tianze ( shih t'ien-tse ) , zhang rou ( chang jou , 張柔 ) , and yan shi ( yen shih , 嚴實 ) and other high ranking chinese who served in the jin dynasty and defected to the mongols helped build the structure for the administration of the new state . chagaan ( tsagaan ) and zhang rou jointly launched an attack on the song dynasty ordered by töregene khatun .
in what dynasty did tianze live ?
jin dynasty

Sample: 491

the newcastle beer festival , organized by camra , takes place in april . in may , newcastle and gateshead host the evolution festival , a music festival held on the newcastle and gateshead quaysides over the spring bank holiday , with performances by acts from the world of rock , indie and dance music . the biennial av festival of international electronic art , featuring exhibitions , concerts , conferences and film screenings , is held in march . the north east art expo , a festival of art and design from the regions professional artists , is held in late may . eat ! newcastlegateshead , a festival of food and drink , runs for 2 weeks each year in mid june .
what is the festival of food and drink known as ?
eat !

Sample: 492

the grainger market replaced an earlier market originally built in 1808 called the butcher market . the grainger market itself , was opened in 1835 and was newcastle 's first indoor market . at the time of its opening in 1835 it was said to be one of the largest and most beautiful markets in europe . the opening was celebrated with a grand dinner attended by 2000 guests , and the laing art gallery has a painting of this event . with the exception of the timber roof which was destroyed by a fire in 1901 and replaced by latticed-steel arches the market is largely in its original condition . the grainger market architecture , like most in grainger town , which are either grade i or ii listed , was listed grade i in 1954 by english heritage .
who listed the grainger market architecture as grade 1 in 1954 ?
english heritage

Sample: 493

in the meantime , on august 1 , 1774 , an experiment conducted by the british clergyman joseph priestley focused sunlight on mercuric oxide ( hgo ) inside a glass tube , which liberated a gas he named " dephlogisticated air " . he noted that candles burned brighter in the gas and that a mouse was more active and lived longer while breathing it . after breathing the gas himself , he wrote : " the feeling of it to my lungs was not sensibly different from that of common air , but i fancied that my breast felt peculiarly light and easy for some time afterwards . " priestley published his findings in 1775 in a paper titled " an account of further discoveries in air " which was included in the second volume of his book titled experiments and observations on different kinds of air . because he published his findings first , priestley is usually given priority in the discovery .
what chemical did priestley use in his experiments on oxygen ?
mercuric oxide

Sample: 494

in 2010 , newcastle was positioned ninth in the retail centre expenditure league of the uk . there are several major shopping areas in newcastle city centre . the largest of these is the eldon square shopping centre , one of the largest city centre shopping complexes in the uk . it incorporates a flagship debenhams store as well as one of the largest john lewis stores in the uk . john lewis is still known to many in newcastle as bainbridges . newcastle store bainbridge 's , opened in 1838 , is often cited as the world ’ s first department store . emerson bainbridge ( 1817–1892 ) , a pioneer and the founder of bainbridges , sold goods via department , a new for merchant custom for that time . the bainbridge ’ s official ledgers reported revenue by department , giving birth to the name department store . eldon square is currently undergoing a full redevelopment . a new bus station , replacing the old underground bus station , was officially opened in march 2007 . the wing of the centre , including the undercover green market , near grainger street was demolished in 2007 so that the area could be redeveloped . this was completed in february 2010 with the opening of a flagship debenhams department store as well as other major stores including apple , hollister and guess .
what is one of the largest city center shopping complexes in the uk ?
eldon square shopping centre ,

Sample: 495

in the triplet form , o 2 molecules are paramagnetic . that is , they impart magnetic character to oxygen when it is in the presence of a magnetic field , because of the spin magnetic moments of the unpaired electrons in the molecule , and the negative exchange energy between neighboring o 2 molecules . liquid oxygen is attracted to a magnet to a sufficient extent that , in laboratory demonstrations , a bridge of liquid oxygen may be supported against its own weight between the poles of a powerful magnet . [ c ]
the spin of what can produce a magnetic effect to oxygen molecules ?
unpaired electrons

Sample: 496

central banking economist raghuram rajan argues that " systematic economic inequalities , within the united states and around the world , have created deep financial 'fault lines ' that have made [ financial ] crises more likely to happen than in the past " – the financial crisis of 2007–08 being the most recent example . to compensate for stagnating and declining purchasing power , political pressure has developed to extend easier credit to the lower and middle income earners – particularly to buy homes – and easier credit in general to keep unemployment rates low . this has given the american economy a tendency to go " from bubble to bubble " fueled by unsustainable monetary stimulation .
what does rajan feel has created deep financial fault lines ?
systematic economic inequalities

Sample: 497

according to sheldon ungar 's comparison with global warming , the actors in the ozone depletion case had a better understanding of scientific ignorance and uncertainties . the ozone case communicated to lay persons " with easy-to-understand bridging metaphors derived from the popular culture " and related to " immediate risks with everyday relevance " , while the public opinion on climate change sees no imminent danger . the stepwise mitigation of the ozone layer challenge was based as well on successfully reducing regional burden sharing conflicts . in case of the ipcc conclusions and the failure of the kyoto protocol , varying regional cost-benefit analysis and burden-sharing conflicts with regard to the distribution of emission reductions remain an unsolved problem . in the uk , a report for a house of lords committee asked to urge the ipcc to involve better assessments of costs and benefits of climate change but the stern review ordered by the uk government made a stronger argument in favor to combat human-made climate change .
what remain unsolved problems with the kyoto protocol ?
varying regional cost-benefit analysis and burden-sharing conflicts with regard to the distribution of emission reductions

Sample: 498

leukocytes ( white blood cells ) act like independent , single-celled organisms and are the second arm of the innate immune system . the innate leukocytes include the phagocytes ( macrophages , neutrophils , and dendritic cells ) , mast cells , eosinophils , basophils , and natural killer cells . these cells identify and eliminate pathogens , either by attacking larger pathogens through contact or by engulfing and then killing microorganisms . innate cells are also important mediators in the activation of the adaptive immune system .
what cells are the second arm of the innate immune system ?
leukocytes ( white blood cells )

Sample: 499

chris keates , the general secretary of national association of schoolmasters union of women teachers , said that teachers who have sex with pupils over the age of consent should not be placed on the sex offenders register and that prosecution for statutory rape " is a real anomaly in the law that we are concerned about . " this has led to outrage from child protection and parental rights groups . fears of being labelled a pedophile or hebephile has led to several men who enjoy teaching avoiding the profession . this has in some jurisdictions reportedly led to a shortage of male teachers .
what has the avoidance of men to become teachers caused , in some areas ?
a shortage of male teachers

Sample: 500

the panthers finished the regular season with a 15–1 record , and quarterback cam newton was named the nfl most valuable player ( mvp ) . they defeated the arizona cardinals 49–15 in the nfc championship game and advanced to their second super bowl appearance since the franchise was founded in 1995 . the broncos finished the regular season with a 12–4 record , and denied the new england patriots a chance to defend their title from super bowl xlix by defeating them 20–18 in the afc championship game . they joined the patriots , dallas cowboys , and pittsburgh steelers as one of four teams that have made eight appearances in the super bowl .
which team did not get a chance to defend their super bowl xlix win in super bowl 50 ?
new england patriots

Sample: 501

in cpdna , there are several a → g deamination gradients . dna becomes susceptible to deamination events when it is single stranded . when replication forks form , the strand not being copied is single stranded , and thus at risk for a → g deamination . therefore , gradients in deamination indicate that replication forks were most likely present and the direction that they initially opened ( the highest gradient is most likely nearest the start site because it was single stranded for the longest amount of time ) . this mechanism is still the leading theory today ; however , a second theory suggests that most cpdna is actually linear and replicates through homologous recombination . it further contends that only a minority of the genetic material is kept in circular chromosomes while the rest is in branched , linear , or other complex structures .
where does the secondary theory say most genes are kept ?
in branched , linear , or other complex structures

Sample: 502

the succession of genghis khan was already a significant topic during the later years of his reign , as he reached old age . the long running paternity discussion about genghis ' oldest son jochi was particularly contentious because of the seniority of jochi among the brothers . according to traditional historical accounts , the issue over jochi 's paternity was voiced most strongly by chagatai . in the secret history of the mongols , just before the invasion of the khwarezmid empire by genghis khan , chagatai declared before his father and brothers that he would never accept jochi as genghis khan 's successor . in response to this tension , and possibly for other reasons , ögedei was appointed as successor .
the paternity of which of genghis khan 's sons was disputed ?
jochi

Sample: 503

the plague repeatedly returned to haunt europe and the mediterranean throughout the 14th to 17th centuries . according to biraben , the plague was present somewhere in europe in every year between 1346 and 1671 . the second pandemic was particularly widespread in the following years : 1360–63 ; 1374 ; 1400 ; 1438–39 ; 1456–57 ; 1464–66 ; 1481–85 ; 1500–03 ; 1518–31 ; 1544–48 ; 1563–66 ; 1573–88 ; 1596–99 ; 1602–11 ; 1623–40 ; 1644–54 ; and 1664–67 . subsequent outbreaks , though severe , marked the retreat from most of europe ( 18th century ) and northern africa ( 19th century ) . according to geoffrey parker , " france alone lost almost a million people to the plague in the epidemic of 1628–31 . "
when did the plague return to europe ?
throughout the 14th to 17th centuries

Sample: 504

the first european to travel the length of the amazon river was francisco de orellana in 1542 . the bbc 's unnatural histories presents evidence that orellana , rather than exaggerating his claims as previously thought , was correct in his observations that a complex civilization was flourishing along the amazon in the 1540s . it is believed that the civilization was later devastated by the spread of diseases from europe , such as smallpox . since the 1970s , numerous geoglyphs have been discovered on deforested land dating between ad 0–1250 , furthering claims about pre-columbian civilizations . ondemar dias is accredited with first discovering the geoglyphs in 1977 and alceu ranzi with furthering their discovery after flying over acre . the bbc 's unnatural histories presented evidence that the amazon rainforest , rather than being a pristine wilderness , has been shaped by man for at least 11,000 years through practices such as forest gardening and terra preta .
how long since it 's been that geoglyphs were first discovered on deforested land ?
1970s

Sample: 505

bills can be introduced to parliament in a number of ways ; the scottish government can introduce new laws or amendments to existing laws as a bill ; a committee of the parliament can present a bill in one of the areas under its remit ; a member of the scottish parliament can introduce a bill as a private member ; or a private bill can be submitted to parliament by an outside proposer . most draft laws are government bills introduced by ministers in the governing party . bills pass through parliament in a number of stages :
who may also submit private bills to parliament ?
an outside proposer

Sample: 506

ipcc author richard lindzen has made a number of criticisms of the tar . among his criticisms , lindzen has stated that the wgi summary for policymakers ( spm ) does not faithfully summarize the full wgi report . for example , lindzen states that the spm understates the uncertainty associated with climate models . john houghton , who was a co-chair of tar wgi , has responded to lindzen 's criticisms of the spm . houghton has stressed that the spm is agreed upon by delegates from many of the world 's governments , and that any changes to the spm must be supported by scientific evidence .
who responded to lindzen 's criticisms ?
john houghton

Sample: 507

the plain moraine plateau has only a few natural and artificial ponds and also groups of clay pits . the pattern of the vistula terraces is asymmetrical . the left side consist mainly of two levels : the highest one contains former flooded terraces and the lowest one the flood plain terrace . the contemporary flooded terrace still has visible valleys and ground depressions with water systems coming from the vistula old – riverbed . they consist of still quite natural streams and lakes as well as the pattern of drainage ditches . the right side of warsaw has a different pattern of geomorphological forms . there are several levels of the plain vistula terraces ( flooded as well as former flooded once ) and only small part and not so visible moraine escarpment . aeolian sand with a number of dunes parted by peat swamps or small ponds cover the highest terrace . these are mainly forested areas ( pine forest ) .
what type of forested areas can be found on the highest terrace ?
pine

Sample: 508

hyperbaric ( high-pressure ) medicine uses special oxygen chambers to increase the partial pressure of o 2 around the patient and , when needed , the medical staff . carbon monoxide poisoning , gas gangrene , and decompression sickness ( the 'bends ' ) are sometimes treated using these devices . increased o 2 concentration in the lungs helps to displace carbon monoxide from the heme group of hemoglobin . oxygen gas is poisonous to the anaerobic bacteria that cause gas gangrene , so increasing its partial pressure helps kill them . decompression sickness occurs in divers who decompress too quickly after a dive , resulting in bubbles of inert gas , mostly nitrogen and helium , forming in their blood . increasing the pressure of o 2 as soon as possible is part of the treatment .
what device is used to treat various conditions such as carbon monoxide poisoning ?
hyperbaric ( high-pressure ) medicine

Sample: 509

a 2000 study found that 42 % of uk teachers experienced occupational stress , twice the figure for the average profession . a 2012 study found that teachers experienced double the rate of anxiety , depression , and stress than average workers .
which study showed double the rate of anxiety ?
2012

Sample: 510

in addition , there are $ 2 million worth of other ancillary events , including a week-long event at the santa clara convention center , a beer , wine and food festival at bellomy field at santa clara university , and a pep rally . a professional fundraiser will aid in finding business sponsors and individual donors , but still may need the city council to help fund the event . additional funding will be provided by the city council , which has announced plans to set aside seed funding for the event .
who set aside seed funding for the week-long event leading up to the super bowl ?
city council

Sample: 511

on 28 february 2008 , kibaki and odinga signed an agreement on the formation of a coalition government in which odinga would become kenya 's second prime minister . under the deal , the president would appoint cabinet ministers from both pnu and odm camps depending on each party 's strength in parliament . the agreement stipulated that the cabinet would include a vice-president and two deputy prime ministers . after debates , it was passed by parliament , the coalition would hold until the end of the current parliament or if either of the parties withdraws from the deal before then .
what would be odinga 's role in the government ?
prime minister

Sample: 512

the reason for the majority rule is the high risk of a conflict of interest and/or the avoidance of absolute powers . otherwise , the physician has a financial self-interest in " diagnosing " as many conditions as possible , and in exaggerating their seriousness , because he or she can then sell more medications to the patient . such self-interest directly conflicts with the patient 's interest in obtaining cost-effective medication and avoiding the unnecessary use of medication that may have side-effects . this system reflects much similarity to the checks and balances system of the u.s. and many other governments . [ citation needed ]
what do rules about conflict of interest involving doctors diagnosing patients resemble ?
the checks and balances system of the u.s. and many other governments .

Sample: 513

baran developed the concept of distributed adaptive message block switching during his research at the rand corporation for the us air force into survivable communications networks , first presented to the air force in the summer of 1961 as briefing b-265 , later published as rand report p-2626 in 1962 , and finally in report rm 3420 in 1964 . report p-2626 described a general architecture for a large-scale , distributed , survivable communications network . the work focuses on three key ideas : use of a decentralized network with multiple paths between any two points , dividing user messages into message blocks , later called packets , and delivery of these messages by store and forward switching .
what was developed for the air force
survivable communications networks

Sample: 514

the romans kept eight legions in five bases along the rhine . the actual number of legions present at any base or in all , depended on whether a state or threat of war existed . between about ad 14 and 180 , the assignment of legions was as follows : for the army of germania inferior , two legions at vetera ( xanten ) , i germanica and xx valeria ( pannonian troops ) ; two legions at oppidum ubiorum ( " town of the ubii " ) , which was renamed to colonia agrippina , descending to cologne , v alaudae , a celtic legion recruited from gallia narbonensis and xxi , possibly a galatian legion from the other side of the empire .
what did the number of legions in roman times depend on ?
threat of war

Sample: 515

the adaptive immune system evolved in early vertebrates and allows for a stronger immune response as well as immunological memory , where each pathogen is " remembered " by a signature antigen . the adaptive immune response is antigen-specific and requires the recognition of specific " non-self " antigens during a process called antigen presentation . antigen specificity allows for the generation of responses that are tailored to specific pathogens or pathogen-infected cells . the ability to mount these tailored responses is maintained in the body by " memory cells " . should a pathogen infect the body more than once , these specific memory cells are used to quickly eliminate it .
in what types of organisms did the adaptive immune system first evolve ?
vertebrates

Sample: 516

networks affiliates approved a two-year affiliate agreement in 2002 . in september , disney chairman/ceo michael eisner outlined a proposed realignment of the abc broadcast network day parts with the similar unit in its cable channels : abc saturday mornings with disney channels ( toon & playhouse ) , abc daytime with soapnet and abc prime time with abc family . 2002 saw the debut of the network 's first hit reality series , the bachelor ( the elimination-style dating show 's success led to a spinoff , the bachelorette , which premiered the following year , as well as two additional spinoffs that later debuted in the early 2010s ) .
what reality series was the first spinoff of the bachelor for abc ?
the bachelorette

Sample: 517

arpanet and sita hln became operational in 1969 . before the introduction of x.25 in 1973 , about twenty different network technologies had been developed . two fundamental differences involved the division of functions and tasks between the hosts at the edge of the network and the network core . in the datagram system , the hosts have the responsibility to ensure orderly delivery of packets . the user datagram protocol ( udp ) is an example of a datagram protocol . in the virtual call system , the network guarantees sequenced delivery of data to the host . this results in a simpler host interface with less functionality than in the datagram model . the x.25 protocol suite uses this network type .
x.25 uses what type network type
user datagram protocol

Sample: 518

it is usually recognized that lawbreaking , if it is not done publicly , at least must be publicly announced in order to constitute civil disobedience . but stephen eilmann argues that if it is necessary to disobey rules that conflict with morality , we might ask why disobedience should take the form of public civil disobedience rather than simply covert lawbreaking . if a lawyer wishes to help a client overcome legal obstacles to securing her or his natural rights , he might , for instance , find that assisting in fabricating evidence or committing perjury is more effective than open disobedience . this assumes that common morality does not have a prohibition on deceit in such situations . the fully informed jury association 's publication " a primer for prospective jurors " notes , " think of the dilemma faced by german citizens when hitler 's secret police demanded to know if they were hiding a jew in their house . " by this definition , civil disobedience could be traced back to the book of exodus , where shiphrah and puah refused a direct order of pharaoh but misrepresented how they did it . ( exodus 1 : 15-19 )
stephen eilmann demonstrates covert law breaking in nazi germany . citizen 's illegally had been doing what ?
hiding a jew in their house

Sample: 519

on 11 july 1934 , the new york herald tribune published an article on tesla , in which he recalled an event that would occasionally take place while experimenting with his single-electrode vacuum tubes ; a minute particle would break off the cathode , pass out of the tube , and physically strike him . " tesla said he could feel a sharp stinging pain where it entered his body , and again at the place where it passed out . " in comparing these particles with the bits of metal projected by his " electric gun , " tesla said , " the particles in the beam of force ... will travel much faster than such particles ... and they will travel in concentrations . "
when did the herald tribune publish its tesla article ?
1934

Sample: 520

the popular neighborhood known as the tower district is centered around the historic tower theatre , which is included on the national list of historic places . the theater was built in 1939 and is at olive and wishon avenues in the heart of the tower district . ( the name of the theater refers to a well-known landmark water tower , which is actually in another nearby area ) . the tower district neighborhood is just north of downtown fresno proper , and one-half mile south of fresno city college . although the neighborhood was known as a residential area prior , the early commercial establishments of the tower district began with small shops and services that flocked to the area shortly after world war ii . the character of small local businesses largely remains today . to some extent , the businesses of the tower district were developed due to the proximity of the original fresno normal school , ( later renamed california state university at fresno ) . in 1916 the college moved to what is now the site of fresno city college one-half mile north of the tower district .
the tower district is centered around which historic theatre ?
tower theatre

Sample: 521

by the late 19th century scientists realized that air could be liquefied , and its components isolated , by compressing and cooling it . using a cascade method , swiss chemist and physicist raoul pierre pictet evaporated liquid sulfur dioxide in order to liquefy carbon dioxide , which in turn was evaporated to cool oxygen gas enough to liquefy it . he sent a telegram on december 22 , 1877 to the french academy of sciences in paris announcing his discovery of liquid oxygen . just two days later , french physicist louis paul cailletet announced his own method of liquefying molecular oxygen . only a few drops of the liquid were produced in either case so no meaningful analysis could be conducted . oxygen was liquified in stable state for the first time on march 29 , 1883 by polish scientists from jagiellonian university , zygmunt wróblewski and karol olszewski .
what scientist told the french academy of sciences that he had found how to liquefy oxygen ?
raoul pierre pictet

Sample: 522

the " big five " game animals of africa , that is the lion , leopard , buffalo , rhinoceros , and elephant , can be found in kenya and in the masai mara in particular . a significant population of other wild animals , reptiles and birds can be found in the national parks and game reserves in the country . the annual animal migration occurs between june and september with millions of animals taking part , attracting valuable foreign tourism . two million wildebeest migrate a distance of 2,900 kilometres ( 1,802 mi ) from the serengeti in neighbouring tanzania to the masai mara in kenya , in a constant clockwise fashion , searching for food and water supplies . this serengeti migration of the wildebeest is a curious spectacle listed among the 10 natural wonders of africa .
what are the " big five " animals in kenya ?
lion , leopard , buffalo , rhinoceros , and elephant

Sample: 523

the best , worst and average case complexity refer to three different ways of measuring the time complexity ( or any other complexity measure ) of different inputs of the same size . since some inputs of size n may be faster to solve than others , we define the following complexities :
what is one common example of a critical complexity measure ?
time

Sample: 524

the mallee and upper wimmera are victoria 's warmest regions with hot winds blowing from nearby semi-deserts . average temperatures exceed 32 °c ( 90 °f ) during summer and 15 °c ( 59 °f ) in winter . except at cool mountain elevations , the inland monthly temperatures are 2–7 °c ( 4–13 °f ) warmer than around melbourne ( see chart ) . victoria 's highest maximum temperature since world war ii , of 48.8 °c ( 119.8 °f ) was recorded in hopetoun on 7 february 2009 , during the 2009 southeastern australia heat wave .
what is the weather type of mallee and upper wimmera ?
warmest regions

Sample: 525

warsaw 's name in the polish language is warszawa , approximately /vɑːrˈʃɑːvə/ ( also formerly spelled warszewa and warszowa ) , meaning " belonging to warsz " , warsz being a shortened form of the masculine name of slavic origin warcisław ; see also etymology of wrocław . folk etymology attributes the city name to a fisherman , wars , and his wife , sawa . according to legend , sawa was a mermaid living in the vistula river with whom wars fell in love . in actuality , warsz was a 12th/13th-century nobleman who owned a village located at the modern-day site of mariensztat neighbourhood . see also the vršovci family which had escaped to poland . the official city name in full is miasto stołeczne warszawa ( english : " the capital city of warsaw " ) . a native or resident of warsaw is known as a varsovian – in polish warszawiak ( male ) , warszawianka ( female ) , warszawiacy ( plural ) .
what does warszawa mean in polish ?
belonging to warsz

Sample: 526

in 1970 , abc debuted monday night football as part of its monday prime time schedule ; the program became a hit for the network and served as the national football league ( nfl ) 's premier game of the week until 2006 , when sunday night football , which moved to nbc that year as part of a broadcast deal that in turn saw mnf move to espn , took over as the league 's marquee game . according to goldenson , monday night football helped earn abc regularly score an audience share of 15 % –16 % ; abc sports managed the budget for the monday night time slot to reallocate the weekly budget for abc 's prime time schedule to just six days , as opposed to seven on competing networks . 1970 also saw the premieres of several soap operas including the long-running all my children , which ran on the network for 41 years .
when did sunday night football premiere on nbc ?
2006

Sample: 527

walt disney and his brother roy contacted goldenson at the end of 1953 for abc to agree to finance part of the disneyland project in exchange for producing a television program for the network . walt wanted abc to invest $ 500,000 and accrued a guarantee of $ 4.5 million in additional loans , a third of the budget intended for the park . around 1954 , abc agreed to finance disneyland in exchange for the right to broadcast a new sunday night program , disneyland , which debuted on the network on october 27 , 1954 as the first of many anthology television programs that disney would broadcast over the course of the next 50 years .
in what year did abc agree to finance disneyland ?
1954

Sample: 528

dynamic equilibrium was first described by galileo who noticed that certain assumptions of aristotelian physics were contradicted by observations and logic . galileo realized that simple velocity addition demands that the concept of an " absolute rest frame " did not exist . galileo concluded that motion in a constant velocity was completely equivalent to rest . this was contrary to aristotle 's notion of a " natural state " of rest that objects with mass naturally approached . simple experiments showed that galileo 's understanding of the equivalence of constant velocity and rest were correct . for example , if a mariner dropped a cannonball from the crow 's nest of a ship moving at a constant velocity , aristotelian physics would have the cannonball fall straight down while the ship moved beneath it . thus , in an aristotelian universe , the falling cannonball would land behind the foot of the mast of a moving ship . however , when this experiment is actually conducted , the cannonball always falls at the foot of the mast , as if the cannonball knows to travel with the ship despite being separated from it . since there is no forward horizontal force being applied on the cannonball as it falls , the only conclusion left is that the cannonball continues to move with the same velocity as the boat as it falls . thus , no force is required to keep the cannonball moving at the constant forward velocity .
where will a canonball dropped from the crow 's nest of a ship land according to aristotle ?
behind the foot of the mast

Sample: 529

tesla served as a vice president of the american institute of electrical engineers , the forerunner ( along with the institute of radio engineers ) of the modern-day ieee , from 1892 to 1894 .
what organization did tesla serve as vice president of ?
american institute of electrical engineers

Sample: 530

in 1900 , tesla was granted patents for a " system of transmitting electrical energy " and " an electrical transmitter . " when guglielmo marconi made his famous first-ever transatlantic radio transmission in 1901 , tesla quipped that it was done with 17 tesla patents , though there is little to support this claim . this was the beginning of years of patent battles over radio with tesla 's patents being upheld in 1903 , followed by a reverse decision in favor of marconi in 1904 . in 1943 , a supreme court of the united states decision restored the prior patents of tesla , oliver lodge , and john stone . the court declared that their decision had no bearing on marconi 's claim as the first to achieve radio transmission , just that since marconi 's claim to certain patents were questionable , he could not claim infringement on those same patents ( there are claims the high court was trying to nullify a world war i claim against the u.s. government by the marconi company via simply restoring tesla 's prior patent ) .
when was marconi 's radio demonstration ?
1901

Sample: 531

charles avison , the leading british composer of concertos in the 18th century , was born in newcastle upon tyne in 1709 and died there in 1770 . basil hume , archbishop of westminster , was born in the city in 1923 . vice admiral cuthbert collingwood , 1st baron collingwood , was born in the city . ironmaster , metallurgist , and member of parliament isaac lowthian bell was born in the city in 1816 . other notable people born in or associated with newcastle include : engineer and industrialist lord armstrong , engineer and father of the modern steam railways george stephenson , his son , also an engineer , robert stephenson , engineer and inventor of the steam turbine sir charles parsons , inventor of the incandescent light bulb sir joseph swan , modernist poet basil bunting , and lord chief justice peter taylor . portuguese writer eça de queiroz was a diplomat in newcastle from late 1874 until april 1879—his most productive literary period . former prime minister of thailand abhisit vejjajiva , was born in the city .
who is known as the father of the modern steam railways ?
george stephenson

Sample: 532

the presiding officer ( or deputy presiding officer ) decides who speaks in chamber debates and the amount of time for which they are allowed to speak . normally , the presiding officer tries to achieve a balance between different viewpoints and political parties when selecting members to speak . typically , ministers or party leaders open debates , with opening speakers given between 5 and 20 minutes , and succeeding speakers allocated less time . the presiding officer can reduce speaking time if a large number of members wish to participate in the debate . debate is more informal than in some parliamentary systems . members may call each other directly by name , rather than by constituency or cabinet position , and hand clapping is allowed . speeches to the chamber are normally delivered in english , but members may use scots , gaelic , or any other language with the agreement of the presiding officer . the scottish parliament has conducted debates in the gaelic language .
who decides who gets to speak in the chamber debates ?
the presiding officer

Sample: 533

on april 23 , 1968 , the united methodist church was created when the evangelical united brethren church ( represented by bishop reuben h. mueller ) and the methodist church ( represented by bishop lloyd christ wicke ) joined hands at the constituting general conference in dallas , texas . with the words , " lord of the church , we are united in thee , in thy church and now in the united methodist church " the new denomination was given birth by the two churches that had distinguished histories and influential ministries in various parts of the world .
when was the united methodist church created ?
april 23 , 1968

Sample: 534

both innate and adaptive immunity depend on the ability of the immune system to distinguish between self and non-self molecules . in immunology , self molecules are those components of an organism 's body that can be distinguished from foreign substances by the immune system . conversely , non-self molecules are those recognized as foreign molecules . one class of non-self molecules are called antigens ( short for antibody generators ) and are defined as substances that bind to specific immune receptors and elicit an immune response .
antigens bind to what in order to elicit a response of the immune system ?
specific immune receptors

Sample: 535

analogous definitions can be made for space requirements . although time and space are the most well-known complexity resources , any complexity measure can be viewed as a computational resource . complexity measures are very generally defined by the blum complexity axioms . other complexity measures used in complexity theory include communication complexity , circuit complexity , and decision tree complexity .
decision tree is an example of what type of measure ?
complexity measures

Sample: 536

in the united states , the game was televised by cbs , as part of a cycle between the three main broadcast television partners of the nfl . the network 's lead broadcast team of jim nantz and phil simms called the contest , with tracy wolfson and evan washburn on the sidelines . cbs introduced new features during the telecast , including pylon cameras and microphones along with eyevision 360—an array of 36 cameras along the upper deck that can be used to provide a 360-degree view of plays and " bullet time " effects . ( an earlier version of eyevision was last used in super bowl xxxv ; for super bowl 50 , the cameras were upgraded to 5k resolution . )
what resolution were the eyevision cameras changed to ?
5k

Sample: 537

there are several ways to mitigate the occupational hazards of teaching . organizational interventions , like changing teachers ' schedules , providing support networks and mentoring , changing the work environment , and offering promotions and bonuses , may be effective in helping to reduce occupational stress among teachers . individual-level interventions , including stress-management training and counseling , are also used to relieve occupational stress among teachers .
what might offering bonuses help reduce ?
occupational stress among teachers

Sample: 538

in february 2010 , in response to controversies regarding claims in the fourth assessment report , five climate scientists – all contributing or lead ipcc report authors – wrote in the journal nature calling for changes to the ipcc . they suggested a range of new organizational options , from tightening the selection of lead authors and contributors , to dumping it in favor of a small permanent body , or even turning the whole climate science assessment process into a moderated " living " wikipedia-ipcc . other recommendations included that the panel employ a full-time staff and remove government oversight from its processes to avoid political interference .
where was the feb 2010 call for change published ?
the journal nature

Sample: 539

historically , victoria has been the base for the manufacturing plants of the major car brands ford , toyota and holden ; however , closure announcements by all three companies in the 21st century will mean that australia will no longer be a base for the global car industry , with toyota 's statement in february 2014 outlining a closure year of 2017 . holden 's announcement occurred in may 2013 , followed by ford 's decision in december of the same year ( ford 's victorian plants—in broadmeadows and geelong—will close in october 2016 ) .
what brand of car is manufactured in broadmeadows ?
ford

Sample: 540

newcastle upon tyne ( rp : i/ˌnjuːkɑːsəl əˌpɒn ˈtaɪn/ ; locally : i/njuːˌkæsəl əˌpən ˈtaɪn/ ) , commonly known as newcastle , is a city in tyne and wear , north east england , 103 miles ( 166 km ) south of edinburgh and 277 miles ( 446 km ) north of london on the northern bank of the river tyne , 8.5 mi ( 13.7 km ) from the north sea . newcastle is the most populous city in the north east and tyneside the eighth most populous conurbation in the united kingdom . newcastle is a member of the english core cities group and is a member of the eurocities network of european cities . newcastle was part of the county of northumberland until 1400 , when it became a county itself , a status it retained until becoming part of tyne and wear in 1974 . [ not in citation given ] the regional nickname and dialect for people from newcastle and the surrounding area is geordie .
what 's the regional nickname for newcastle and its surrounding area ?
geordie

Sample: 541

for a precise definition of what it means to solve a problem using a given amount of time and space , a computational model such as the deterministic turing machine is used . the time required by a deterministic turing machine m on input x is the total number of state transitions , or steps , the machine makes before it halts and outputs the answer ( " yes " or " no " ) . a turing machine m is said to operate within time f ( n ) , if the time required by m on each input of length n is at most f ( n ) . a decision problem a can be solved in time f ( n ) if there exists a turing machine operating in time f ( n ) that solves the problem . since complexity theory is interested in classifying problems based on their difficulty , one defines sets of problems based on some criteria . for instance , the set of problems solvable within time f ( n ) on a deterministic turing machine is then denoted by dtime ( f ( n ) ) .
what is the expression used to identify any given series of problems capable of being solved within time on a deterministic turing machine ?
dtime ( f ( n ) )

Sample: 542

the city of bukhara was not heavily fortified , with a moat and a single wall , and the citadel typical of khwarezmi cities . the city leaders opened the gates to the mongols , though a unit of turkish defenders held the city 's citadel for another twelve days . survivors from the citadel were executed , artisans and craftsmen were sent back to mongolia , young men who had not fought were drafted into the mongolian army and the rest of the population was sent into slavery . as the mongol soldiers looted the city , a fire broke out , razing most of the city to the ground . genghis khan had the city 's surviving population assemble in the main mosque of the town , where he declared that he was the flail of god , sent to punish them for their sins .
who continued to hold the citadel of bukhara after the mongols took the rest of the city ?
a unit of turkish defenders

Sample: 543

citizenship of the eu has increasingly been seen as a " fundamental " status of member state nationals by the court of justice , and has accordingly increased the number of social services that people can access wherever they move . the court has required that higher education , along with other forms of vocational training , should be more access , albeit with qualifying periods . in commission v austria the court held that austria was not entitled to restrict places in austrian universities to austrian students to avoid " structural , staffing and financial problems " if ( mainly german ) foreign students applied for places because there was little evidence of an actual problem .
what has lately been being viewed as a fundamental status of member state nationals by the court of justice ?
citizenship of the eu

Sample: 544

since its founding , the eu has operated among an increasing plurality of national and globalising legal systems . this has meant both the european court of justice and the highest national courts have had to develop principles to resolve conflicts of laws between different systems . within the eu itself , the court of justice 's view is that if eu law conflicts with a provision of national law , then eu law has primacy . in the first major case in 1964 , costa v enel , a milanese lawyer , and former shareholder of an energy company , named mr costa refused to pay his electricity bill to enel , as a protest against the nationalisation of the italian energy corporations . he claimed the italian nationalisation law conflicted with the treaty of rome , and requested a reference be made to both the italian constitutional court and the court of justice under tfeu article 267 . the italian constitutional court gave an opinion that because the nationalisation law was from 1962 , and the treaty was in force from 1958 , costa had no claim . by contrast , the court of justice held that ultimately the treaty of rome in no way prevented energy nationalisation , and in any case under the treaty provisions only the commission could have brought a claim , not mr costa . however , in principle , mr costa was entitled to plead that the treaty conflicted with national law , and the court would have a duty to consider his claim to make a reference if there would be no appeal against its decision . the court of justice , repeating its view in van gend en loos , said member states " albeit within limited spheres , have restricted their sovereign rights and created a body of law applicable both to their nationals and to themselves " on the " basis of reciprocity " . eu law would not " be overridden by domestic legal provisions , however framed ... without the legal basis of the community itself being called into question . " this meant any " subsequent unilateral act " of the member state inapplicable . similarly , in amministrazione delle finanze v simmenthal spa , a company , simmenthal spa , claimed that a public health inspection fee under an italian law of 1970 for importing beef from france to italy was contrary to two regulations from 1964 and 1968 . in " accordance with the principle of the precedence of community law , " said the court of justice , the " directly applicable measures of the institutions " ( such as the regulations in the case ) " render automatically inapplicable any conflicting provision of current national law " . this was necessary to prevent a " corresponding denial " of treaty " obligations undertaken unconditionally and irrevocably by member states " , that could " imperil the very foundations of the " eu . but despite the views of the court of justice , the national courts of member states have not accepted the same analysis .
what were the years two regulations that conflicted with an italian law originate in the simmenthal spa case ?
1964 and 1968

Sample: 545

the capabilities approach – sometimes called the human development approach – looks at income inequality and poverty as form of “ capability deprivation ” . unlike neoliberalism , which “ defines well-being as utility maximization ” , economic growth and income are considered a means to an end rather than the end itself . its goal is to “ wid [ en ] people ’ s choices and the level of their achieved well-being ” through increasing functionings ( the things a person values doing ) , capabilities ( the freedom to enjoy functionings ) and agency ( the ability to pursue valued goals ) .
what does the capabilities approach look at poverty as a form of ?
capability deprivation

Sample: 546

the grainger market replaced an earlier market originally built in 1808 called the butcher market . the grainger market itself , was opened in 1835 and was newcastle 's first indoor market . at the time of its opening in 1835 it was said to be one of the largest and most beautiful markets in europe . the opening was celebrated with a grand dinner attended by 2000 guests , and the laing art gallery has a painting of this event . with the exception of the timber roof which was destroyed by a fire in 1901 and replaced by latticed-steel arches the market is largely in its original condition . the grainger market architecture , like most in grainger town , which are either grade i or ii listed , was listed grade i in 1954 by english heritage .
how is the opening of the grainger market documented in the laing art gallery ?
a painting

Sample: 547

the panthers defense gave up just 308 points , ranking sixth in the league , while also leading the nfl in interceptions with 24 and boasting four pro bowl selections . pro bowl defensive tackle kawann short led the team in sacks with 11 , while also forcing three fumbles and recovering two . fellow lineman mario addison added 6½ sacks . the panthers line also featured veteran defensive end jared allen , a 5-time pro bowler who was the nfl 's active career sack leader with 136 , along with defensive end kony ealy , who had 5 sacks in just 9 starts . behind them , two of the panthers three starting linebackers were also selected to play in the pro bowl : thomas davis and luke kuechly . davis compiled 5½ sacks , four forced fumbles , and four interceptions , while kuechly led the team in tackles ( 118 ) forced two fumbles , and intercepted four passes of his own . carolina 's secondary featured pro bowl safety kurt coleman , who led the team with a career high seven interceptions , while also racking up 88 tackles and pro bowl cornerback josh norman , who developed into a shutdown corner during the season and had four interceptions , two of which were returned for touchdowns .
how many balls did josh norman intercept ?
four

Sample: 548

the internal cavity forms : a mouth that can usually be closed by muscles ; a pharynx ( " throat " ) ; a wider area in the center that acts as a stomach ; and a system of internal canals . these branch through the mesoglea to the most active parts of the animal : the mouth and pharynx ; the roots of the tentacles , if present ; all along the underside of each comb row ; and four branches round the sensory complex at the far end from the mouth – two of these four branches terminate in anal pores . the inner surface of the cavity is lined with an epithelium , the gastrodermis . the mouth and pharynx have both cilia and well-developed muscles . in other parts of the canal system , the gastrodermis is different on the sides nearest to and furthest from the organ that it supplies . the nearer side is composed of tall nutritive cells that store nutrients in vacuoles ( internal compartments ) , germ cells that produce eggs or sperm , and photocytes that produce bioluminescence . the side furthest from the organ is covered with ciliated cells that circulate water through the canals , punctuated by ciliary rosettes , pores that are surrounded by double whorls of cilia and connect to the mesoglea .
what does the internal cavity contain ?
a mouth that can usually be closed by muscles ; a pharynx ( " throat " ) ; a wider area in the center that acts as a stomach ; and a system of internal canals .

Sample: 549

the s-ivb orbital workshop was the only one of these plans to make it off the drawing board . dubbed skylab , it was constructed complete on the ground rather than in space , and launched in 1973 using the two lower stages of a saturn v. it was equipped with an apollo telescope mount , the solar telescope that would have been used on the apollo telescope missions . skylab 's last crew departed the station on february 8 , 1974 , and the station itself re-entered the atmosphere in 1979 , by which time it had become the oldest operational apollo-saturn component .
the skylab had what type of equipment onboard that was supposed to be used in a different mission ?
apollo telescope mount

Sample: 550

the panthers finished the regular season with a 15–1 record , and quarterback cam newton was named the nfl most valuable player ( mvp ) . they defeated the arizona cardinals 49–15 in the nfc championship game and advanced to their second super bowl appearance since the franchise was founded in 1995 . the broncos finished the regular season with a 12–4 record , and denied the new england patriots a chance to defend their title from super bowl xlix by defeating them 20–18 in the afc championship game . they joined the patriots , dallas cowboys , and pittsburgh steelers as one of four teams that have made eight appearances in the super bowl .
who is the quarterback for the panthers ?
cam newton

Sample: 551

the flora of the city may be considered very rich in species . the species richness is mainly due to the location of warsaw within the border region of several big floral regions comprising substantial proportions of close-to-wilderness areas ( natural forests , wetlands along the vistula ) as well as arable land , meadows and forests . bielany forest , located within the borders of warsaw , is the remaining part of the masovian primeval forest . bielany forest nature reserve is connected with kampinos forest . it is home to rich fauna and flora . within the forest there are three cycling and walking trails . other big forest area is kabaty forest by the southern city border . warsaw has also two botanic gardens : by the łazienki park ( a didactic-research unit of the university of warsaw ) as well as by the park of culture and rest in powsin ( a unit of the polish academy of science ) .
why is warsaw 's flora very rich in species ?
location of warsaw

Sample: 552

recently , chloroplasts have caught attention by developers of genetically modified crops . since , in most flowering plants , chloroplasts are not inherited from the male parent , transgenes in these plastids can not be disseminated by pollen . this makes plastid transformation a valuable tool for the creation and cultivation of genetically modified plants that are biologically contained , thus posing significantly lower environmental risks . this biological containment strategy is therefore suitable for establishing the coexistence of conventional and organic agriculture . while the reliability of this mechanism has not yet been studied for all relevant crop species , recent results in tobacco plants are promising , showing a failed containment rate of transplastomic plants at 3 in 1,000,000 .
why are chloroplasts of interest in gmo crops ?
transgenes in these plastids can not be disseminated by pollen

Sample: 553

there are 3 main bus companies providing services in the city ; arriva north east , go north east and stagecoach north east . there are two major bus stations in the city : haymarket bus station and eldon square bus station . arriva mainly operates from haymarket bus station providing the majority of services to the north of newcastle , northumberland and north tyneside . go-ahead operates from eldon square bus station , providing the majority of services south of the river in gateshead , south tyneside , sunderland , and county durham . stagecoach is the primary operator in the city proper , with cross-city services mainly between both the west and east ends via the city centre with some services extending out to the metrocentre , killingworth , wallsend and ponteland . bus services in newcastle upon tyne and the surrounding boroughs part of the tyne and wear area are coordinated by nexus , the tyne and wear passenger transport executive .
how many major bus stations are in the city of newcastle ?
two

Sample: 554

there are several museums and galleries in newcastle , including the centre for life with its science village ; the discovery museum a museum highlighting life on tyneside , including tyneside 's shipbuilding heritage , and inventions which changed the world ; the great north museum ; in 2009 the newcastle on tyne museum of antiquities merged with the great north museum ( hancock museum ) ; seven stories a museum dedicated to children 's books , the side gallery historical and contemporary photography from around the world and northern england and the newburn hall motor museum .
what museum in newcastle is dedicated to children 's books ?
seven stories

Sample: 555

in 1928 , tesla received his last patent , u.s. patent 1,655,114 , for a biplane capable of taking off vertically ( vtol aircraft ) and then be " gradually tilted through manipulation of the elevator devices " in flight until it was flying like a conventional plane . tesla thought the plane would sell for less than $ 1,000 . :251 although the aircraft was probably impractical , it may be the earliest known design for what became the tiltrotor/tilt-wing concept as well as the earliest proposal for the use of turbine engines in rotor aircraft . [ improper synthesis ? ]
what was tesla 's belief as to the selling price of the biplane ?
less than $ 1,000

Sample: 556

the chloroplastidan chloroplasts , or green chloroplasts , are another large , highly diverse primary chloroplast lineage . their host organisms are commonly known as the green algae and land plants . they differ from glaucophyte and red algal chloroplasts in that they have lost their phycobilisomes , and contain chlorophyll b instead . most green chloroplasts are ( obviously ) green , though some are n't , like some forms of hæmatococcus pluvialis , due to accessory pigments that override the chlorophylls ' green colors . chloroplastidan chloroplasts have lost the peptidoglycan wall between their double membrane , and have replaced it with an intermembrane space . some plants seem to have kept the genes for the synthesis of the peptidoglycan layer , though they 've been repurposed for use in chloroplast division instead .
what do green chloroplasts have instead of phycobilisomes ?
chlorophyll b

Sample: 557

not all cells in a multicellular plant contain chloroplasts . all green parts of a plant contain chloroplasts—the chloroplasts , or more specifically , the chlorophyll in them are what make the photosynthetic parts of a plant green . the plant cells which contain chloroplasts are usually parenchyma cells , though chloroplasts can also be found in collenchyma tissue . a plant cell which contains chloroplasts is known as a chlorenchyma cell . a typical chlorenchyma cell of a land plant contains about 10 to 100 chloroplasts .
what plant cells have chloroplasts in them ?
parenchyma cells

Sample: 558

british researchers richard g. wilkinson and kate pickett have found higher rates of health and social problems ( obesity , mental illness , homicides , teenage births , incarceration , child conflict , drug use ) , and lower rates of social goods ( life expectancy by country , educational performance , trust among strangers , women 's status , social mobility , even numbers of patents issued ) in countries and states with higher inequality . using statistics from 23 developed countries and the 50 states of the us , they found social/health problems lower in countries like japan and finland and states like utah and new hampshire with high levels of equality , than in countries ( us and uk ) and states ( mississippi and new york ) with large differences in household income .
what rates of health and social problems are in countries with high inequality ?
higher

Sample: 559

in the early 1990s the memory of genghis khan with the mongolian national identity has had a powerful revival partly because of his perception during the mongolian people 's republic period . genghis khan became one of the central figures of the national identity . he is looked upon positively by mongolians for his role in uniting warring tribes . for example , it is not uncommon for mongolians to refer to their country as " genghis khan 's mongolia " , to themselves as " genghis khan 's children " , and to genghis khan as the " father of the mongols " especially among the younger generation . however , there is a chasm in the perception of his brutality . mongolians maintain that the historical records written by non-mongolians are unfairly biased against genghis khan and that his butchery is exaggerated , while his positive role is underrated .
what recent decade saw brightening of the perception of genghis khan in mongolia ?
1990s

Sample: 560

these studies were widely presented as demonstrating that the current warming period is exceptional in comparison to temperatures between 1000 and 1900 , and the mbh99 based graph featured in publicity . even at the draft stage , this finding was disputed by contrarians : in may 2000 fred singer 's science and environmental policy project held a press event on capitol hill , washington , d.c. , featuring comments on the graph wibjörn karlén and singer argued against the graph at a united states senate committee on commerce , science and transportation hearing on 18 july 2000 . contrarian john lawrence daly featured a modified version of the ipcc 1990 schematic , which he mis-identified as appearing in the ipcc 1995 report , and argued that " overturning its own previous view in the 1995 report , the ipcc presented the 'hockey stick ' as the new orthodoxy with hardly an apology or explanation for the abrupt u-turn since its 1995 report " . criticism of the mbh99 reconstruction in a review paper , which was quickly discredited in the soon and baliunas controversy , was picked up by the bush administration , and a senate speech by us republican senator james inhofe alleged that " manmade global warming is the greatest hoax ever perpetrated on the american people " . the data and methodology used to produce the " hockey stick graph " was criticized in papers by stephen mcintyre and ross mckitrick , and in turn the criticisms in these papers were examined by other studies and comprehensively refuted by wahl & ammann 2007 , which showed errors in the methods used by mcintyre and mckitrick .
where did singer hold a press conference in may 2000 ?
capitol hill , washington , d.c.

Sample: 561

on 19 october 1512 , he was awarded his doctor of theology and , on 21 october 1512 , was received into the senate of the theological faculty of the university of wittenberg , having been called to the position of doctor in bible . he spent the rest of his career in this position at the university of wittenberg .
what position did luther have in wittenberg ?
doctor in bible

Sample: 562

in addition to the riemann hypothesis , many more conjectures revolving about primes have been posed . often having an elementary formulation , many of these conjectures have withstood a proof for decades : all four of landau 's problems from 1912 are still unsolved . one of them is goldbach 's conjecture , which asserts that every even integer n greater than 2 can be written as a sum of two primes . as of february 2011 [ update ] , this conjecture has been verified for all numbers up to n = 2 · 1017 . weaker statements than this have been proven , for example vinogradov 's theorem says that every sufficiently large odd integer can be written as a sum of three primes . chen 's theorem says that every sufficiently large even number can be expressed as the sum of a prime and a semiprime , the product of two primes . also , any even integer can be written as the sum of six primes . the branch of number theory studying such questions is called additive number theory .
when did landau propose his four conjectural problems ?
1912

Sample: 563

bskyb launched its hdtv service , sky+ hd , on 22 may 2006 . prior to its launch , bskyb claimed that 40,000 people had registered to receive the hd service . in the week before the launch , rumours started to surface that bskyb was having supply issues with its set top box ( stb ) from manufacturer thomson . on thursday 18 may 2006 , and continuing through the weekend before launch , people were reporting that bskyb had either cancelled or rescheduled its installation . finally , the bbc reported that 17,000 customers had yet to receive the service due to failed deliveries . on 31 march 2012 , sky announced the total number of homes with sky+hd was 4,222,000 .
what was the name of the set top box manufacturer that bskyb was having issues with ?
thomson

Sample: 564

in december 1984 , thomas s. murphy , chief executive officer of capital cities communications , contacted leonard goldenson about a proposal to merge their respective companies . on march 16 , 1985 , abc 's executive committee accepted the merger offer , which was formally announced on march 18 , 1985 , with capital cities purchasing abc and its related properties for $ 3.5 billion and $ 118 for each of abc 's shares as well as a guarantee of 10 % ( or $ 3 ) for a total of $ 121 per share . to finance the purchase , capital cities borrowed $ 2.1 billion from a consortium of banks , which sold certain assets that capital cites could not acquire or retain due to fcc ownership rules for a combined $ 900 million and sold off several cable television systems , which were sold to the washington post company ( forming the present-day cable one ) . the remaining $ 500 million was loaned by warren buffett , who promised that his company berkshire hathaway would purchase $ 3 million in shares , at $ 172.50 apiece . due to an fcc ban on same-market ownership of television and radio stations by a single company ( although the deal would have otherwise complied with new ownership rules implemented by the fcc in january 1985 , that allowed broadcasters to own a maximum of 12 television stations ) , abc and capital cities respectively decided to sell wxyz-tv and tampa independent station wfts-tv to the e. w. scripps company ( although capital cities/abc originally intended to seek a cross-ownership waiver to retain wxyz and capital cities-owned radio stations wjr and whyt ) .
new ownership rules by the fcc in 1985 allowed broadcasters to own a maximum of how many stations ?
12 television stations

Sample: 565

the mayor of warsaw is called president . generally , in poland , the mayors of bigger cities are called presidents – i.e . such cities , which have over 100,000 people or these , where already was president before 1990 . the first warsaw president was jan andrzej menich ( 1695–1696 ) . between 1975 and 1990 the warsaw presidents was simultaneously the warsaw voivode . since 1990 the president of warsaw had been elected by the city council . in the years of 1994–1999 the mayor of the district centrum automatically was designated as the president of warsaw : the mayor of centrum was elected by the district council of centrum and the council was elected only by the centrum residents . since 2002 the president of warsaw is elected by all of the citizens of warsaw .
who was the first warsaw president ?
jan andrzej menich

Sample: 566

the panthers used the san jose state practice facility and stayed at the san jose marriott . the broncos practiced at stanford university and stayed at the santa clara marriott .
where did the broncos practice at for super bowl 50 ?
stanford university

Sample: 567

long-term active memory is acquired following infection by activation of b and t cells . active immunity can also be generated artificially , through vaccination . the principle behind vaccination ( also called immunization ) is to introduce an antigen from a pathogen in order to stimulate the immune system and develop specific immunity against that particular pathogen without causing disease associated with that organism . this deliberate induction of an immune response is successful because it exploits the natural specificity of the immune system , as well as its inducibility . with infectious disease remaining one of the leading causes of death in the human population , vaccination represents the most effective manipulation of the immune system mankind has developed .
what is the process of vaccination also known as ?
immunization

Sample: 568

a problem is regarded as inherently difficult if its solution requires significant resources , whatever the algorithm used . the theory formalizes this intuition , by introducing mathematical models of computation to study these problems and quantifying the amount of resources needed to solve them , such as time and storage . other complexity measures are also used , such as the amount of communication ( used in communication complexity ) , the number of gates in a circuit ( used in circuit complexity ) and the number of processors ( used in parallel computing ) . one of the roles of computational complexity theory is to determine the practical limits on what computers can and can not do .
what method is used to intuitively assess or quantify the amount of resources required to solve a computational problem ?
mathematical models of computation

Sample: 569

in many countries , there is a gender pay gap in favor of males in the labor market . several factors other than discrimination may contribute to this gap . on average , women are more likely than men to consider factors other than pay when looking for work , and may be less willing to travel or relocate . thomas sowell , in his book knowledge and decisions , claims that this difference is due to women not taking jobs due to marriage or pregnancy , but income studies show that that does not explain the entire difference . a u.s. census 's report stated that in us once other factors are accounted for there is still a difference in earnings between women and men . the income gap in other countries ranges from 53 % in botswana to -40 % in bahrain .
who does a gender pay gap tend to favor ?
males in the labor market

Sample: 570

the executive summary of the wg i summary for policymakers report says they are certain that emissions resulting from human activities are substantially increasing the atmospheric concentrations of the greenhouse gases , resulting on average in an additional warming of the earth 's surface . they calculate with confidence that co2 has been responsible for over half the enhanced greenhouse effect . they predict that under a " business as usual " ( bau ) scenario , global mean temperature will increase by about 0.3 °c per decade during the [ 21st ] century . they judge that global mean surface air temperature has increased by 0.3 to 0.6 °c over the last 100 years , broadly consistent with prediction of climate models , but also of the same magnitude as natural climate variability . the unequivocal detection of the enhanced greenhouse effect is not likely for a decade or more .
how much has global mean surface air temperature changed in the last century ?
increased by 0.3 to 0.6 °c

Sample: 571

in 2009 , nasa held a symposium on project costs which presented an estimate of the apollo program costs in 2005 dollars as roughly $ 170 billion . this included all research and development costs ; the procurement of 15 saturn v rockets , 16 command/service modules , 12 lunar modules , plus program support and management costs ; construction expenses for facilities and their upgrading , and costs for flight operations . this was based on a congressional budget office report , a budgetary analysis of nasa 's new vision for space , september 2004 . the space review estimated in 2010 the cost of apollo from 1959 to 1973 as $ 20.4 billion , or $ 109 billion in 2010 dollars .
how much was the apollo project estimated to have cost from 1959 to 1973 , the length of the program ?
$ 20.4 billion

Sample: 572

near tamins-reichenau the anterior rhine and the posterior rhine join and form the rhine . the river makes a distinctive turn to the north near chur . this section is nearly 86 km long , and descends from a height of 599 m to 396 m. it flows through a wide glacial alpine valley known as the rhine valley ( german : rheintal ) . near sargans a natural dam , only a few metres high , prevents it from flowing into the open seeztal valley and then through lake walen and lake zurich into the river aare . the alpine rhine begins in the most western part of the swiss canton of graubünden , and later forms the border between switzerland to the west and liechtenstein and later austria to the east .
how long is the section of the rhine near chur ?
86 km long ,

Sample: 573

on the other hand , higher economic inequality tends to increase entrepreneurship rates at the individual level ( self-employment ) . however , most of it is often based on necessity rather than opportunity . necessity-based entrepreneurship is motivated by survival needs such as income for food and shelter ( " push " motivations ) , whereas opportunity-based entrepreneurship is driven by achievement-oriented motivations ( " pull " ) such as vocation and more likely to involve the pursue of new products , services , or underserved market needs . the economic impact of the former type of entrepreneurialism tends to be redistributive while the latter is expected to foster technological progress and thus have a more positive impact on economic growth .
what increases with the increase of income inequality ?
entrepreneurship rates

Sample: 574

doctor who books have been published from the mid-sixties through to the present day . from 1965 to 1991 the books published were primarily novelised adaptations of broadcast episodes ; beginning in 1991 an extensive line of original fiction was launched , the virgin new adventures and virgin missing adventures . since the relaunch of the programme in 2005 , a new range of novels have been published by bbc books . numerous non-fiction books about the series , including guidebooks and critical studies , have also been published , and a dedicated doctor who magazine with newsstand circulation has been published regularly since 1979 . this is published by panini , as is the doctor who adventures magazine for younger fans .
in what year did original fiction featuring doctor who appear ?
1991

Sample: 575

southern california consists of a heavily developed urban environment , home to some of the largest urban areas in the state , along with vast areas that have been left undeveloped . it is the third most populated megalopolis in the united states , after the great lakes megalopolis and the northeastern megalopolis . much of southern california is famous for its large , spread-out , suburban communities and use of automobiles and highways . the dominant areas are los angeles , orange county , san diego , and riverside-san bernardino , each of which is the center of its respective metropolitan area , composed of numerous smaller cities and communities . the urban area is also host to an international metropolitan region in the form of san diego–tijuana , created by the urban area spilling over into baja california .
outside of its use of automobiles , what else is southern california famous for using ?
highways

Sample: 576

in cpdna , there are several a → g deamination gradients . dna becomes susceptible to deamination events when it is single stranded . when replication forks form , the strand not being copied is single stranded , and thus at risk for a → g deamination . therefore , gradients in deamination indicate that replication forks were most likely present and the direction that they initially opened ( the highest gradient is most likely nearest the start site because it was single stranded for the longest amount of time ) . this mechanism is still the leading theory today ; however , a second theory suggests that most cpdna is actually linear and replicates through homologous recombination . it further contends that only a minority of the genetic material is kept in circular chromosomes while the rest is in branched , linear , or other complex structures .
how does the secondary theory say most cpdna is structured ?
linear

Sample: 577

for the third straight season , the number one seeds from both conferences met in the super bowl . the carolina panthers became one of only ten teams to have completed a regular season with only one loss , and one of only six teams to have acquired a 15–1 record , while the denver broncos became one of four teams to have made eight appearances in the super bowl . the broncos made their second super bowl appearance in three years , having reached super bowl xlviii , while the panthers made their second super bowl appearance in franchise history , their other appearance being super bowl xxxviii . coincidentally , both teams were coached by john fox in their last super bowl appearance prior to super bowl 50 .
prior to super bowl 50 , when were the carolina panthers last there ?
super bowl xxxviii .

Sample: 578

private schools generally prefer to be called independent schools , because of their freedom to operate outside of government and local government control . some of these are also known as public schools . preparatory schools in the uk prepare pupils aged up to 13 years old to enter public schools . the name " public school " is based on the fact that the schools were open to pupils from anywhere , and not merely to those from a certain locality , and of any religion or occupation . according to the good schools guide approximately 9 per cent of children being educated in the uk are doing so at fee-paying schools at gsce level and 13 per cent at a-level . [ citation needed ] many independent schools are single-sex ( though this is becoming less common ) . fees range from under £3,000 to £21,000 and above per year for day pupils , rising to £27,000+ per year for boarders . for details in scotland , see " meeting the cost " .
what schools do preparatory schools prepare british children to attend ?
public

Sample: 579

in 2005 , parts of the amazon basin experienced the worst drought in one hundred years , and there were indications that 2006 could have been a second successive year of drought . a july 23 , 2006 article in the uk newspaper the independent reported woods hole research center results showing that the forest in its present form could survive only three years of drought . scientists at the brazilian national institute of amazonian research argue in the article that this drought response , coupled with the effects of deforestation on regional climate , are pushing the rainforest towards a " tipping point " where it would irreversibly start to die . it concludes that the forest is on the brink of being turned into savanna or desert , with catastrophic consequences for the world 's climate .
what organization argued that drought , among other effects , could cause the amazon forest to reach a " tipping point ? "
brazilian national institute of amazonian research

Sample: 580

the needs of soy farmers have been used to justify many of the controversial transportation projects that are currently developing in the amazon . the first two highways successfully opened up the rainforest and led to increased settlement and deforestation . the mean annual deforestation rate from 2000 to 2005 ( 22,392 km2 or 8,646 sq mi per year ) was 18 % higher than in the previous five years ( 19,018 km2 or 7,343 sq mi per year ) . although deforestation has declined significantly in the brazilian amazon between 2004 and 2014 , there has been an increase to the present day .
what did creating highways in the amazon rainforest lead to ?
increased settlement and deforestation

Sample: 581

victoria has a written constitution enacted in 1975 , but based on the 1855 colonial constitution , passed by the united kingdom parliament as the victoria constitution act 1855 , which establishes the parliament as the state 's law-making body for matters coming under state responsibility . the victorian constitution can be amended by the parliament of victoria , except for certain " entrenched " provisions that require either an absolute majority in both houses , a three-fifths majority in both houses , or the approval of the victorian people in a referendum , depending on the provision .
on what is victoria 's constitution based ?
1855 colonial constitution

Sample: 582

the other category of schools are those run and partly or fully funded by private individuals , private organizations and religious groups . the ones that accept government funds are called 'aided ' schools . the private 'un-aided ' schools are fully funded by private parties . the standard and the quality of education is quite high . technically , these would be categorized as private schools , but many of them have the name " public school " appended to them , e.g. , the galaxy public school in kathmandu . most of the middle-class families send their children to such schools , which might be in their own city or far off , like boarding schools . the medium of education is english , but as a compulsory subject , nepali and/or the state 's official language is also taught . preschool education is mostly limited to organized neighbourhood nursery schools .
in nepalese private schools , what is the primary language of instruction ?
english

Sample: 583

a different arrangement was recorded by peter howell for season 18 ( 1980 ) , which was in turn replaced by dominic glynn 's arrangement for the season-long serial the trial of a time lord in season 23 ( 1986 ) . keff mcculloch provided the new arrangement for the seventh doctor 's era which lasted from season 24 ( 1987 ) until the series ' suspension in 1989 . american composer john debney created a new arrangement of ron grainer 's original theme for doctor who in 1996 . for the return of the series in 2005 , murray gold provided a new arrangement which featured samples from the 1963 original with further elements added ; in the 2005 christmas episode " the christmas invasion " , gold introduced a modified closing credits arrangement that was used up until the conclusion of the 2007 series . [ citation needed ]
who recorded the theme played for season 18 ?
peter howell

Sample: 584

chloroplasts are highly dynamic—they circulate and are moved around within plant cells , and occasionally pinch in two to reproduce . their behavior is strongly influenced by environmental factors like light color and intensity . chloroplasts , like mitochondria , contain their own dna , which is thought to be inherited from their ancestor—a photosynthetic cyanobacterium that was engulfed by an early eukaryotic cell . chloroplasts can not be made by the plant cell and must be inherited by each daughter cell during cell division .
how do plants get chloroplasts ?
must be inherited by each daughter cell during cell division

Sample: 585

the concept of inertia can be further generalized to explain the tendency of objects to continue in many different forms of constant motion , even those that are not strictly constant velocity . the rotational inertia of planet earth is what fixes the constancy of the length of a day and the length of a year . albert einstein extended the principle of inertia further when he explained that reference frames subject to constant acceleration , such as those free-falling toward a gravitating object , were physically equivalent to inertial reference frames . this is why , for example , astronauts experience weightlessness when in free-fall orbit around the earth , and why newton 's laws of motion are more easily discernible in such environments . if an astronaut places an object with mass in mid-air next to himself , it will remain stationary with respect to the astronaut due to its inertia . this is the same thing that would occur if the astronaut and the object were in intergalactic space with no net force of gravity acting on their shared reference frame . this principle of equivalence was one of the foundational underpinnings for the development of the general theory of relativity .
what was the basis mentioned for the develpment of the general theory of relativity ?
principle of equivalence

Sample: 586

the project must adhere to zoning and building code requirements . constructing a project that fails to adhere to codes does not benefit the owner . some legal requirements come from malum in se considerations , or the desire to prevent things that are indisputably bad – bridge collapses or explosions . other legal requirements come from malum prohibitum considerations , or things that are a matter of custom or expectation , such as isolating businesses to a business district and residences to a residential district . an attorney may seek changes or exemptions in the law that governs the land where the building will be built , either by arguing that a rule is inapplicable ( the bridge design will not cause a collapse ) , or that the custom is no longer needed ( acceptance of live-work spaces has grown in the community ) .
what is malum in se considerations ?
the desire to prevent things that are indisputably bad

Sample: 587

the glass collection covers 4000 years of glass making , and has over 6000 items from africa , britain , europe , america and asia . the earliest glassware on display comes from ancient egypt and continues through the ancient roman , medieval , renaissance covering areas such as venetian glass and bohemian glass and more recent periods , including art nouveau glass by louis comfort tiffany and émile gallé , the art deco style is represented by several examples by rené lalique . there are many examples of crystal chandeliers both english , displayed in the british galleries and foreign for example venetian ( attributed to giuseppe briati ) dated c1750 are in the collection . the stained glass collection is possibly the finest in the world , covering the medieval to modern periods , and covering europe as well as britain . several examples of english 16th-century heraldic glass is displayed in the british galleries . many well-known designers of stained glass are represented in the collection including , from the 19th century : dante gabriel rossetti , edward burne-jones and william morris . there is also an example of frank lloyd wright 's work in the collection . 20th-century designers include harry clarke , john piper , patrick reyntiens , veronica whall and brian clarke .
the art noveau style of glassware is represented by which two artists ?
louis comfort tiffany and émile gallé

Sample: 588

cbs broadcast super bowl 50 in the u.s. , and charged an average of $ 5 million for a 30-second commercial during the game . the super bowl 50 halftime show was headlined by the british rock group coldplay with special guest performers beyoncé and bruno mars , who headlined the super bowl xlvii and super bowl xlviii halftime shows , respectively . it was the third-most watched u.s. broadcast ever .
who was the male singer who performed as a special guest during super bowl 50 ?
bruno mars

Sample: 589

emperor gegeen khan , ayurbarwada 's son and successor , ruled for only two years , from 1321 to 1323 . he continued his father 's policies to reform the government based on the confucian principles , with the help of his newly appointed grand chancellor baiju . during his reign , the da yuan tong zhi ( chinese : 大元通制 , " the comprehensive institutions of the great yuan " ) , a huge collection of codes and regulations of the yuan dynasty begun by his father , was formally promulgated . gegeen was assassinated in a coup involving five princes from a rival faction , perhaps steppe elite opposed to confucian reforms . they placed yesün temür ( or taidingdi ) on the throne , and , after an unsuccessful attempt to calm the princes , he also succumbed to regicide .
when was geegen the emperor ?
1321 to 1323

Sample: 590

some episodes have been returned to the bbc from the archives of other countries who bought prints for broadcast , or by private individuals who acquired them by various means . early colour videotape recordings made off-air by fans have also been retrieved , as well as excerpts filmed from the television screen onto 8 mm cine film and clips that were shown on other programmes . audio versions of all of the lost episodes exist from home viewers who made tape recordings of the show . short clips from every story with the exception of marco polo , " mission to the unknown " and the massacre of st bartholomew 's eve also exist .
what was the name of the marco polo episode ?
mission to the unknown

Sample: 591

if angiosperm shoots are not exposed to the required light for chloroplast formation , proplastids may develop into an etioplast stage before becoming chloroplasts . an etioplast is a plastid that lacks chlorophyll , and has inner membrane invaginations that form a lattice of tubes in their stroma , called a prolamellar body . while etioplasts lack chlorophyll , they have a yellow chlorophyll precursor stocked . within a few minutes of light exposure , the prolamellar body begins to reorganize into stacks of thylakoids , and chlorophyll starts to be produced . this process , where the etioplast becomes a chloroplast , takes several hours . gymnosperms do not require light to form chloroplasts .
what do etioplasts have instead of chlorophyll ?
a yellow chlorophyll precursor

Sample: 592

the historic heart of newcastle is the grainger town area . established on classical streets built by richard grainger , a builder and developer , between 1835 and 1842 , some of newcastle upon tyne 's finest buildings and streets lie within this area of the city centre including grainger market , theatre royal , grey street , grainger street and clayton street . these buildings are predominantly four stories high , with vertical dormers , domes , turrets and spikes . richard grainger was said to 'have found newcastle of bricks and timber and left it in stone ' . of grainger town 's 450 buildings , 244 are listed , of which 29 are grade i and 49 are grade ii* .
how man of grainger town 's 450 buildings are listed ?
244

Sample: 593

it is possible to use a mechanism based on a pistonless rotary engine such as the wankel engine in place of the cylinders and valve gear of a conventional reciprocating steam engine . many such engines have been designed , from the time of james watt to the present day , but relatively few were actually built and even fewer went into quantity production ; see link at bottom of article for more details . the major problem is the difficulty of sealing the rotors to make them steam-tight in the face of wear and thermal expansion ; the resulting leakage made them very inefficient . lack of expansive working , or any means of control of the cutoff is also a serious problem with many such designs . [ citation needed ]
what parts of a conventional reciprocating steam engine could be replaced by a pistonless rotary engine ?
cylinders and valve gear

Sample: 594

in marxian analysis , capitalist firms increasingly substitute capital equipment for labor inputs ( workers ) under competitive pressure to reduce costs and maximize profits . over the long-term , this trend increases the organic composition of capital , meaning that less workers are required in proportion to capital inputs , increasing unemployment ( the " reserve army of labour " ) . this process exerts a downward pressure on wages . the substitution of capital equipment for labor ( mechanization and automation ) raises the productivity of each worker , resulting in a situation of relatively stagnant wages for the working class amidst rising levels of property income for the capitalist class .
why do firms substitute equipment for workers ?
reduce costs and maximize profits

Sample: 595

in december 2014 , president uhuru kenyatta signed a security laws amendment bill , which supporters of the law suggested was necessary to guard against armed groups . opposition politicians , human rights groups , and nine western countries criticised the security bill , arguing that it infringed on democratic freedoms . the governments of the united states , britain , germany and france also collectively issued a press statement cautioning about the law 's potential impact . through the jubillee coalition , the bill was later passed on 19 december in the national assembly under acrimonious circumstances .
who warned of the potential impact ?
of the united states , britain , germany and france

Sample: 596

following the cretaceous–paleogene extinction event , the extinction of the dinosaurs and the wetter climate may have allowed the tropical rainforest to spread out across the continent . from 66–34 mya , the rainforest extended as far south as 45° . climate fluctuations during the last 34 million years have allowed savanna regions to expand into the tropics . during the oligocene , for example , the rainforest spanned a relatively narrow band . it expanded again during the middle miocene , then retracted to a mostly inland formation at the last glacial maximum . however , the rainforest still managed to thrive during these glacial periods , allowing for the survival and evolution of a broad diversity of species .
what extinction event might have created some conditions allowing the expansion of the amazon rainforest ?
cretaceous–paleogene extinction event

Sample: 597

connection-oriented transmission requires a setup phase in each involved node before any packet is transferred to establish the parameters of communication . the packets include a connection identifier rather than address information and are negotiated between endpoints so that they are delivered in order and with error checking . address information is only transferred to each node during the connection set-up phase , when the route to the destination is discovered and an entry is added to the switching table in each network node through which the connection passes . the signaling protocols used allow the application to specify its requirements and discover link parameters . acceptable values for service parameters may be negotiated . routing a packet requires the node to look up the connection id in a table . the packet header can be small , as it only needs to contain this code and any information , such as length , timestamp , or sequence number , which is different for different packets .
what is a connection identifier
a connection identifier rather than address information and are negotiated between endpoints so that they are delivered in order and with error checking

Sample: 598

for certain physical scenarios , it is impossible to model forces as being due to gradient of potentials . this is often due to macrophysical considerations that yield forces as arising from a macroscopic statistical average of microstates . for example , friction is caused by the gradients of numerous electrostatic potentials between the atoms , but manifests as a force model that is independent of any macroscale position vector . nonconservative forces other than friction include other contact forces , tension , compression , and drag . however , for any sufficiently detailed description , all these forces are the results of conservative ones since each of these macroscopic forces are the net results of the gradients of microscopic potentials .
what is sometimes impossible to model ?
forces

Sample: 599

manning finished the year with a career-low 67.9 passer rating , throwing for 2,249 yards and nine touchdowns , with 17 interceptions . in contrast , osweiler threw for 1,967 yards , 10 touchdowns and six interceptions for a rating of 86.4 . veteran receiver demaryius thomas led the team with 105 receptions for 1,304 yards and six touchdowns , while emmanuel sanders caught 76 passes for 1,135 yards and six scores , while adding another 106 yards returning punts . tight end owen daniels was also a big element of the passing game with 46 receptions for 517 yards . running back c. j. anderson was the team 's leading rusher 863 yards and seven touchdowns , while also catching 25 passes for 183 yards . running back ronnie hillman also made a big impact with 720 yards , five touchdowns , 24 receptions , and a 4.7 yards per carry average . overall , the offense ranked 19th in scoring with 355 points and did not have any pro bowl selections .
how many touchdowns did brock osweiler throw in the season ?
10

Sample: 600

trevithick continued his own experiments using a trio of locomotives , concluding with the catch me who can in 1808 . only four years later , the successful twin-cylinder locomotive salamanca by matthew murray was used by the edge railed rack and pinion middleton railway . in 1825 george stephenson built the locomotion for the stockton and darlington railway . this was the first public steam railway in the world and then in 1829 , he built the rocket which was entered in and won the rainhill trials . the liverpool and manchester railway opened in 1830 making exclusive use of steam power for both passenger and freight trains .
what was the name of the locomotive that debuted in 1808 ?
catch me who can

Sample: 601

the cestida ( " belt animals " ) are ribbon-shaped planktonic animals , with the mouth and aboral organ aligned in the middle of opposite edges of the ribbon . there is a pair of comb-rows along each aboral edge , and tentilla emerging from a groove all along the oral edge , which stream back across most of the wing-like body surface . cestids can swim by undulating their bodies as well as by the beating of their comb-rows . there are two known species , with worldwide distribution in warm , and warm-temperate waters : cestum veneris ( " venus ' girdle " ) is among the largest ctenophores – up to 1.5 meters ( 4.9 ft ) long , and can undulate slowly or quite rapidly . velamen parallelum , which is typically less than 20 centimeters ( 0.66 ft ) long , can move much faster in what has been described as a " darting motion " .
how do cestids swim ?
by undulating their bodies as well as by the beating of their comb-rows .

Sample: 602

on may 21 , 2013 , nfl owners at their spring meetings in boston voted and awarded the game to levi 's stadium . the $ 1.2 billion stadium opened in 2014 . it is the first super bowl held in the san francisco bay area since super bowl xix in 1985 , and the first in california since super bowl xxxvii took place in san diego in 2003 .
what california city last hosted the super bowl ?
san diego

Sample: 603

on april 20 , kennedy sent a memo to vice president lyndon b. johnson , asking johnson to look into the status of america 's space program , and into programs that could offer nasa the opportunity to catch up . johnson responded approximately one week later , concluding that " we are neither making maximum effort nor achieving results necessary if this country is to reach a position of leadership . " his memo concluded that a manned moon landing was far enough in the future that it was likely the united states would achieve it first .
what month and day did kennedy message his vice president about the status of the program ?
april 20

Sample: 604

not a maritime power , and not a nation-state , as it would eventually become , germany ’ s participation in western imperialism was negligible until the late 19th century . the participation of austria was primarily as a result of habsburg control of the first empire , the spanish throne , and other royal houses . [ further explanation needed ] after the defeat of napoleon , who caused the dissolution of that holy roman empire , prussia and the german states continued to stand aloof from imperialism , preferring to manipulate the european system through the concert of europe . after prussia unified the other states into the second german empire after the franco-german war , its long-time chancellor , otto von bismarck ( 1862–90 ) , long opposed colonial acquisitions , arguing that the burden of obtaining , maintaining , and defending such possessions would outweigh any potential benefits . he felt that colonies did not pay for themselves , that the german bureaucratic system would not work well in the tropics and the diplomatic disputes over colonies would distract germany from its central interest , europe itself .
germany does n't have an imperialistic past until when ?
late 19th century

Sample: 605

in large parts , newcastle still retains a medieval street layout . narrow alleys or 'chares ' , most of which can only be traversed by foot , still exist in abundance , particularly around the riverside . stairs from the riverside to higher parts of the city centre and the extant castle keep , originally recorded in the 14th century , remain intact in places . close , sandhill and quayside contain modern buildings as well as structures dating from the 15th–18th centuries , including bessie surtees house , the cooperage and lloyds quayside bars , derwentwater house and " house of tides " , a restaurant situated at a grade i-listed 16th century merchant 's house at 28–30 close .
what is the house of tides ?
a restaurant

Sample: 606

the definition of imperialism has not been finalized for centuries and was confusedly seen to represent the policies of major powers , or simply , general-purpose aggressiveness . further on , some writers [ who ? ] used the term imperialism , in slightly more discriminating fashion , to mean all kinds of domination or control by a group of people over another . to clear out this confusion about the definition of imperialism one could speak of " formal " and " informal " imperialism , the first meaning physical control or " full-fledged colonial rule " while the second implied less direct rule though still containing perceivable kinds of dominance . informal rule is generally less costly than taking over territories formally . this is because , with informal rule , the control is spread more subtly through technological superiority , enforcing land officials into large debts that can not be repaid , ownership of private industries thus expanding the controlled area , or having countries agree to uneven trade agreements forcefully .
some have generalized the meaning of the word imperialism down to general-purpose what ?
aggressiveness

Sample: 607

about 61.1 % of victorians describe themselves as christian . roman catholics form the single largest religious group in the state with 26.7 % of the victorian population , followed by anglicans and members of the uniting church . buddhism is the state 's largest non-christian religion , with 168,637 members as of the most recent census . victoria is also home of 152,775 muslims and 45,150 jews . hinduism is the fastest growing religion . around 20 % of victorians claim no religion . amongst those who declare a religious affiliation , church attendance is low .
what is victoria 's largest non-christian religion ?
buddhism

Sample: 608

the original theme was composed by ron grainer and realised by delia derbyshire of the bbc radiophonic workshop , with assistance from dick mills . the various parts were built up using musique concrète techniques , by creating tape loops of an individually struck piano string and individual test oscillators and filters . the derbyshire arrangement served , with minor edits , as the theme tune up to the end of season 17 ( 1979–80 ) . it is regarded as a significant and innovative piece of electronic music , recorded well before the availability of commercial synthesisers or multitrack mixers . each note was individually created by cutting , splicing , speeding up and slowing down segments of analogue tape containing recordings of a single plucked string , white noise , and the simple harmonic waveforms of test-tone oscillators , intended for calibrating equipment and rooms , not creating music . new techniques were invented to allow mixing of the music , as this was before the era of multitrack tape machines . on hearing the finished result , grainer asked , " did i write that ? " [ citation needed ]
what workshop helped with the creation of the doctor who theme ?
the bbc radiophonic workshop

Sample: 609

meanwhile , abc news , which formed as a newly separate division , sought to become a global leader in television news . in 1977 , roone arledge was named president of the new abc news in addition to being president of abc sports . that same year , abc launched a major expansion of its office facilities in new york city . the company first constructed a new 10-story building on land previously occupied by an abandoned warehouse on the corner of columbus avenue and west 66th street ; the facility that was built in its place is nicknamed " 7 lincoln square " ( although it is actually located at 149 columbus avenue ) . meanwhile , a former parking lot , located at 30 west 67th street , was transformed into an impressive 15-story building . both buildings were completed in june 1979 . wabc-tv moved its operations from offices at 77 west 66th street to 149 columbus avenue , freeing up space for the abc network to house some of its operations .
what is the nickname for the abc facility built at columbus avenue and west 66th street ?
7 lincoln square

Sample: 610

pharmacists provide direct patient care services that optimizes the use of medication and promotes health , wellness , and disease prevention . clinical pharmacists care for patients in all health care settings , but the clinical pharmacy movement initially began inside hospitals and clinics . clinical pharmacists often collaborate with physicians and other healthcare professionals to improve pharmaceutical care . clinical pharmacists are now an integral part of the interdisciplinary approach to patient care . they often participate in patient care rounds drug product selection .
who do clinical pharmacists work with much of the time ?
physicians and other healthcare professionals

Sample: 611

with such a small force , the invading mongols were forced to change strategies and resort to inciting internal revolt among kuchlug 's supporters , leaving the qara khitai more vulnerable to mongol conquest . as a result , kuchlug 's army was defeated west of kashgar . kuchlug fled again , but was soon hunted down by jebe 's army and executed . by 1218 , as a result of defeat of qara khitai , the mongol empire and its control extended as far west as lake balkhash , which bordered the khwarezmia ( khwarezmid empire ) , a muslim state that reached the caspian sea to the west and persian gulf and the arabian sea to the south .
which empire bordered the mongol empire to the west in 1218 ?
khwarezmid empire

Sample: 612

the scotland act 1998 , which was passed by the parliament of the united kingdom and given royal assent by queen elizabeth ii on 19 november 1998 , governs the functions and role of the scottish parliament and delimits its legislative competence . the scotland act 2012 extends the devolved competencies . for the purposes of parliamentary sovereignty , the parliament of the united kingdom at westminster continues to constitute the supreme legislature of scotland . however , under the terms of the scotland act , westminster agreed to devolve some of its responsibilities over scottish domestic policy to the scottish parliament . such " devolved matters " include education , health , agriculture and justice . the scotland act enabled the scottish parliament to pass primary legislation on these issues . a degree of domestic authority , and all foreign policy , remain with the uk parliament in westminster . the scottish parliament has the power to pass laws and has limited tax-varying capability . another of the roles of the parliament is to hold the scottish government to account .
what does the scotland act of 2012 extend ?
devolved competencies

Sample: 613

civil disobedience is usually defined as pertaining to a citizen 's relation to the state and its laws , as distinguished from a constitutional impasse in which two public agencies , especially two equally sovereign branches of government , conflict . for instance , if the head of government of a country were to refuse to enforce a decision of that country 's highest court , it would not be civil disobedience , since the head of government would be acting in her or his capacity as public official rather than private citizen .
when would a person be considered to be excising a constitutional impasse ?
the head of government would be acting in her or his capacity as public official

Sample: 614

stage 3 is the final stage of the bill and is considered at a meeting of the whole parliament . this stage comprises two parts : consideration of amendments to the bill as a general debate , and a final vote on the bill . opposition members can table " wrecking amendments " to the bill , designed to thwart further progress and take up parliamentary time , to cause the bill to fall without a final vote being taken . after a general debate on the final form of the bill , members proceed to vote at decision time on whether they agree to the general principles of the final bill .
what type of amendments might members opposed to a bill put on the table ?
wrecking

Sample: 615

nikola tesla ( serbian cyrillic : никола тесла ; 10 july 1856 – 7 january 1943 ) was a serbian american inventor , electrical engineer , mechanical engineer , physicist , and futurist best known for his contributions to the design of the modern alternating current ( ac ) electricity supply system .
in what year was nikola tesla born ?
1856

Sample: 616

harvard has the largest university endowment in the world . as of september 2011 [ update ] , it had nearly regained the loss suffered during the 2008 recession . it was worth $ 32 billion in 2011 , up from $ 28 billion in september 2010 and $ 26 billion in 2009 . it suffered about 30 % loss in 2008-09 . in december 2008 , harvard announced that its endowment had lost 22 % ( approximately $ 8 billion ) from july to october 2008 , necessitating budget cuts . later reports suggest the loss was actually more than double that figure , a reduction of nearly 50 % of its endowment in the first four months alone . forbes in march 2009 estimated the loss to be in the range of $ 12 billion . one of the most visible results of harvard 's attempt to re-balance its budget was their halting of construction of the $ 1.2 billion allston science complex that had been scheduled to be completed by 2011 , resulting in protests from local residents . as of 2012 [ update ] , harvard university had a total financial aid reserve of $ 159 million for students , and a pell grant reserve of $ 4.093 million available for disbursement .
what are harvard 's pell grant reserves ?
$ 4.093 million

Sample: 617

the broncos took an early lead in super bowl 50 and never trailed . newton was limited by denver 's defense , which sacked him seven times and forced him into three turnovers , including a fumble which they recovered for a touchdown . denver linebacker von miller was named super bowl mvp , recording five solo tackles , 2½ sacks , and two forced fumbles .
how many times did the denver defense force newton into turnovers ?
three

Sample: 618

apicoplasts have lost all photosynthetic function , and contain no photosynthetic pigments or true thylakoids . they are bounded by four membranes , but the membranes are not connected to the endoplasmic reticulum . the fact that apicomplexans still keep their nonphotosynthetic chloroplast around demonstrates how the chloroplast carries out important functions other than photosynthesis . plant chloroplasts provide plant cells with many important things besides sugar , and apicoplasts are no different—they synthesize fatty acids , isopentenyl pyrophosphate , iron-sulfur clusters , and carry out part of the heme pathway . this makes the apicoplast an attractive target for drugs to cure apicomplexan-related diseases . the most important apicoplast function is isopentenyl pyrophosphate synthesis—in fact , apicomplexans die when something interferes with this apicoplast function , and when apicomplexans are grown in an isopentenyl pyrophosphate-rich medium , they dump the organelle .
how many membranes do apicoplasts have ?
four

Sample: 619

in 1952 , following pressure from tesla 's nephew , sava kosanović , tesla 's entire estate was shipped to belgrade in 80 trunks marked n.t . in 1957 , kosanović 's secretary charlotte muzar transported tesla 's ashes from the united states to belgrade . the ashes are displayed in a gold-plated sphere on a marble pedestal in the nikola tesla museum .
who was tesla 's nephew ?
sava kosanović

Sample: 620

luther justified his opposition to the rebels on three grounds . first , in choosing violence over lawful submission to the secular government , they were ignoring christ 's counsel to " render unto caesar the things that are caesar 's " ; st. paul had written in his epistle to the romans 13:1–7 that all authorities are appointed by god and therefore should not be resisted . this reference from the bible forms the foundation for the doctrine known as the divine right of kings , or , in the german case , the divine right of the princes . second , the violent actions of rebelling , robbing , and plundering placed the peasants " outside the law of god and empire " , so they deserved " death in body and soul , if only as highwaymen and murderers . " lastly , luther charged the rebels with blasphemy for calling themselves " christian brethren " and committing their sinful acts under the banner of the gospel .
what were the protesters doing with christ 's counsel ?
ignoring christ 's counsel

Sample: 621

the lower rhine flows through north rhine-westphalia . its banks are usually heavily populated and industrialized , in particular the agglomerations cologne , düsseldorf and ruhr area . here the rhine flows through the largest conurbation in germany , the rhine-ruhr region . one of the most important cities in this region is duisburg with the largest river port in europe ( duisport ) . the region downstream of duisburg is more agricultural . in wesel , 30 km downstream of duisburg , is located the western end of the second east-west shipping route , the wesel-datteln canal , which runs parallel to the lippe . between emmerich and cleves the emmerich rhine bridge , the longest suspension bridge in germany , crosses the 400 m wide river . near krefeld , the river crosses the uerdingen line , the line which separates the areas where low german and high german are spoken .
what is the name of the longest bridge in germany ?
emmerich rhine bridge

Sample: 622

prince louis de condé , along with his sons daniel and osias , [ citation needed ] arranged with count ludwig von nassau-saarbrücken to establish a huguenot community in present-day saarland in 1604 . the count supported mercantilism and welcomed technically skilled immigrants into his lands , regardless of their religion . the condés established a thriving glass-making works , which provided wealth to the principality for many years . other founding families created enterprises based on textiles and such traditional huguenot occupations in france . the community and its congregation remain active to this day , with descendants of many of the founding families still living in the region . some members of this community emigrated to the united states in the 1890s .
which count did the prince strike an arrangement with ?
count ludwig von nassau-saarbrücken

Sample: 623

harvard operates several arts , cultural , and scientific museums . the harvard art museums comprises three museums . the arthur m. sackler museum includes collections of ancient , asian , islamic and later indian art , the busch-reisinger museum , formerly the germanic museum , covers central and northern european art , and the fogg museum of art , covers western art from the middle ages to the present emphasizing italian early renaissance , british pre-raphaelite , and 19th-century french art . the harvard museum of natural history includes the harvard mineralogical museum , harvard university herbaria featuring the blaschka glass flowers exhibit , and the museum of comparative zoology . other museums include the carpenter center for the visual arts , designed by le corbusier , housing the film archive , the peabody museum of archaeology and ethnology , specializing in the cultural history and civilizations of the western hemisphere , and the semitic museum featuring artifacts from excavations in the middle east .
what museum specializes in cultural history and civilizations of the western hemisphere ?
peabody museum of archaeology and ethnology

Sample: 624

until the early 1980s , industry was a major source of water pollution . although many plants and factories can be found along the rhine up into switzerland , it is along the lower rhine that the bulk of them are concentrated , as the river passes the major cities of cologne , düsseldorf and duisburg . duisburg is the home of europe 's largest inland port and functions as a hub to the sea ports of rotterdam , antwerp and amsterdam . the ruhr , which joins the rhine in duisburg , is nowadays a clean river , thanks to a combination of stricter environmental controls , a transition from heavy industry to light industry and cleanup measures , such as the reforestation of slag and brownfields . the ruhr currently provides the region with drinking water . it contributes 70 m3/s ( 2,500 cu ft/s ) to the rhine . other rivers in the ruhr area , above all , the emscher , still carry a considerable degree of pollution .
what rive joins the rhine in duisburg ?
ruhr

Sample: 625

the mongol army under genghis khan , generals and his sons crossed the tien shan mountains by entering the area controlled by the khwarezmian empire . after compiling intelligence from many sources genghis khan carefully prepared his army , which was divided into three groups . his son jochi led the first division into the northeast of khwarezmia . the second division under jebe marched secretly to the southeast part of khwarzemia to form , with the first division , a pincer attack on samarkand . the third division under genghis khan and tolui marched to the northwest and attacked khwarzemia from that direction .
where did jebe 's division of genghis khan 's army campaign in khwarezmia ?
the southeast

Sample: 626

prevenient grace , or the grace that " goes before " us , is given to all people . it is that power which enables us to love and motivates us to seek a relationship with god through jesus christ . this grace is the present work of god to turn us from our sin-corrupted human will to the loving will of the father . in this work , god desires that we might sense both our sinfulness before god and god 's offer of salvation . prevenient grace allows those tainted by sin to nevertheless make a truly free choice to accept or reject god 's salvation in christ .
what is that power that enables us to love ?
prevenient grace

Sample: 627

after each team punted , panthers quarterback cam newton appeared to complete a 24-yard pass jerricho cotchery , but the call was ruled an incompletion and upheld after a replay challenge . cbs analyst and retired referee mike carey stated he disagreed with the call and felt the review clearly showed the pass was complete . a few plays later , on 3rd-and-10 from the 15-yard line , linebacker von miller knocked the ball out of newton 's hands while sacking him , and malik jackson recovered it in the end zone for a broncos touchdown , giving the team a 10–0 lead . this was the first fumble return touchdown in a super bowl since super bowl xxviii at the end of the 1993 season .
what analyst did not agree with the ruling of the incomplete pass ?
mike carey

Sample: 628

in japan , at the end of the asuka period ( 538–710 ) and the early nara period ( 710–794 ) , the men who fulfilled roles similar to those of modern pharmacists were highly respected . the place of pharmacists in society was expressly defined in the taihō code ( 701 ) and re-stated in the yōrō code ( 718 ) . ranked positions in the pre-heian imperial court were established ; and this organizational structure remained largely intact until the meiji restoration ( 1868 ) . in this highly stable hierarchy , the pharmacists—and even pharmacist assistants—were assigned status superior to all others in health-related fields such as physicians and acupuncturists . in the imperial household , the pharmacist was even ranked above the two personal physicians of the emperor .
what stature did pharmacists have in the pre-heian imperial court ?
status superior to all others in health-related fields such as physicians and acupuncturists

Sample: 629

harvard 's academic programs operate on a semester calendar beginning in early september and ending in mid-may . undergraduates typically take four half-courses per term and must maintain a four-course rate average to be considered full-time . in many concentrations , students can elect to pursue a basic program or an honors-eligible program requiring a senior thesis and/or advanced course work . students graduating in the top 4–5 % of the class are awarded degrees summa cum laude , students in the next 15 % of the class are awarded magna cum laude , and the next 30 % of the class are awarded cum laude . harvard has chapters of academic honor societies such as phi beta kappa and various committees and departments also award several hundred named prizes annually . harvard , along with other universities , has been accused of grade inflation , although there is evidence that the quality of the student body and its motivation have also increased . harvard college reduced the number of students who receive latin honors from 90 % in 2004 to 60 % in 2005 . moreover , the honors of " john harvard scholar " and " harvard college scholar " will now be given only to the top 5 percent and the next 5 percent of each class .
from 2004 to 2005 harvard reduced the number of students earning latin honors from 90 % to what ?
60 %

Sample: 630

the rankine cycle is the fundamental thermodynamic underpinning of the steam engine . the cycle is an arrangement of components as is typically used for simple power production , and utilizes the phase change of water ( boiling water producing steam , condensing exhaust steam , producing liquid water ) ) to provide a practical heat/power conversion system . the heat is supplied externally to a closed loop with some of the heat added being converted to work and the waste heat being removed in a condenser . the rankine cycle is used in virtually all steam power production applications . in the 1990s , rankine steam cycles generated about 90 % of all electric power used throughout the world , including virtually all solar , biomass , coal and nuclear power plants . it is named after william john macquorn rankine , a scottish polymath .
along with solar , coal and nuclear , what sort of plants notable use the rankine process ?
biomass

Sample: 631

ersatzschulen are ordinary primary or secondary schools , which are run by private individuals , private organizations or religious groups . these schools offer the same types of diplomas as public schools . ersatzschulen lack the freedom to operate completely outside of government regulation . teachers at ersatzschulen must have at least the same education and at least the same wages as teachers at public schools , an ersatzschule must have at least the same academic standards as a public school and article 7 , paragraph 4 of the grundgesetz , also forbids segregation of pupils according to the means of their parents ( the so-called sonderungsverbot ) . therefore , most ersatzschulen have very low tuition fees and/or offer scholarships , compared to most other western european countries . however , it is not possible to finance these schools with such low tuition fees , which is why all german ersatzschulen are additionally financed with public funds . the percentages of public money could reach 100 % of the personnel expenditures . nevertheless , private schools became insolvent in the past in germany .
how does the level of tuition in german private schools compare to private schools in other western european countries ?
very low

Sample: 632

the black death ravaged much of the islamic world . plague was present in at least one location in the islamic world virtually every year between 1500 and 1850 . plague repeatedly struck the cities of north africa . algiers lost 30 to 50 thousand inhabitants to it in 1620–21 , and again in 1654–57 , 1665 , 1691 , and 1740–42 . plague remained a major event in ottoman society until the second quarter of the 19th century . between 1701 and 1750 , thirty-seven larger and smaller epidemics were recorded in constantinople , and an additional thirty-one between 1751 and 1800 . baghdad has suffered severely from visitations of the plague , and sometimes two-thirds of its population has been wiped out .
how long did plague last in the ottoman empire ?
until the second quarter of the 19th century .

Sample: 633

there have been debates as to whether civil disobedience must necessarily be non-violent . black 's law dictionary includes non-violence in its definition of civil disobedience . christian bay 's encyclopedia article states that civil disobedience requires " carefully chosen and legitimate means , " but holds that they do not have to be non-violent . it has been argued that , while both civil disobedience and civil rebellion are justified by appeal to constitutional defects , rebellion is much more destructive ; therefore , the defects justifying rebellion must be much more serious than those justifying disobedience , and if one can not justify civil rebellion , then one can not justify a civil disobedients ' use of force and violence and refusal to submit to arrest . civil disobedients ' refraining from violence is also said to help preserve society 's tolerance of civil disobedience .
what other terminology is considered much more destructive ?
civil rebellion

Sample: 634

the owner produces a list of requirements for a project , giving an overall view of the project 's goals . several d & b contractors present different ideas about how to accomplish these goals . the owner selects the ideas he or she likes best and hires the appropriate contractor . often , it is not just one contractor , but a consortium of several contractors working together . once these have been hired , they begin building the first phase of the project . as they build phase 1 , they design phase 2 . this is in contrast to a design-bid-build contract , where the project is completely designed by the owner , then bid on , then completed .
who produces a list of requirements for a project , giving an overall view of the project 's goals ?
the owner

Sample: 635

the amazon rainforest ( portuguese : floresta amazônica or amazônia ; spanish : selva amazónica , amazonía or usually amazonia ; french : forêt amazonienne ; dutch : amazoneregenwoud ) , also known in english as amazonia or the amazon jungle , is a moist broadleaf forest that covers most of the amazon basin of south america . this basin encompasses 7,000,000 square kilometres ( 2,700,000 sq mi ) , of which 5,500,000 square kilometres ( 2,100,000 sq mi ) are covered by the rainforest . this region includes territory belonging to nine nations . the majority of the forest is contained within brazil , with 60 % of the rainforest , followed by peru with 13 % , colombia with 10 % , and with minor amounts in venezuela , ecuador , bolivia , guyana , suriname and french guiana . states or departments in four nations contain " amazonas " in their names . the amazon represents over half of the planet 's remaining rainforests , and comprises the largest and most biodiverse tract of tropical rainforest in the world , with an estimated 390 billion individual trees divided into 16,000 species .
how many species of trees can be found in the amazon rainforest ?
16,000

Sample: 636

in 1893 richard dean adams , who headed up the niagara falls cataract construction company sought tesla 's opinion on what system would be best to transmit power generated at the falls . over several years there had been a series of proposals and open competitions on how best to utilize power generated by the falls with many systems being proposed by several us and european companies including two-phase and three-phase ac , high-voltage dc , and even compressed air . adams pumped tesla for information about the current state of all the competing systems . tesla advised adams that a two-phased system would be the most reliable and that there was a westinghouse system to light incandescent bulbs using two-phase alternating current . based on tesla 's advice and westinghouse 's demonstration that they could build a complete ac system at the columbian exposition , a contract for building a two-phase ac generating system at the niagara falls was awarded to westinghouse electric . a further contract to build the ac distribution system was awarded to general electric .
what system did tesla recommend to niagara falls in 1893 ?
a two-phased system

Sample: 637

looking beyond the manned lunar landings , nasa investigated several post-lunar applications for apollo hardware . the apollo extension series ( apollo x , ) proposed up to 30 flights to earth orbit , using the space in the spacecraft lunar module adapter ( sla ) to house a small orbital laboratory ( workshop ) . astronauts would continue to use the csm as a ferry to the station . this study was followed by design of a larger orbital workshop to be built in orbit from an empty s-ivb saturn upper stage , and grew into the apollo applications program ( aap ) . the workshop was to be supplemented by apollo telescope missions , which would replace the lm 's descent stage equipment and engine with a solar telescope observatory . the most ambitious plan called for using an empty s-ivb as an interplanetary spacecraft for a venus fly-by mission .
what did nasa name the series seeking up to 30 more flights to earth 's orbit ?
apollo x

Sample: 638

pharmacy informatics is the combination of pharmacy practice science and applied information science . pharmacy informaticists work in many practice areas of pharmacy , however , they may also work in information technology departments or for healthcare information technology vendor companies . as a practice area and specialist domain , pharmacy informatics is growing quickly to meet the needs of major national and international patient information projects and health system interoperability goals . pharmacists in this area are trained to participate in medication management system development , deployment and optimization .
how fast is pharmacy informatics growing ?
quickly

Sample: 639

with 4:51 left in regulation , carolina got the ball on their own 24-yard line with a chance to mount a game-winning drive , and soon faced 3rd-and-9 . on the next play , miller stripped the ball away from newton , and after several players dove for it , it took a long bounce backwards and was recovered by ward , who returned it five yards to the panthers 4-yard line . although several players dove into the pile to attempt to recover it , newton did not and his lack of aggression later earned him heavy criticism . meanwhile , denver 's offense was kept out of the end zone for three plays , but a holding penalty on cornerback josh norman gave the broncos a new set of downs . then anderson scored on a 2-yard touchdown run and manning completed a pass to bennie fowler for a 2-point conversion , giving denver a 24–10 lead with 3:08 left and essentially putting the game away . carolina had two more drives , but failed to get a first down on each one .
what is the last name of the player who scored a 2-yard touchdown in the fourth quarter ?
anderson

Sample: 640

during the american civil war , jacksonville was a key supply point for hogs and cattle being shipped from florida to aid the confederate cause . the city was blockaded by union forces , who gained control of the nearby fort clinch . though no battles were fought in jacksonville proper , the city changed hands several times between union and confederate forces . the skirmish of the brick church in 1862 just outside jacksonville proper resulted in the first confederate victory in florida . in february 1864 union forces left jacksonville and confronted a confederate army at the battle of olustee resulting in a confederate victory . union forces then retreated to jacksonville and held the city for the remainder of the war . in march 1864 a confederate cavalry confronted a union expedition resulting in the battle of cedar creek . warfare and the long occupation left the city disrupted after the war .
what factors negatively impacted jacksonville following the war ?
warfare and the long occupation

Sample: 641

the advances made in the middle east in botany and chemistry led medicine in medieval islam substantially to develop pharmacology . muhammad ibn zakarīya rāzi ( rhazes ) ( 865–915 ) , for instance , acted to promote the medical uses of chemical compounds . abu al-qasim al-zahrawi ( abulcasis ) ( 936–1013 ) pioneered the preparation of medicines by sublimation and distillation . his liber servitoris is of particular interest , as it provides the reader with recipes and explains how to prepare the ` simples ’ from which were compounded the complex drugs then generally used . sabur ibn sahl ( d 869 ) , was , however , the first physician to initiate pharmacopoedia , describing a large variety of drugs and remedies for ailments . al-biruni ( 973–1050 ) wrote one of the most valuable islamic works on pharmacology , entitled kitab al-saydalah ( the book of drugs ) , in which he detailed the properties of drugs and outlined the role of pharmacy and the functions and duties of the pharmacist . avicenna , too , described no less than 700 preparations , their properties , modes of action , and their indications . he devoted in fact a whole volume to simple drugs in the canon of medicine . of great impact were also the works by al-maridini of baghdad and cairo , and ibn al-wafid ( 1008–1074 ) , both of which were printed in latin more than fifty times , appearing as de medicinis universalibus et particularibus by 'mesue ' the younger , and the medicamentis simplicibus by 'abenguefit ' . peter of abano ( 1250–1316 ) translated and added a supplement to the work of al-maridini under the title de veneris . al-muwaffaq ’ s contributions in the field are also pioneering . living in the 10th century , he wrote the foundations of the true properties of remedies , amongst others describing arsenious oxide , and being acquainted with silicic acid . he made clear distinction between sodium carbonate and potassium carbonate , and drew attention to the poisonous nature of copper compounds , especially copper vitriol , and also lead compounds . he also describes the distillation of sea-water for drinking . [ verification needed ]
who wrote about the distillation of drinking water from sea water ?
al-muwaffaq

Sample: 642

in 1755 , six colonial governors in north america met with general edward braddock , the newly arrived british army commander , and planned a four-way attack on the french . none succeeded and the main effort by braddock was a disaster ; he was defeated in the battle of the monongahela on july 9 , 1755 and died a few days later . british operations in 1755 , 1756 and 1757 in the frontier areas of pennsylvania and new york all failed , due to a combination of poor management , internal divisions , and effective canadian scouts , french regular forces , and indian warrior allies . in 1755 , the british captured fort beauséjour on the border separating nova scotia from acadia ; soon afterward they ordered the expulsion of the acadians . orders for the deportation were given by william shirley , commander-in-chief , north america , without direction from great britain . the acadians , both those captured in arms and those who had sworn the loyalty oath to his britannic majesty , were expelled . native americans were likewise driven off their land to make way for settlers from new england .
why did british operation fail in 1755 , 56 , 57 ?
combination of poor management , internal divisions , and effective canadian scouts , french regular forces , and indian warrior allies

Sample: 643

the normal force is due to repulsive forces of interaction between atoms at close contact . when their electron clouds overlap , pauli repulsion ( due to fermionic nature of electrons ) follows resulting in the force that acts in a direction normal to the surface interface between two objects . :93 the normal force , for example , is responsible for the structural integrity of tables and floors as well as being the force that responds whenever an external force pushes on a solid object . an example of the normal force in action is the impact force on an object crashing into an immobile surface .
what is the repulsive force of close range atom interaction ?
normal force

Sample: 644

if angiosperm shoots are not exposed to the required light for chloroplast formation , proplastids may develop into an etioplast stage before becoming chloroplasts . an etioplast is a plastid that lacks chlorophyll , and has inner membrane invaginations that form a lattice of tubes in their stroma , called a prolamellar body . while etioplasts lack chlorophyll , they have a yellow chlorophyll precursor stocked . within a few minutes of light exposure , the prolamellar body begins to reorganize into stacks of thylakoids , and chlorophyll starts to be produced . this process , where the etioplast becomes a chloroplast , takes several hours . gymnosperms do not require light to form chloroplasts .
what do etioplasts ' internal membranes have ?
invaginations that form a lattice of tubes in their stroma

Sample: 645

at the beginning of 1893 westinghouse engineer benjamin lamme had made great progress developing an efficient version of tesla 's induction motor and westinghouse electric started branding their complete polyphase phase ac system as the " tesla polyphase system " , noting how they believed tesla 's patents gave them patent priority over other ac systems .
in which year did benjamin lamme achieve success making the motor more efficient ?
1893

Sample: 646

the league announced on october 16 , 2012 , that the two finalists were sun life stadium and levi 's stadium . the south florida/miami area has previously hosted the event 10 times ( tied for most with new orleans ) , with the most recent one being super bowl xliv in 2010 . the san francisco bay area last hosted in 1985 ( super bowl xix ) , held at stanford stadium in stanford , california , won by the home team 49ers . the miami bid depended on whether the stadium underwent renovations . however , on may 3 , 2013 , the florida legislature refused to approve the funding plan to pay for the renovations , dealing a significant blow to miami 's chances .
in what year was the super bowl last held in the miami/south florida area ?
2010

Sample: 647

for the next three hundred years , scotland was directly governed by the parliament of great britain and the subsequent parliament of the united kingdom , both seated at westminster , and the lack of a parliament of scotland remained an important element in scottish national identity . suggestions for a 'devolved ' parliament were made before 1914 , but were shelved due to the outbreak of the first world war . a sharp rise in nationalism in scotland during the late 1960s fuelled demands for some form of home rule or complete independence , and in 1969 prompted the incumbent labour government of harold wilson to set up the kilbrandon commission to consider the british constitution . one of the principal objectives of the commission was to examine ways of enabling more self-government for scotland , within the unitary state of the united kingdom . kilbrandon published his report in 1973 recommending the establishment of a directly elected scottish assembly to legislate for the majority of domestic scottish affairs .
what remained an important issue in scottish national identity for many years ?
lack of a parliament of scotland

Sample: 648

in 2006 , a toxic waste spill off the coast of côte d'ivoire , from a european ship , prompted the commission to look into legislation against toxic waste . environment commissioner stavros dimas stated that " such highly toxic waste should never have left the european union " . with countries such as spain not even having a crime against shipping toxic waste , franco frattini , the justice , freedom and security commissioner , proposed with dimas to create criminal sentences for " ecological crimes " . the competence for the union to do this was contested in 2005 at the court of justice resulting in a victory for the commission . that ruling set a precedent that the commission , on a supranational basis , may legislate in criminal law – something never done before . so far , the only other proposal has been the draft intellectual property rights directive . motions were tabled in the european parliament against that legislation on the basis that criminal law should not be an eu competence , but was rejected at vote . however , in october 2007 , the court of justice ruled that the commission could not propose what the criminal sanctions could be , only that there must be some .
when did the court of justice rule that the commission could only propose that there must be some criminal sanctions ?
october 2007

Sample: 649

for a long time , number theory in general , and the study of prime numbers in particular , was seen as the canonical example of pure mathematics , with no applications outside of the self-interest of studying the topic with the exception of use of prime numbered gear teeth to distribute wear evenly . in particular , number theorists such as british mathematician g. h. hardy prided themselves on doing work that had absolutely no military significance . however , this vision was shattered in the 1970s , when it was publicly announced that prime numbers could be used as the basis for the creation of public key cryptography algorithms . prime numbers are also used for hash tables and pseudorandom number generators .
besides public key cryptography , what is another application for prime numbers ?
hash tables

Sample: 650

tesla was generally antagonistic towards theories about the conversion of matter into energy . :247 he was also critical of einstein 's theory of relativity , saying :
what was tesla 's attitude toward the idea that matter could be turned into energy ?
antagonistic

Sample: 651

peyton manning became the first quarterback ever to lead two different teams to multiple super bowls . he is also the oldest quarterback ever to play in a super bowl at age 39 . the past record was held by john elway , who led the broncos to victory in super bowl xxxiii at age 38 and is currently denver 's executive vice president of football operations and general manager .
prior to manning , who was the oldest quarterback to play in a super bowl ?
john elway

Sample: 652

there have also been many references to doctor who in popular culture and other science fiction , including star trek : the next generation ( " the neutral zone " ) and leverage . in the channel 4 series queer as folk ( created by later doctor who executive producer russell t. davies ) , the character of vince was portrayed as an avid doctor who fan , with references appearing many times throughout in the form of clips from the programme . in a similar manner , the character of oliver on coupling ( created and written by current show runner steven moffat ) is portrayed as a doctor who collector and enthusiast . references to doctor who have also appeared in the young adult fantasy novels brisingr and high wizardry , the video game rock band , the soap opera eastenders , the adult swim comedy show robot chicken , the family guy episodes " blue harvest " and " 420 " , and the game runescape . it has also be referenced in destroy all humans ! 2 , by civilians in the game 's variation of england , and in apollo justice : ace attorney .
what series was created by former doctor who producer russell t. davies ?
queer as folk

Sample: 653

tesla never married ; he said his chastity was very helpful to his scientific abilities . :33 however , toward the end of his life , he told a reporter , " sometimes i feel that by not marrying , i made too great a sacrifice to my work ... " there have been numerous accounts of women vying for tesla 's affection , even some madly in love with him . [ citation needed ] tesla , though polite and soft-spoken , did not have any known relationships .
what characteristic did tesla say helped his scientific abilities ?
chastity

Sample: 654

institutionally , the normans combined the administrative machinery of the byzantines , arabs , and lombards with their own conceptions of feudal law and order to forge a unique government . under this state , there was great religious freedom , and alongside the norman nobles existed a meritocratic bureaucracy of jews , muslims and christians , both catholic and eastern orthodox . the kingdom of sicily thus became characterized by norman , byzantine greek , arab , lombard and " native " sicilian populations living in harmony , and its norman rulers fostered plans of establishing an empire that would have encompassed fatimid egypt as well as the crusader states in the levant . one of the great geographical treatises of the middle ages , the " tabula rogeriana " , was written by the andalusian al-idrisi for king roger ii of sicily , and entitled " kitab rudjdjar " ( " the book of roger " ) .
what is another name for the tabula rogeriana ?
kitab rudjdjar

Sample: 655

at present , the branches waal and nederrijn-lek discharge to the north sea , through the former meuse estuary , near rotterdam . the river ijssel branch flows to the north and enters the ijsselmeer , formerly the zuider zee brackish lagoon ; however , since 1932 , a freshwater lake . the discharge of the rhine is divided among three branches : the river waal ( 6/9 of total discharge ) , the river nederrijn – lek ( 2/9 of total discharge ) and the river ijssel ( 1/9 of total discharge ) . this discharge distribution has been maintained since 1709 , by river engineering works , including the digging of the pannerdens canal and since the 20th century , with the help of weirs in the nederrijn river .
what did the zuider zee brackish lagoon change into ?
freshwater lake

Sample: 656

former ipcc chairman robert watson has said " the mistakes all appear to have gone in the direction of making it seem like climate change is more serious by overstating the impact . that is worrying . the ipcc needs to look at this trend in the errors and ask why it happened " . martin parry , a climate expert who had been co-chair of the ipcc working group ii , said that " what began with a single unfortunate error over himalayan glaciers has become a clamour without substance " and the ipcc had investigated the other alleged mistakes , which were " generally unfounded and also marginal to the assessment " .
what was robert watson 's role in the ipcc ?
ipcc chairman

Sample: 657

of course , some complexity classes have complicated definitions that do not fit into this framework . thus , a typical complexity class has a definition like the following :
complexity classes are generally classified into what ?
framework

Sample: 658

the most recent episodes of the network 's shows are usually made available on watch abc , hulu and abc on demand the day after their original broadcast . in addition , abc on demand ( like the video-on-demand television services provided by the other u.s. broadcast networks ) disallows fast forwarding of accessed content . restrictions implemented by disney–abc television group on january 7 , 2014 restrict streaming of the most recent episode of any abc program on hulu and watch abc until eight days after their initial broadcast , in order to encourage live or same-week ( via both dvr and cable on demand ) viewing , with day-after-air streaming on either service limited to subscribers of participating pay television providers ( such as comcast , verizon fios and time warner cable ) using an isp account via an authenticated user login .
disney-abc television group implemented restrictions for hulu and watch abc that made episodes available only after how many days after initial broadcast ?
eight

Sample: 659

since 1974 , abc has generally aired dick clark 's new year 's rockin ' eve on new year 's eve ( hosted first by its creator dick clark , and later by his successor ryan seacrest ) ; the only exception was in 1999 , when abc put it on a one-year hiatus to provide coverage of the international millennium festivities , though clark 's traditional countdown from times square was still featured within the coverage . abc has also aired the miss america pageant from 1954 to 1956 , 1997 to 2005 ( with the television rights being assumed by cable channel tlc in 2006 , when the pageant moved from its longtime homebase in atlantic city to las vegas , before returning to atlantic city in 2013 ) and since 2011 . under its current contract with the miss america organization , abc will continue to broadcast the pageant through 2016 .
what network assumed the rights to the miss america pageant in 2006 ?
tlc

Sample: 660

while acknowledging the central role economic growth can potentially play in human development , poverty reduction and the achievement of the millennium development goals , it is becoming widely understood amongst the development community that special efforts must be made to ensure poorer sections of society are able to participate in economic growth . the effect of economic growth on poverty reduction – the growth elasticity of poverty – can depend on the existing level of inequality . for instance , with low inequality a country with a growth rate of 2 % per head and 40 % of its population living in poverty , can halve poverty in ten years , but a country with high inequality would take nearly 60 years to achieve the same reduction . in the words of the secretary general of the united nations ban ki-moon : " while economic growth is necessary , it is not sufficient for progress on reducing poverty . "
what does it take a country with high inequality longer to achieve ?
reduction

Sample: 661

several procedures enable the scottish parliament to scrutinise the government . the first minister or members of the cabinet can deliver statements to parliament upon which msps are invited to question . for example , at the beginning of each parliamentary year , the first minister delivers a statement to the chamber setting out the government 's legislative programme for the forthcoming year . after the statement has been delivered , the leaders of the opposition parties and other msps question the first minister on issues related to the substance of the statement .
what do the leaders of the opposition parties and other msps question the first minister about ?
issues related to the substance of the statement

Sample: 662

the system of bureaucracy created by kublai khan reflected various cultures in the empire , including that of the han chinese , khitans , jurchens , mongols , and tibetan buddhists . while the official terminology of the institutions may indicate the government structure was almost purely that of native chinese dynasties , the yuan bureaucracy actually consisted of a mix of elements from different cultures . the chinese-style elements of the bureaucracy mainly came from the native tang , song , as well as khitan liao and jurchen jin dynasties . chinese advisers such as liu bingzhong and yao shu gave strong influence to kublai 's early court , and the central government administration was established within the first decade of kublai 's reign . this government adopted the traditional chinese tripartite division of authority among civil , military , and censorial offices , including the central secretariat ( zhongshu sheng ) to manage civil affairs , the privy council ( chinese : 樞密院 ) to manage military affairs , and the censorate to conduct internal surveillance and inspection . the actual functions of both central and local government institutions , however , showed a major overlap between the civil and military jurisdictions , due to the mongol traditional reliance on military institutions and offices as the core of governance . nevertheless , such a civilian bureaucracy , with the central secretariat as the top institution that was ( directly or indirectly ) responsible for most other governmental agencies ( such as the traditional chinese-style six ministries ) , was created in china . at various times another central government institution called the department of state affairs ( shangshu sheng ) that mainly dealt with finance was established ( such as during the reign of külüg khan or emperor wuzong ) , but was usually abandoned shortly afterwards .
what cultures were part of kublai 's administration ?
han chinese , khitans , jurchens , mongols , and tibetan buddhists

Sample: 663

the u.s. government has engaged in efforts to counter islamism , or violent islamism , since 2001 . these efforts were centred in the u.s. around public diplomacy programmes conducted by the state department . there have been calls to create an independent agency in the u.s. with a specific mission of undermining islamism and jihadism . christian whiton , an official in the george w. bush administration , called for a new agency focused on the nonviolent practice of " political warfare " aimed at undermining the ideology . u.s. defense secretary robert gates called for establishing something similar to the defunct u.s. information agency , which was charged with undermining the communist ideology during the cold war .
what department in the u.s. spearheaded the efforts against islamism ?
state

Sample: 664

in marxian analysis , capitalist firms increasingly substitute capital equipment for labor inputs ( workers ) under competitive pressure to reduce costs and maximize profits . over the long-term , this trend increases the organic composition of capital , meaning that less workers are required in proportion to capital inputs , increasing unemployment ( the " reserve army of labour " ) . this process exerts a downward pressure on wages . the substitution of capital equipment for labor ( mechanization and automation ) raises the productivity of each worker , resulting in a situation of relatively stagnant wages for the working class amidst rising levels of property income for the capitalist class .
what trend increases the organic composition of capital over the long term ?
substitute capital equipment

Sample: 665

the musical instruments gallery closed 25 february 2010 , a decision which was highly controversial . an online petition of over 5,100 names on the parliamentary website led to chris smith asking parliament about the future of the collection . the answer , from bryan davies was that the museum intended to preserve and care for the collection and keep it available to the public , with items being redistributed to the british galleries , the medieval & renaissance galleries , and the planned new galleries for furniture and europe 1600–1800 , and that the horniman museum and other institutions were possible candidates for loans of material to ensure that the instruments remained publicly viewable . the horniman went on to host a joint exhibition with the v & a of musical instruments , and has the loan of 35 instruments from the museum .
approximately how many names were signed on an online petition on the parliamentary website in response to the closing of the musical instruments gallery ?
over 5,100

Sample: 666

one theory is that , while disobedience may be helpful , any great amount of it would undermine the law by encouraging general disobedience which is neither conscientious nor of social benefit . therefore , conscientious lawbreakers must be punished . michael bayles argues that if a person violates a law in order to create a test case as to the constitutionality of a law , and then wins his case , then that act did not constitute civil disobedience . it has also been argued that breaking the law for self-gratification , as in the case of a homosexual or cannabis user who does not direct his act at securing the repeal of amendment of the law , is not civil disobedience . likewise , a protestor who attempts to escape punishment by committing the crime covertly and avoiding attribution , or by denying having committed the crime , or by fleeing the jurisdiction , is generally viewed as not being a civil disobedient .
why should disobedience by the general public be avoided ?
neither conscientious nor of social benefit

Sample: 667

teaching using pedagogy also involve assessing the educational levels of the students on particular skills . understanding the pedagogy of the students in a classroom involves using differentiated instruction as well as supervision to meet the needs of all students in the classroom . pedagogy can be thought of in two manners . first , teaching itself can be taught in many different ways , hence , using a pedagogy of teaching styles . second , the pedagogy of the learners comes into play when a teacher assesses the pedagogic diversity of his/her students and differentiates for the individual students accordingly . for example , an experienced teacher and parent described the place of a teacher in learning as follows : " the real bulk of learning takes place in self-study and problem solving with a lot of feedback around that loop . the function of the teacher is to pressure the lazy , inspire the bored , deflate the cocky , encourage the timid , detect and correct individual flaws , and broaden the viewpoint of all . this function looks like that of a coach using the whole gamut of psychology to get each new class of rookies off the bench and into the game . "
what would a teacher do for someone who is timid ?
encourage

Sample: 668

there have also been many references to doctor who in popular culture and other science fiction , including star trek : the next generation ( " the neutral zone " ) and leverage . in the channel 4 series queer as folk ( created by later doctor who executive producer russell t. davies ) , the character of vince was portrayed as an avid doctor who fan , with references appearing many times throughout in the form of clips from the programme . in a similar manner , the character of oliver on coupling ( created and written by current show runner steven moffat ) is portrayed as a doctor who collector and enthusiast . references to doctor who have also appeared in the young adult fantasy novels brisingr and high wizardry , the video game rock band , the soap opera eastenders , the adult swim comedy show robot chicken , the family guy episodes " blue harvest " and " 420 " , and the game runescape . it has also be referenced in destroy all humans ! 2 , by civilians in the game 's variation of england , and in apollo justice : ace attorney .
which family guy episodes contain doctor who references ?
" blue harvest " and " 420 "

Sample: 669

following their loss in the divisional round of the previous season 's playoffs , the denver broncos underwent numerous coaching changes , including a mutual parting with head coach john fox ( who had won four divisional championships in his four years as broncos head coach ) , and the hiring of gary kubiak as the new head coach . under kubiak , the broncos planned to install a run-oriented offense with zone blocking to blend in with quarterback peyton manning 's shotgun passing skills , but struggled with numerous changes and injuries to the offensive line , as well as manning having his worst statistical season since his rookie year with the indianapolis colts in 1998 , due to a plantar fasciitis injury in his heel that he had suffered since the summer , and the simple fact that manning was getting old , as he turned 39 in the 2015 off-season . although the team had a 7–0 start , manning led the nfl in interceptions . in week 10 , manning suffered a partial tear of the plantar fasciitis in his left foot . he set the nfl 's all-time record for career passing yards in this game , but was benched after throwing four interceptions in favor of backup quarterback brock osweiler , who took over as the starter for most of the remainder of the regular season . osweiler was injured , however , leading to manning 's return during the week 17 regular season finale , where the broncos were losing 13–7 against the 4–11 san diego chargers , resulting in manning re-claiming the starting quarterback position for the playoffs by leading the team to a key 27–20 win that enabled the team to clinch the number one overall afc seed . under defensive coordinator wade phillips , the broncos ' defense ranked number one in total yards allowed , passing yards allowed and sacks , and like the previous three seasons , the team has continued to set numerous individual , league and franchise records . with the defense carrying the team despite the issues with the offense , the broncos finished the regular season with a 12–4 record and earned home-field advantage throughout the afc playoffs .
who did peyton manning play for as a rookie ?
indianapolis colts

Sample: 670

almost all ctenophores are predators , taking prey ranging from microscopic larvae and rotifers to the adults of small crustaceans ; the exceptions are juveniles of two species , which live as parasites on the salps on which adults of their species feed . in favorable circumstances , ctenophores can eat ten times their own weight in a day . only 100–150 species have been validated , and possibly another 25 have not been fully described and named . the textbook examples are cydippids with egg-shaped bodies and a pair of retractable tentacles fringed with tentilla ( " little tentacles " ) that are covered with colloblasts , sticky cells that capture prey . the phylum has a wide range of body forms , including the flattened , deep-sea platyctenids , in which the adults of most species lack combs , and the coastal beroids , which lack tentacles and prey on other ctenophores by using huge mouths armed with groups of large , stiffened cilia that act as teeth . these variations enable different species to build huge populations in the same area , because they specialize in different types of prey , which they capture by as wide a range of methods as spiders use .
what are the small tentacles on cydippids called ?
tentilla

Sample: 671

internet2 is a not-for-profit united states computer networking consortium led by members from the research and education communities , industry , and government . the internet2 community , in partnership with qwest , built the first internet2 network , called abilene , in 1998 and was a prime investor in the national lambdarail ( nlr ) project . in 2006 , internet2 announced a partnership with level 3 communications to launch a brand new nationwide network , boosting its capacity from 10 gbit/s to 100 gbit/s . in october , 2007 , internet2 officially retired abilene and now refers to its new , higher capacity network as the internet2 network .
what was the first internet2 network named
abilene

Sample: 672

ctenophores may be abundant during the summer months in some coastal locations , but in other places they are uncommon and difficult to find . in bays where they occur in very high numbers , predation by ctenophores may control the populations of small zooplanktonic organisms such as copepods , which might otherwise wipe out the phytoplankton ( planktonic plants ) , which are a vital part of marine food chains . one ctenophore , mnemiopsis , has accidentally been introduced into the black sea , where it is blamed for causing fish stocks to collapse by eating both fish larvae and organisms that would otherwise have fed the fish . the situation was aggravated by other factors , such as over-fishing and long-term environmental changes that promoted the growth of the mnemiopsis population . the later accidental introduction of beroe helped to mitigate the problem , as beroe preys on other ctenophores .
where can ctenophores be found in large amounts ?
in bays

Sample: 673

from 2005 to 2014 , there were two major league soccer teams in los angeles — the la galaxy and chivas usa — that both played at the stubhub center and were local rivals . however , chivas were suspended following the 2014 mls season , with a second mls team scheduled to return in 2018 .
which year resulted in the suspension of one of the two soccer teams ?
2014

Sample: 674

genghis khan put absolute trust in his generals , such as muqali , jebe and subutai , and regarded them as close advisors , often extending them the same privileges and trust normally reserved for close family members . he allowed them to make decisions on their own when they embarked on campaigns far from the mongol empire capital karakorum . muqali , a trusted lieutenant , was given command of the mongol forces against the jin dynasty while genghis khan was fighting in central asia , and subutai and jebe were allowed to pursue the great raid into the caucasus and kievan rus ' , an idea they had presented to the khagan on their own initiative . while granting his generals a great deal of autonomy in making command decisions , genghis khan also expected unwavering loyalty from them .
who was delegated command of the mongol forces against the jin dynasty ?
muqali

Sample: 675

as interesting examples of expositions the most notable are : the world 's first museum of posters boasting one of the largest collections of art posters in the world , museum of hunting and riding and the railway museum . from among warsaw 's 60 museums , the most prestigious ones are national museum with a collection of works whose origin ranges in time from antiquity till the present epoch as well as one of the best collections of paintings in the country including some paintings from adolf hitler 's private collection , and museum of the polish army whose set portrays the history of arms .
warsaw 's national museum is one of the most what ?
prestigious

Sample: 676

despite their soft , gelatinous bodies , fossils thought to represent ctenophores , apparently with no tentacles but many more comb-rows than modern forms , have been found in lagerstätten as far back as the early cambrian , about 515 million years ago . the position of the ctenophores in the evolutionary family tree of animals has long been debated , and the majority view at present , based on molecular phylogenetics , is that cnidarians and bilaterians are more closely related to each other than either is to ctenophores . a recent molecular phylogenetics analysis concluded that the common ancestor of all modern ctenophores was cydippid-like , and that all the modern groups appeared relatively recently , probably after the cretaceous–paleogene extinction event 66 million years ago . evidence accumulating since the 1980s indicates that the " cydippids " are not monophyletic , in other words do not include all and only the descendants of a single common ancestor , because all the other traditional ctenophore groups are descendants of various cydippids .
how old are the fossils found that represent ctenophhores ?
515 million years

Sample: 677

tesla 's demonstration of his induction motor and westinghouse 's subsequent licensing of the patent , both in 1888 , put tesla firmly on the " ac " side of the so-called " war of currents , " an electrical distribution battle being waged between thomas edison and george westinghouse that had been simmering since westinghouse 's first ac system in 1886 and had reached the point of all-out warfare by 1888 . this started out as a competition between rival lighting systems with edison holding all the patents for dc and the incandescent light and westinghouse using his own patented ac system to power arc lights as well as incandescent lamps of a slightly different design to get around the edison patent . the acquisition of a feasible ac motor gave westinghouse a key patent in building a completely integrated ac system , but the financial strain of buying up patents and hiring the engineers needed to build it meant development of tesla 's motor had to be put on hold for a while . the competition resulted in edison machine works pursuing ac development in 1890 and by 1892 thomas edison was no longer in control of his own company , which was consolidated into the conglomerate general electric and converting to an ac delivery system at that point .
who took control of edison 's company .
general electric

Sample: 678

immunology is a science that examines the structure and function of the immune system . it originates from medicine and early studies on the causes of immunity to disease . the earliest known reference to immunity was during the plague of athens in 430 bc . thucydides noted that people who had recovered from a previous bout of the disease could nurse the sick without contracting the illness a second time . in the 18th century , pierre-louis moreau de maupertuis made experiments with scorpion venom and observed that certain dogs and mice were immune to this venom . this and other observations of acquired immunity were later exploited by louis pasteur in his development of vaccination and his proposed germ theory of disease . pasteur 's theory was in direct opposition to contemporary theories of disease , such as the miasma theory . it was not until robert koch 's 1891 proofs , for which he was awarded a nobel prize in 1905 , that microorganisms were confirmed as the cause of infectious disease . viruses were confirmed as human pathogens in 1901 , with the discovery of the yellow fever virus by walter reed .
which animal 's venom did pierre-louis moreau de maupertuis work with ?
scorpion

Sample: 679

after the founding of the colony of new south wales in 1788 , australia was divided into an eastern half named new south wales and a western half named new holland , under the administration of the colonial government in sydney . the first european settlement in the area later known as victoria was established in october 1803 under lieutenant-governor david collins at sullivan bay on port phillip . it consisted of 402 people ( 5 government officials , 9 officers of marines , 2 drummers , and 39 privates , 5 soldiers ' wives , and a child , 307 convicts , 17 convicts ' wives , and 7 children ) . they had been sent from england in hms calcutta under the command of captain daniel woodriff , principally out of fear that the french , who had been exploring the area , might establish their own settlement and thereby challenge british rights to the continent .
when was the colony of new south wales founded ?
1788

Sample: 680

most of the huguenot congregations ( or individuals ) in north america eventually affiliated with other protestant denominations with more numerous members . the huguenots adapted quickly and often married outside their immediate french communities , which led to their assimilation . their descendants in many families continued to use french first names and surnames for their children well into the nineteenth century . assimilated , the french made numerous contributions to united states economic life , especially as merchants and artisans in the late colonial and early federal periods . for example , e.i . du pont , a former student of lavoisier , established the eleutherian gunpowder mills .
what was the name of du pont 's gunpowder operation ?
eleutherian gunpowder mills

Sample: 681

between 1991 and 2000 , the total area of forest lost in the amazon rose from 415,000 to 587,000 square kilometres ( 160,000 to 227,000 sq mi ) , with most of the lost forest becoming pasture for cattle . seventy percent of formerly forested land in the amazon , and 91 % of land deforested since 1970 , is used for livestock pasture . currently , brazil is the second-largest global producer of soybeans after the united states . new research however , conducted by leydimere oliveira et al. , has shown that the more rainforest is logged in the amazon , the less precipitation reaches the area and so the lower the yield per hectare becomes . so despite the popular perception , there has been no economical advantage for brazil from logging rainforest zones and converting these to pastoral fields .
what percentage of the land cleared in the amazon is used for growing livestock ?
91 %

Sample: 682

in world war ii , it was recognised that the rhine would present a formidable natural obstacle to the invasion of germany , by the western allies . the rhine bridge at arnhem , immortalized in the book , a bridge too far and the film , was a central focus of the battle for arnhem , during the failed operation market garden of september 1944 . the bridges at nijmegen , over the waal distributary of the rhine , were also an objective of operation market garden . in a separate operation , the ludendorff bridge , crossing the rhine at remagen , became famous , when u.s. forces were able to capture it intact – much to their own surprise – after the germans failed to demolish it . this also became the subject of a film , the bridge at remagen . seven days to the river rhine was a warsaw pact war plan for an invasion of western europe during the cold war .
what bridge did the germans fail to demolish ?
ludendorff bridge

Sample: 683

a fine tribute to the fall of warsaw and history of poland can be found in the warsaw uprising museum and in the katyń museum which preserves the memory of the crime . the warsaw uprising museum also operates a rare preserved and operating historic stereoscopic theatre , the warsaw fotoplastikon . the museum of independence preserves patriotic and political objects connected with poland 's struggles for independence . dating back to 1936 warsaw historical museum contains 60 rooms which host a permanent exhibition of the history of warsaw from its origins until today .
how many rooms does the warsaw historical museum have ?
60

Sample: 684

the main use for steam turbines is in electricity generation ( in the 1990s about 90 % of the world 's electric production was by use of steam turbines ) however the recent widespread application of large gas turbine units and typical combined cycle power plants has resulted in reduction of this percentage to the 80 % regime for steam turbines . in electricity production , the high speed of turbine rotation matches well with the speed of modern electric generators , which are typically direct connected to their driving turbines . in marine service , ( pioneered on the turbinia ) , steam turbines with reduction gearing ( although the turbinia has direct turbines to propellers with no reduction gearbox ) dominated large ship propulsion throughout the late 20th century , being more efficient ( and requiring far less maintenance ) than reciprocating steam engines . in recent decades , reciprocating diesel engines , and gas turbines , have almost entirely supplanted steam propulsion for marine applications .
what percentage of electricity was made by steam turbine in the 1990s ?
90

Sample: 685

britain gained control of french canada and acadia , colonies containing approximately 80,000 primarily french-speaking roman catholic residents . the deportation of acadians beginning in 1755 resulted in land made available to migrants from europe and the colonies further south . the british resettled many acadians throughout its north american provinces , but many went to france , and some went to new orleans , which they had expected to remain french . some were sent to colonize places as diverse as french guiana and the falkland islands ; these latter efforts were unsuccessful . others migrated to places like saint-domingue , and fled to new orleans after the haitian revolution . the louisiana population contributed to the founding of the modern cajun population . ( the french word " acadien " evolved to " cadien " , then to " cajun " . )
although some acadians went to france and other destiantions , what north american city did many move to ?
new orleans

Sample: 686

in india , private schools are called independent schools , but since some private schools receive financial aid from the government , it can be an aided or an unaided school . so , in a strict sense , a private school is an unaided independent school . for the purpose of this definition , only receipt of financial aid is considered , not land purchased from the government at a subsidized rate . it is within the power of both the union government and the state governments to govern schools since education appears in the concurrent list of legislative subjects in the constitution . the practice has been for the union government to provide the broad policy directions while the states create their own rules and regulations for the administration of the sector . among other things , this has also resulted in 30 different examination boards or academic authorities that conduct examinations for school leaving certificates . prominent examination boards that are present in multiple states are the cbse and the cisce , nenbse
what body in india provides policy directions to schools ?
union government

Sample: 687

in december 1984 , thomas s. murphy , chief executive officer of capital cities communications , contacted leonard goldenson about a proposal to merge their respective companies . on march 16 , 1985 , abc 's executive committee accepted the merger offer , which was formally announced on march 18 , 1985 , with capital cities purchasing abc and its related properties for $ 3.5 billion and $ 118 for each of abc 's shares as well as a guarantee of 10 % ( or $ 3 ) for a total of $ 121 per share . to finance the purchase , capital cities borrowed $ 2.1 billion from a consortium of banks , which sold certain assets that capital cites could not acquire or retain due to fcc ownership rules for a combined $ 900 million and sold off several cable television systems , which were sold to the washington post company ( forming the present-day cable one ) . the remaining $ 500 million was loaned by warren buffett , who promised that his company berkshire hathaway would purchase $ 3 million in shares , at $ 172.50 apiece . due to an fcc ban on same-market ownership of television and radio stations by a single company ( although the deal would have otherwise complied with new ownership rules implemented by the fcc in january 1985 , that allowed broadcasters to own a maximum of 12 television stations ) , abc and capital cities respectively decided to sell wxyz-tv and tampa independent station wfts-tv to the e. w. scripps company ( although capital cities/abc originally intended to seek a cross-ownership waiver to retain wxyz and capital cities-owned radio stations wjr and whyt ) .
in 1984 thomas murphy contacted leonard goldenson about merging abc with what company ?
capital cities communications

Sample: 688

in recent years the characteristic that has strongly correlated with health in developed countries is income inequality . creating an index of " health and social problems " from nine factors , authors richard wilkinson and kate pickett found health and social problems " more common in countries with bigger income inequalities " , and more common among states in the us with larger income inequalities . other studies have confirmed this relationship . the unicef index of " child well-being in rich countries " , studying 40 indicators in 22 countries , correlates with greater equality but not per capita income .
how many factors of health and social problems did wilkinson and pickett identify ?
nine

Sample: 689

neutrophils and macrophages are phagocytes that travel throughout the body in pursuit of invading pathogens . neutrophils are normally found in the bloodstream and are the most abundant type of phagocyte , normally representing 50 % to 60 % of the total circulating leukocytes . during the acute phase of inflammation , particularly as a result of bacterial infection , neutrophils migrate toward the site of inflammation in a process called chemotaxis , and are usually the first cells to arrive at the scene of infection . macrophages are versatile cells that reside within tissues and produce a wide array of chemicals including enzymes , complement proteins , and regulatory factors such as interleukin 1 . macrophages also act as scavengers , ridding the body of worn-out cells and other debris , and as antigen-presenting cells that activate the adaptive immune system .
what are the most abundant kind of phagocyte ?
neutrophils

Sample: 690

the region is home to about 2.5 million insect species , tens of thousands of plants , and some 2,000 birds and mammals . to date , at least 40,000 plant species , 2,200 fishes , 1,294 birds , 427 mammals , 428 amphibians , and 378 reptiles have been scientifically classified in the region . one in five of all the bird species in the world live in the rainforests of the amazon , and one in five of the fish species live in amazonian rivers and streams . scientists have described between 96,660 and 128,843 invertebrate species in brazil alone .
how many invertebrate species are known in brazil alone ?
96,660 and 128,843

Sample: 691

the maroons compete in the ncaa 's division iii as members of the university athletic association ( uaa ) . the university was a founding member of the big ten conference and participated in the ncaa division i men 's basketball and football and was a regular participant in the men 's basketball tournament . in 1935 , the university of chicago reached the sweet sixteen . in 1935 , chicago maroons football player jay berwanger became the first winner of the heisman trophy . however , the university chose to withdraw from the conference in 1946 after university president robert maynard hutchins de-emphasized varsity athletics in 1939 and dropped football . ( in 1969 , chicago reinstated football as a division iii team , resuming playing its home games at the new stagg field . )
why did the university eventually leave the conference ?
robert maynard hutchins de-emphasized varsity athletics

Sample: 692

the election produced a majority snp government , making this the first time in the scottish parliament where a party has commanded a parliamentary majority . the snp took 16 seats from labour , with many of their key figures not returned to parliament , although labour leader iain gray retained east lothian by 151 votes . the snp took a further eight seats from the liberal democrats and one seat from the conservatives . the snp overall majority meant that there was sufficient support in the scottish parliament to hold a referendum on scottish independence .
by how much did labour lead lain gray retain east lothian ?
151 votes

Sample: 693

one of the first known experiments on the relationship between combustion and air was conducted by the 2nd century bce greek writer on mechanics , philo of byzantium . in his work pneumatica , philo observed that inverting a vessel over a burning candle and surrounding the vessel 's neck with water resulted in some water rising into the neck . philo incorrectly surmised that parts of the air in the vessel were converted into the classical element fire and thus were able to escape through pores in the glass . many centuries later leonardo da vinci built on philo 's work by observing that a portion of air is consumed during combustion and respiration .
in what year was the first known experiments on combustion and air conducted ?
2nd century bce

Sample: 694

as well as creating rights for " workers " who generally lack bargaining power in the market , the treaty on the functioning of the european union also protects the " freedom of establishment " in article 49 , and " freedom to provide services " in article 56 . in gebhard v consiglio dell ’ ordine degli avvocati e procuratori di milano the court of justice held that to be " established " means to participate in economic life " on a stable and continuous basis " , while providing " services " meant pursuing activity more " on a temporary basis " . this meant that a lawyer from stuttgart , who had set up chambers in milan and was censured by the milan bar council for not having registered , was entitled to bring a claim under for establishment freedom , rather than service freedom . however , the requirements to be registered in milan before being able to practice would be allowed if they were non-discriminatory , " justified by imperative requirements in the general interest " and proportionately applied . all people or entities that engage in economic activity , particularly the self-employed , or " undertakings " such as companies or firms , have a right to set up an enterprise without unjustified restrictions . the court of justice has held that both a member state government and a private party can hinder freedom of establishment , so article 49 has both " vertical " and " horizontal " direct effect . in reyners v belgium the court of justice held that a refusal to admit a lawyer to the belgian bar because he lacked belgian nationality was unjustified . tfeu article 49 says states are exempt from infringing others ' freedom of establishment when they exercise " official authority " , but this did an advocate 's work ( as opposed to a court 's ) was not official . by contrast in commission v italy the court of justice held that a requirement for lawyers in italy to comply with maximum tariffs unless there was an agreement with a client was not a restriction . the grand chamber of the court of justice held the commission had not proven that this had any object or effect of limiting practitioners from entering the market . therefore , there was no prima facie infringement freedom of establishment that needed to be justified .
in which case did the court of justice state that refusal to admit a lawyer to the belgian bar because he did not have belgian heritage was n't able to be justified ?
reyners v belgium

Sample: 695

private schools , also known as independent schools , non-governmental , or nonstate schools , are not administered by local , state or national governments ; thus , they retain the right to select their students and are funded in whole or in part by charging their students tuition , rather than relying on mandatory taxation through public ( government ) funding ; at some private schools students may be able to get a scholarship , which makes the cost cheaper , depending on a talent the student may have ( e.g . sport scholarship , art scholarship , academic scholarship ) , financial need , or tax credit scholarships that might be available .
along with sport and art , what is a type of talent scholarship ?
academic

Sample: 696

more than 26,000 square kilometres ( 10,000 sq mi ) of victorian farmland are sown for grain , mostly in the state 's west . more than 50 % of this area is sown for wheat , 33 % for barley and 7 % for oats . a further 6,000 square kilometres ( 2,300 sq mi ) is sown for hay . in 2003–04 , victorian farmers produced more than 3 million tonnes of wheat and 2 million tonnes of barley . victorian farms produce nearly 90 % of australian pears and third of apples . it is also a leader in stone fruit production . the main vegetable crops include asparagus , broccoli , carrots , potatoes and tomatoes . last year , 121,200 tonnes of pears and 270,000 tonnes of tomatoes were produced .
what percentage of farmland grows wheat ?
50 %

Sample: 697

there are many similarities and differences among teachers around the world . in almost all countries teachers are educated in a university or college . governments may require certification by a recognized body before they can teach in a school . in many countries , elementary school education certificate is earned after completion of high school . the high school student follows an education specialty track , obtain the prerequisite " student-teaching " time , and receive a special diploma to begin teaching after graduation . in addition to certification , many educational institutions especially within the us , require that prospective teachers pass a background check and psychiatric evaluation to be able to teach in classroom . this is not always the case with adult further learning institutions but is fast becoming the norm in many countries as security concerns grow .
in what country is a background check required ?
us

Sample: 698

despite the disagreements on the eucharist , the marburg colloquy paved the way for the signing in 1530 of the augsburg confession , and for the formation of the schmalkaldic league the following year by leading protestant nobles such as john of saxony , philip of hesse , and george , margrave of brandenburg-ansbach . the swiss cities , however , did not sign these agreements .
when was the augsburg confession signed ?
1530

Sample: 699

in many countries , there is a gender pay gap in favor of males in the labor market . several factors other than discrimination may contribute to this gap . on average , women are more likely than men to consider factors other than pay when looking for work , and may be less willing to travel or relocate . thomas sowell , in his book knowledge and decisions , claims that this difference is due to women not taking jobs due to marriage or pregnancy , but income studies show that that does not explain the entire difference . a u.s. census 's report stated that in us once other factors are accounted for there is still a difference in earnings between women and men . the income gap in other countries ranges from 53 % in botswana to -40 % in bahrain .
who does the wage gap between genders provide an advantage ?
males

Sample: 700

in july 1888 , brown and peck negotiated a licensing deal with george westinghouse for tesla 's polyphase induction motor and transformer designs for $ 60,000 in cash and stock and a royalty of $ 2.50 per ac horsepower produced by each motor . westinghouse also hired tesla for one year for the large fee of $ 2,000 ( $ 52,700 in today 's dollars ) per month to be a consultant at the westinghouse electric & manufacturing company 's pittsburgh labs .
how much did westinghouse pay to license tesla 's designs ?
$ 60,000 in cash and stock and a royalty of $ 2.50 per ac horsepower produced by each motor

Sample: 701

the shah 's army was split by diverse internecine feuds and by the shah 's decision to divide his army into small groups concentrated in various cities . this fragmentation was decisive in khwarezmia 's defeats , as it allowed the mongols , although exhausted from the long journey , to immediately set about defeating small fractions of the khwarzemi forces instead of facing a unified defense . the mongol army quickly seized the town of otrar , relying on superior strategy and tactics . genghis khan ordered the wholesale massacre of many of the civilians , enslaved the rest of the population and executed inalchuq by pouring molten silver into his ears and eyes , as retribution for his actions . near the end of the battle the shah fled rather than surrender . genghis khan ordered subutai and jebe to hunt him down , giving them 20,000 men and two years to do this . the shah died under mysterious circumstances on a small island within his empire .
what metal was used in inalchuq 's execution ?
silver

Sample: 702

with the opening of the dorothy and michael hintze sculpture galleries in 2006 it was decided to extend the chronology of the works on display up to 1950 ; this has involved loans by other museums , including tate britain , so works by henry moore and jacob epstein along with other of their contemporaries are now on view . these galleries concentrate on works dated 1600 to 1950 by british sculptors , works by continental sculptors who worked in britain , and works bought by british patrons from the continental sculptors , such as canova 's theseus and the minotaur . the galleries overlooking the garden are arranged by theme , tomb sculpture , portraiture , garden sculpture and mythology . then there is a section that covers late 19th-century and early 20th-century sculpture , this includes work by rodin and other french sculptors such as dalou who spent several years in britain where he taught sculpture .
which two british sculptors are now represented with the opening of the new galleries ?
henry moore and jacob epstein

Sample: 703

the neighborhood features restaurants , live theater and nightclubs , as well as several independent shops and bookstores , currently operating on or near olive avenue , and all within a few hundred feet of each other . since renewal , the tower district has become an attractive area for restaurant and other local businesses . today , the tower district is also known as the center of fresno 's lgbt and hipster communities . ; additionally , tower district is also known as the center of fresno 's local punk/goth/deathrock and heavy metal community . [ citation needed ]
which district in fresno is known as the center for the heavy metal community ?
tower district

Sample: 704

as an incentive for absolute obedience and following his rule of law , the yassa code , temüjin promised civilians and soldiers wealth from future possible war spoils . as he defeated rival tribes , he did not drive away enemy soldiers and abandon the rest . instead , he took the conquered tribe under his protection and integrated its members into his own tribe . he would even have his mother adopt orphans from the conquered tribe , bringing them into his family . these political innovations inspired great loyalty among the conquered people , making temüjin stronger with each victory .
what was the name of temüjin 's laws ?
the yassa code

Sample: 705

on 19 october 1512 , he was awarded his doctor of theology and , on 21 october 1512 , was received into the senate of the theological faculty of the university of wittenberg , having been called to the position of doctor in bible . he spent the rest of his career in this position at the university of wittenberg .
what degree did martin luther receive on 19 october , 1512 ?
doctor of theology

Sample: 706

genghis khan , the title is spelled in variety of ways in different languages such as mongolian chinggis khaan , english chinghiz , chinghis , and chingiz , chinese : 成吉思汗 ; pinyin : chéngjísī hán , turkic : cengiz han , çingiz xan , çingiz han , chingizxon , çıñğız xan , chengez khan , chinggis khan , chinggis xaan , chingis khan , jenghis khan , chinggis qan , djingis kahn , russian : чингисхан ( čingiskhan ) or чингиз-хан ( čingiz-khan ) , etc . temüjin is written in chinese as simplified chinese : 铁木真 ; traditional chinese : 鐵木眞 ; pinyin : tiěmùzhēn .
how is genghis khan spelled in turkic ?
cengiz han

Sample: 707

stage 3 is the final stage of the bill and is considered at a meeting of the whole parliament . this stage comprises two parts : consideration of amendments to the bill as a general debate , and a final vote on the bill . opposition members can table " wrecking amendments " to the bill , designed to thwart further progress and take up parliamentary time , to cause the bill to fall without a final vote being taken . after a general debate on the final form of the bill , members proceed to vote at decision time on whether they agree to the general principles of the final bill .
when do members proceed to vote on whether they agree to the principles of the final bill ?
decision time

Sample: 708

in 2007 , the kenyan government unveiled vision 2030 , an economic development programme it hopes will put the country in the same league as the asian economic tigers by the year 2030 . in 2013 , it launched a national climate change action plan , having acknowledged that omitting climate as a key development issue in vision 2030 was an oversight . the 200-page action plan , developed with support from the climate & development knowledge network , sets out the government of kenya 's vision for a 'low carbon climate resilient development pathway ' . at the launch in march 2013 , the secretary of the ministry of planning , national development and vision 2030 emphasised that climate will be a central issue in the renewed medium term plan that will be launched in the coming months . this will create a direct and robust delivery framework for the action plan and ensure climate change is treated as an economy-wide issue .
what will ensure and create the framework for the action plan to work ?
climate will be a central issue in the renewed medium term plan that will be launched in the coming months

Sample: 709

peyton manning became the first quarterback ever to lead two different teams to multiple super bowls . he is also the oldest quarterback ever to play in a super bowl at age 39 . the past record was held by john elway , who led the broncos to victory in super bowl xxxiii at age 38 and is currently denver 's executive vice president of football operations and general manager .
which super bowl did elway win at 38 years old ?
super bowl xxxiii

Sample: 710

the fucoxanthin dinophyte lineages ( including karlodinium and karenia ) lost their original red algal derived chloroplast , and replaced it with a new chloroplast derived from a haptophyte endosymbiont . karlodinium and karenia probably took up different heterokontophytes . because the haptophyte chloroplast has four membranes , tertiary endosymbiosis would be expected to create a six membraned chloroplast , adding the haptophyte 's cell membrane and the dinophyte 's phagosomal vacuole . however , the haptophyte was heavily reduced , stripped of a few membranes and its nucleus , leaving only its chloroplast ( with its original double membrane ) , and possibly one or two additional membranes around it .
what lineage is karlodinium in ?
fucoxanthin dinophyte

Sample: 711

the delay in the csm caused by the fire enabled nasa to catch up on man-rating the lm and saturn v. apollo 4 ( as-501 ) was the first unmanned flight of the saturn v , carrying a block i csm on november 9 , 1967 . the capability of the command module 's heat shield to survive a trans-lunar reentry was demonstrated by using the service module engine to ram it into the atmosphere at higher than the usual earth-orbital reentry speed . this was followed on april 4 , 1968 , by apollo 6 ( as-502 ) which carried a csm and a lm test article as ballast . the intent of this mission was to achieve trans-lunar injection , followed closely by a simulated direct-return abort , using the service module engine to achieve another high-speed reentry . the saturn v experienced pogo oscillation , a problem caused by non-steady engine combustion , which damaged fuel lines in the second and third stages . two s-ii engines shut down prematurely , but the remaining engines were able to compensate . the damage to the third stage engine was more severe , preventing it from restarting for trans-lunar injection . mission controllers were able to use the service module engine to essentially repeat the flight profile of apollo 4 . based on the good performance of apollo 6 and identification of satisfactory fixes to the apollo 6 problems , nasa declared the saturn v ready to fly men , cancelling a third unmanned test .
what was one thing that was specifically tested on the apollo 4 test launch regarding the cm ?
heat shield

Sample: 712

almost all ctenophores are predators , taking prey ranging from microscopic larvae and rotifers to the adults of small crustaceans ; the exceptions are juveniles of two species , which live as parasites on the salps on which adults of their species feed . in favorable circumstances , ctenophores can eat ten times their own weight in a day . only 100–150 species have been validated , and possibly another 25 have not been fully described and named . the textbook examples are cydippids with egg-shaped bodies and a pair of retractable tentacles fringed with tentilla ( " little tentacles " ) that are covered with colloblasts , sticky cells that capture prey . the phylum has a wide range of body forms , including the flattened , deep-sea platyctenids , in which the adults of most species lack combs , and the coastal beroids , which lack tentacles and prey on other ctenophores by using huge mouths armed with groups of large , stiffened cilia that act as teeth . these variations enable different species to build huge populations in the same area , because they specialize in different types of prey , which they capture by as wide a range of methods as spiders use .
what do cydippids use to capture their prey ?
colloblasts

Sample: 713

an example of a decision problem is the following . the input is an arbitrary graph . the problem consists in deciding whether the given graph is connected , or not . the formal language associated with this decision problem is then the set of all connected graphs—of course , to obtain a precise definition of this language , one has to decide how graphs are encoded as binary strings .
what kind of graph is an example of an input used in a decision problem ?
arbitrary graph

Sample: 714

after the founding of the colony of new south wales in 1788 , australia was divided into an eastern half named new south wales and a western half named new holland , under the administration of the colonial government in sydney . the first european settlement in the area later known as victoria was established in october 1803 under lieutenant-governor david collins at sullivan bay on port phillip . it consisted of 402 people ( 5 government officials , 9 officers of marines , 2 drummers , and 39 privates , 5 soldiers ' wives , and a child , 307 convicts , 17 convicts ' wives , and 7 children ) . they had been sent from england in hms calcutta under the command of captain daniel woodriff , principally out of fear that the french , who had been exploring the area , might establish their own settlement and thereby challenge british rights to the continent .
what name was given to the western half of the colony ?
new holland

Sample: 715

some of the oldest schools in south africa are private church schools that were established by missionaries in the early nineteenth century . the private sector has grown ever since . after the abolition of apartheid , the laws governing private education in south africa changed significantly . the south african schools act of 1996 recognises two categories of schools : " public " ( state-controlled ) and " independent " ( which includes traditional private schools and schools which are privately governed [ clarification needed ] . )
along with public schools , what type of school was recognized under the south african schools act ?
independent

Sample: 716

legrande writes that " the formulation of a single all-encompassing definition of the term is extremely difficult , if not impossible . in reviewing the voluminous literature on the subject , the student of civil disobedience rapidly finds himself surrounded by a maze of semantical problems and grammatical niceties . like alice in wonderland , he often finds that specific terminology has no more ( or no less ) meaning than the individual orator intends it to have . " he encourages a distinction between lawful protest demonstration , nonviolent civil disobedience , and violent civil disobedience .
le grand asks for a variance of what three terms ?
lawful protest demonstration , nonviolent civil disobedience , and violent civil disobedience

Sample: 717

in response to demands for a german liturgy , luther wrote a german mass , which he published in early 1526 . he did not intend it as a replacement for his 1523 adaptation of the latin mass but as an alternative for the " simple people " , a " public stimulation for people to believe and become christians . " luther based his order on the catholic service but omitted " everything that smacks of sacrifice " ; and the mass became a celebration where everyone received the wine as well as the bread . he retained the elevation of the host and chalice , while trappings such as the mass vestments , altar , and candles were made optional , allowing freedom of ceremony . some reformers , including followers of huldrych zwingli , considered luther 's service too papistic ; and modern scholars note the conservatism of his alternative to the catholic mass . luther 's service , however , included congregational singing of hymns and psalms in german , as well as of parts of the liturgy , including luther 's unison setting of the creed . to reach the simple people and the young , luther incorporated religious instruction into the weekday services in the form of the catechism . he also provided simplified versions of the baptism and marriage services .
what did luther not mean for the new mass to replace ?
1523 adaptation of the latin mass

Sample: 718

there are a variety of bodies designed to instill , preserve and update the knowledge and professional standing of teachers . around the world many governments operate teacher 's colleges , which are generally established to serve and protect the public interest through certifying , governing and enforcing the standards of practice for the teaching profession .
what do government 's run that affects teachers ?
teacher 's colleges

Sample: 719

in an interview with newspaper editor arthur brisbane , tesla said that he did not believe in telepathy , stating , " suppose i made up my mind to murder you , " he said , " in a second you would know it . now , is n't that wonderful ? by what process does the mind get at all this ? " in the same interview , tesla said that he believed that all fundamental laws could be reduced to one .
what was brisbane 's job ?
newspaper editor

Sample: 720

chloroplasts have their own dna , often abbreviated as ctdna , or cpdna . it is also known as the plastome . its existence was first proved in 1962 , and first sequenced in 1986—when two japanese research teams sequenced the chloroplast dna of liverwort and tobacco . since then , hundreds of chloroplast dnas from various species have been sequenced , but they 're mostly those of land plants and green algae—glaucophytes , red algae , and other algal groups are extremely underrepresented , potentially introducing some bias in views of " typical " chloroplast dna structure and content .
when was the plastome discovered ?
1962

Sample: 721

despite his victory in wittenberg , luther was unable to stifle radicalism further afield . preachers such as zwickau prophet nicholas storch and thomas müntzer helped instigate the german peasants ' war of 1524–25 , during which many atrocities were committed , often in luther 's name . there had been revolts by the peasantry on a smaller scale since the 15th century . luther 's pamphlets against the church and the hierarchy , often worded with " liberal " phraseology , now led many peasants to believe he would support an attack on the upper classes in general . revolts broke out in franconia , swabia , and thuringia in 1524 , even drawing support from disaffected nobles , many of whom were in debt . gaining momentum under the leadership of radicals such as müntzer in thuringia and michael gaismair in tyrol , the revolts turned into war .
what event did storch and muntzer help instigate ?
german peasants ' war

Sample: 722

tesla theorized that the application of electricity to the brain enhanced intelligence . in 1912 , he crafted " a plan to make dull students bright by saturating them unconsciously with electricity , " wiring the walls of a schoolroom and , " saturating [ the schoolroom ] with infinitesimal electric waves vibrating at high frequency . the whole room will thus , mr. tesla claims , be converted into a health-giving and stimulating electromagnetic field or 'bath . ' " the plan was , at least provisionally approved by then superintendent of new york city schools , william h. maxwell .
what did tesla think could improve the brain 's intelligence ?
application of electricity

Sample: 723

like many other mainline protestant denominations in the united states , the united methodist church has experienced significant membership losses in recent decades . at the time of its formation , the umc had about 11 million members in nearly 42,000 congregations . in 1975 , membership dropped below 10 million for the first time . in 2005 , there were about 8 million members in over 34,000 congregations . membership is concentrated primarily in the midwest and in the south . texas has the largest number of members , with about 1 million . the states with the highest membership rates are oklahoma , iowa , mississippi , west virginia , and north carolina .
in 2005 , approximately how many congregations were in the umc ?
34,000

Sample: 724

the normans ( norman : nourmands ; french : normands ; latin : normanni ) were the people who in the 10th and 11th centuries gave their name to normandy , a region in france . they were descended from norse ( " norman " comes from " norseman " ) raiders and pirates from denmark , iceland and norway who , under their leader rollo , agreed to swear fealty to king charles iii of west francia . through generations of assimilation and mixing with the native frankish and roman-gaulish populations , their descendants would gradually merge with the carolingian-based cultures of west francia . the distinct cultural and ethnic identity of the normans emerged initially in the first half of the 10th century , and it continued to evolve over the succeeding centuries .
what century did the normans first gain their separate identity ?
10th century

Sample: 725

the flow of cold , gray mountain water continues for some distance into the lake . the cold water flows near the surface and at first does n't mix with the warmer , green waters of upper lake . but then , at the so-called rheinbrech , the rhine water abruptly falls into the depths because of the greater density of cold water . the flow reappears on the surface at the northern ( german ) shore of the lake , off the island of lindau . the water then follows the northern shore until hagnau am bodensee . a small fraction of the flow is diverted off the island of mainau into lake überlingen . most of the water flows via the constance hopper into the rheinrinne ( " rhine gutter " ) and seerhein . depending on the water level , this flow of the rhine water is clearly visible along the entire length of the lake .
what is the island off of the german shore of the rhine that this warm and cold water meet ?
lindau

Sample: 726

abc 's daytime schedule currently features talk shows the view and the chew , and the soap opera general hospital , the latter of which is the longest-running entertainment program in the history of the abc television network , having aired since 1963 . abc also broadcasts the morning news program good morning america and has done so since 1975 , though that program is not considered to be part of the abc daytime block . in addition to the long-running all my children ( 1970–2011 ) and one life to live ( 1968–2012 ) , notable past soap operas seen on the daytime lineup include ryan 's hope , dark shadows , loving , the city and port charles . abc also aired the last nine years of the procter & gamble-produced soap the edge of night , following its cancellation by cbs in 1975 . abc daytime has also aired a number of game shows , including the dating game , the newlywed game , let 's make a deal , password , split second , the $ 10,000/ $ 20,000 pyramid , family feud , the better sex , trivia trap , all-star blitz and hot streak .
what series is the longest running program in abc history ?
general hospital

Sample: 727

in 1998 , the network began using a minimalist graphical identity , designed by pittard sullivan , featuring a small black-and-white " abc circle " logo on a yellow background ( promotions during this time also featured a sequence of still photos of the stars of its programs during the timeslot card as well as the schedule sequence that began each night 's prime time lineup ) . a new four-note theme tune was introduced alongside the package , based around the network 's " we love tv " image campaign introduced that year , creating an audio signature on par with the nbc chimes , cbs ' various three-note soundmarks ( including the current version used since 2000 ) and the fox fanfare . the four-note signature has been updated with every television season thereafter ( though variants of it used since the 1998–99 season remain in use during the production company vanity cards shown following the closing credits of most programs ) . in the fall of 2015 , abc is stopped with its 1998–2002 four-note jingles for promotions and production company vanity cards following the closing credits of most of its programs over seventeen years , now it have a different and adventure-type music ( with the drums of the network 's four-note signature in the ending ) . the old four-note theme tune is still used by abc on demand to the beginning of the abc show .
in what year did abc stop using it 's four-note jingle for promotion ?
2015

Sample: 728

the panthers defense gave up just 308 points , ranking sixth in the league , while also leading the nfl in interceptions with 24 and boasting four pro bowl selections . pro bowl defensive tackle kawann short led the team in sacks with 11 , while also forcing three fumbles and recovering two . fellow lineman mario addison added 6½ sacks . the panthers line also featured veteran defensive end jared allen , a 5-time pro bowler who was the nfl 's active career sack leader with 136 , along with defensive end kony ealy , who had 5 sacks in just 9 starts . behind them , two of the panthers three starting linebackers were also selected to play in the pro bowl : thomas davis and luke kuechly . davis compiled 5½ sacks , four forced fumbles , and four interceptions , while kuechly led the team in tackles ( 118 ) forced two fumbles , and intercepted four passes of his own . carolina 's secondary featured pro bowl safety kurt coleman , who led the team with a career high seven interceptions , while also racking up 88 tackles and pro bowl cornerback josh norman , who developed into a shutdown corner during the season and had four interceptions , two of which were returned for touchdowns .
how many forced fumbles did thomas davis have ?
four

Sample: 729

since 1974 , abc has generally aired dick clark 's new year 's rockin ' eve on new year 's eve ( hosted first by its creator dick clark , and later by his successor ryan seacrest ) ; the only exception was in 1999 , when abc put it on a one-year hiatus to provide coverage of the international millennium festivities , though clark 's traditional countdown from times square was still featured within the coverage . abc has also aired the miss america pageant from 1954 to 1956 , 1997 to 2005 ( with the television rights being assumed by cable channel tlc in 2006 , when the pageant moved from its longtime homebase in atlantic city to las vegas , before returning to atlantic city in 2013 ) and since 2011 . under its current contract with the miss america organization , abc will continue to broadcast the pageant through 2016 .
when did abc begin airing dick clark 's new year 's rockin ' eve ?
1974

Sample: 730

the game 's media day , which was typically held on the tuesday afternoon prior to the game , was moved to the monday evening and re-branded as super bowl opening night . the event was held on february 1 , 2016 at sap center in san jose . alongside the traditional media availabilities , the event featured an opening ceremony with player introductions on a replica of the golden gate bridge .
a replica of what landmark was present at super bowl opening night ?
the golden gate bridge

Sample: 731

the umc supports federal funding for research on embryos created for ivf that remain after the procreative efforts have ceased , if the embryos were provided for research instead of being destroyed , were not obtained by sale , and those donating had given prior informed consent for the research purposes . the umc stands in " opposition to the creation of embryos for the sake of research " as " a human embryo , even at its earliest stages , commands our reverence . " it supports research on stem cells retrieved from umbilical cords and adult stem cells , stating that there are " few moral questions " raised by this issue .
the umc supports federal funding for research on embryos created for what purpose ?
ivf

Sample: 732

in 1983 , abc sold kxyz to the infinity broadcasting corporation . on january 4 , 1984 , the new york times reported that abc , through its subsidiary abc video enterprises , had exercised its option to purchase up to 15 % ( or between $ 25 million and $ 30 million ) of getty oil 's shares in espn , which would allow it to expand its shares at a later date . in june 1984 , abc 's executive committee approved the company 's interest acquisition in espn , and abc arranged with getty oil to obtain an 80 % stake in the channel , while selling the remaining 20 % to nabisco . that year , abc and hearst reached an agreement with rca to merge arts and competing arts service , the entertainment channel , into a single cable channel called arts & entertainment television ( a & e ) ; the new channel subsequently leased a separate satellite transponder , ending its sharing agreement with nickelodeon to become a 24-hour service . meanwhile , abc withdrew from the theme park business for good when it sold the silver springs nature theme park .
what was the resulting channel of the arts merger called ?
arts & entertainment television ( a & e )

Sample: 733

highly combustible materials that leave little residue , such as wood or coal , were thought to be made mostly of phlogiston ; whereas non-combustible substances that corrode , such as iron , contained very little . air did not play a role in phlogiston theory , nor were any initial quantitative experiments conducted to test the idea ; instead , it was based on observations of what happens when something burns , that most common objects appear to become lighter and seem to lose something in the process . the fact that a substance like wood gains overall weight in burning was hidden by the buoyancy of the gaseous combustion products . indeed , one of the first clues that the phlogiston theory was incorrect was that metals , too , gain weight in rusting ( when they were supposedly losing phlogiston ) .
what type of combustible materials were considered to have little philogiston ?
non-combustible

Sample: 734

when the committee for non-violent action sponsored a protest in august 1957 , at the camp mercury nuclear test site near las vegas , nevada , 13 of the protesters attempted to enter the test site knowing that they faced arrest . at a pre-arranged announced time , one at a time they stepped across the " line " and were immediately arrested . they were put on a bus and taken to the nye county seat of tonopah , nevada , and arraigned for trial before the local justice of the peace , that afternoon . a well known civil rights attorney , francis heisler , had volunteered to defend the arrested persons , advising them to plead " nolo contendere " , as an alternative to pleading either guilty or not-guilty . the arrested persons were found " guilty , " nevertheless , and given suspended sentences , conditional on their not reentering the test site grounds . [ citation needed ]
what was the result of the disobedience protesting the nuclear site ?
arrested

Sample: 735

before the actual research explicitly devoted to the complexity of algorithmic problems started off , numerous foundations were laid out by various researchers . most influential among these was the definition of turing machines by alan turing in 1936 , which turned out to be a very robust and flexible simplification of a computer .
in the most basic sense what did a turing machine emulate ?
a computer

Sample: 736

torque is the rotation equivalent of force in the same way that angle is the rotational equivalent for position , angular velocity for velocity , and angular momentum for momentum . as a consequence of newton 's first law of motion , there exists rotational inertia that ensures that all bodies maintain their angular momentum unless acted upon by an unbalanced torque . likewise , newton 's second law of motion can be used to derive an analogous equation for the instantaneous angular acceleration of the rigid body :
what is the force equivalent of torque compared to angular momentum ?
rotational equivalent for position

Sample: 737

in 2007 , the kenyan government unveiled vision 2030 , an economic development programme it hopes will put the country in the same league as the asian economic tigers by the year 2030 . in 2013 , it launched a national climate change action plan , having acknowledged that omitting climate as a key development issue in vision 2030 was an oversight . the 200-page action plan , developed with support from the climate & development knowledge network , sets out the government of kenya 's vision for a 'low carbon climate resilient development pathway ' . at the launch in march 2013 , the secretary of the ministry of planning , national development and vision 2030 emphasised that climate will be a central issue in the renewed medium term plan that will be launched in the coming months . this will create a direct and robust delivery framework for the action plan and ensure climate change is treated as an economy-wide issue .
what did kenya reveil in 2030 ?
vision 2030

Sample: 738

warsaw lies in east-central poland about 300 km ( 190 mi ) from the carpathian mountains and about 260 km ( 160 mi ) from the baltic sea , 523 km ( 325 mi ) east of berlin , germany . the city straddles the vistula river . it is located in the heartland of the masovian plain , and its average elevation is 100 metres ( 330 ft ) above sea level . the highest point on the left side of the city lies at a height of 115.7 metres ( 379.6 ft ) ( " redutowa " bus depot , district of wola ) , on the right side – 122.1 metres ( 400.6 ft ) ( " groszówka " estate , district of wesoła , by the eastern border ) . the lowest point lies at a height 75.6 metres ( 248.0 ft ) ( at the right bank of the vistula , by the eastern border of warsaw ) . there are some hills ( mostly artificial ) located within the confines of the city – e.g . warsaw uprising hill ( 121 metres ( 397.0 ft ) ) , szczęśliwice hill ( 138 metres ( 452.8 ft ) – the highest point of warsaw in general ) .
where is the lowest point of warsaw located ?
at the right bank of the vistula

Sample: 739

tesla never married ; he said his chastity was very helpful to his scientific abilities . :33 however , toward the end of his life , he told a reporter , " sometimes i feel that by not marrying , i made too great a sacrifice to my work ... " there have been numerous accounts of women vying for tesla 's affection , even some madly in love with him . [ citation needed ] tesla , though polite and soft-spoken , did not have any known relationships .
who reportedly wanted tesla 's company ?
women

Sample: 740

some chloroplasts contain a structure called the chloroplast peripheral reticulum . it is often found in the chloroplasts of c4 plants , though it has also been found in some c3 angiosperms , and even some gymnosperms . the chloroplast peripheral reticulum consists of a maze of membranous tubes and vesicles continuous with the inner chloroplast membrane that extends into the internal stromal fluid of the chloroplast . its purpose is thought to be to increase the chloroplast 's surface area for cross-membrane transport between its stroma and the cell cytoplasm . the small vesicles sometimes observed may serve as transport vesicles to shuttle stuff between the thylakoids and intermembrane space .
what is a maze of membranous tubes ?
the chloroplast peripheral reticulum

Sample: 741

imperialism is defined as " a policy of extending a country ’ s power and influence through diplomacy or military force . " imperialism is particularly focused on the control that one group , often a state power , has on another group of people . this is often through various forms of " othering " ( see other ) based on racial , religious , or cultural stereotypes . there are " formal " or " informal " imperialisms . " formal imperialism " is defined as " physical control or full-fledged colonial rule " . " informal imperialism " is less direct ; however , it is still a powerful form of dominance .
imperialism often divides countries by using which technique ?
othering

Sample: 742

the upper rhine region was changed significantly by a rhine straightening program in the 19th century . the rate of flow was increased and the ground water level fell significantly . dead branches dried up and the amount of forests on the flood plains decreased sharply . on the french side , the grand canal d'alsace was dug , which carries a significant part of the river water , and all of the traffic . in some places , there are large compensation pools , for example the huge bassin de compensation de plobsheim in alsace .
what happened with the rate of flow in the rhine with the straightening program ?
increased

Sample: 743

in 2012 the economist intelligence unit ranked warsaw as the 32nd most liveable city in the world . it was also ranked as one of the most liveable cities in central europe . today warsaw is considered an " alpha– " global city , a major international tourist destination and a significant cultural , political and economic hub . warsaw 's economy , by a wide variety of industries , is characterised by fmcg manufacturing , metal processing , steel and electronic manufacturing and food processing . the city is a significant centre of research and development , bpo , ito , as well as of the polish media industry . the warsaw stock exchange is one of the largest and most important in central and eastern europe . frontex , the european union agency for external border security , has its headquarters in warsaw . it has been said that warsaw , together with frankfurt , london , paris and barcelona is one of the cities with the highest number of skyscrapers in the european union . warsaw has also been called " eastern europe ’ s chic cultural capital with thriving art and club scenes and serious restaurants " .
what is the name of the european union agency for external border security ?
frontex

Sample: 744

manning finished the year with a career-low 67.9 passer rating , throwing for 2,249 yards and nine touchdowns , with 17 interceptions . in contrast , osweiler threw for 1,967 yards , 10 touchdowns and six interceptions for a rating of 86.4 . veteran receiver demaryius thomas led the team with 105 receptions for 1,304 yards and six touchdowns , while emmanuel sanders caught 76 passes for 1,135 yards and six scores , while adding another 106 yards returning punts . tight end owen daniels was also a big element of the passing game with 46 receptions for 517 yards . running back c. j. anderson was the team 's leading rusher 863 yards and seven touchdowns , while also catching 25 passes for 183 yards . running back ronnie hillman also made a big impact with 720 yards , five touchdowns , 24 receptions , and a 4.7 yards per carry average . overall , the offense ranked 19th in scoring with 355 points and did not have any pro bowl selections .
what was the passer rating for peyton manning that he finished out with for the season ?
67.9

Sample: 745

the objective is typically accomplished through either an informal or formal approach to learning , including a course of study and lesson plan that teaches skills , knowledge and/or thinking skills . different ways to teach are often referred to as pedagogy . when deciding what teaching method to use teachers consider students ' background knowledge , environment , and their learning goals as well as standardized curricula as determined by the relevant authority . many times , teachers assist in learning outside of the classroom by accompanying students on field trips . the increasing use of technology , specifically the rise of the internet over the past decade , has begun to shape the way teachers approach their roles in the classroom .
what has risen to be a factor in teaching today ?
the internet

Sample: 746

pharmacists are healthcare professionals with specialised education and training who perform various roles to ensure optimal health outcomes for their patients through the quality use of medicines . pharmacists may also be small-business proprietors , owning the pharmacy in which they practice . since pharmacists know about the mode of action of a particular drug , and its metabolism and physiological effects on the human body in great detail , they play an important role in optimisation of a drug treatment for an individual .
what type of professionals are pharmacists ?
healthcare professionals

Sample: 747

the mongol army under genghis khan , generals and his sons crossed the tien shan mountains by entering the area controlled by the khwarezmian empire . after compiling intelligence from many sources genghis khan carefully prepared his army , which was divided into three groups . his son jochi led the first division into the northeast of khwarezmia . the second division under jebe marched secretly to the southeast part of khwarzemia to form , with the first division , a pincer attack on samarkand . the third division under genghis khan and tolui marched to the northwest and attacked khwarzemia from that direction .
which area of khwarezmia did the first and second divisions of the mongol army target in a pincer attack ?
samarkand

Sample: 748

warsaw is located on two main geomorphologic formations : the plain moraine plateau and the vistula valley with its asymmetrical pattern of different terraces . the vistula river is the specific axis of warsaw , which divides the city into two parts , left and right . the left one is situated both on the moraine plateau ( 10 to 25 m ( 32.8 to 82.0 ft ) above vistula level ) and on the vistula terraces ( max . 6.5 m ( 21.3 ft ) above vistula level ) . the significant element of the relief , in this part of warsaw , is the edge of moraine plateau called warsaw escarpment . it is 20 to 25 m ( 65.6 to 82.0 ft ) high in the old town and central district and about 10 m ( 32.8 ft ) in the north and south of warsaw . it goes through the city and plays an important role as a landmark .
what is the axis of warsaw which divides it into two parts ?
vistula river

Sample: 749

his poor physical health made him short-tempered and even harsher in his writings and comments . his wife katharina was overheard saying , " dear husband , you are too rude , " and he responded , " they are teaching me to be rude . " in 1545 and 1546 luther preached three times in the market church in halle , staying with his friend justus jonas during christmas .
what other aspect of luther 's life was affected by his health ?
writings and comments

Sample: 750

nevertheless , the united methodist church " implore [ s ] families and churches not to reject or condemn lesbian and gay members and friends " and commits itself to be in ministry with all persons , affirming that god 's grace , love , and forgiveness is available to all . additionally , many organizations , conferences , and congregations have recently called for broader acceptance of the lgbt community within the umc . for example , the connectional table , a governing committee , has voted in favor of a proposal that calls for a localized option , which would permit ministers to officiate same-sex weddings , and it would allow conferences to ordain gay clergy . moreover , many conferences have taken a position by voting in favor of same-gender marriages with resolutions .
what is the governing committee that voted in favor of a proposal that would permit ministers to officiate same-sex weddings ?
connectional table

Sample: 751

as a result , chloroplasts in c4 mesophyll cells and bundle sheath cells are specialized for each stage of photosynthesis . in mesophyll cells , chloroplasts are specialized for the light reactions , so they lack rubisco , and have normal grana and thylakoids , which they use to make atp and nadph , as well as oxygen . they store co2 in a four-carbon compound , which is why the process is called c4 photosynthesis . the four-carbon compound is then transported to the bundle sheath chloroplasts , where it drops off co2 and returns to the mesophyll . bundle sheath chloroplasts do not carry out the light reactions , preventing oxygen from building up in them and disrupting rubisco activity . because of this , they lack thylakoids organized into grana stacks—though bundle sheath chloroplasts still have free-floating thylakoids in the stroma where they still carry out cyclic electron flow , a light-driven method of synthesizing atp to power the calvin cycle without generating oxygen . they lack photosystem ii , and only have photosystem i—the only protein complex needed for cyclic electron flow . because the job of bundle sheath chloroplasts is to carry out the calvin cycle and make sugar , they often contain large starch grains .
what do chloroplasts in mesophyll cells specialized use to make atp ?
normal grana and thylakoids

Sample: 752

the chloroplasts of plant and algal cells can orient themselves to best suit the available light . in low-light conditions , they will spread out in a sheet—maximizing the surface area to absorb light . under intense light , they will seek shelter by aligning in vertical columns along the plant cell 's cell wall or turning sideways so that light strikes them edge-on . this reduces exposure and protects them from photooxidative damage . this ability to distribute chloroplasts so that they can take shelter behind each other or spread out may be the reason why land plants evolved to have many small chloroplasts instead of a few big ones . chloroplast movement is considered one of the most closely regulated stimulus-response systems that can be found in plants . mitochondria have also been observed to follow chloroplasts as they move .
what does turning sideways protect chloroplasts from ?
photooxidative damage

Sample: 753

newcastle international airport is located approximately 6 miles ( 9.7 km ) from the city centre on the northern outskirts of the city near ponteland and is the larger of the two main airports serving the north east . it is connected to the city via the metro light rail system and a journey into newcastle city centre takes approximately 20 minutes . the airport handles over five million passengers per year , and is the tenth largest , and the fastest growing regional airport in the uk , expecting to reach 10 million passengers by 2016 , and 15 million by 2030 . as of 2007 [ update ] , over 90 destinations are available worldwide .
how long does it take to get to the middle of newcastle from its outskirts when riding the rails ?
20 minutes

Sample: 754

prime numbers have influenced many artists and writers . the french composer olivier messiaen used prime numbers to create ametrical music through " natural phenomena " . in works such as la nativité du seigneur ( 1935 ) and quatre études de rythme ( 1949–50 ) , he simultaneously employs motifs with lengths given by different prime numbers to create unpredictable rhythms : the primes 41 , 43 , 47 and 53 appear in the third étude , " neumes rythmiques " . according to messiaen this way of composing was " inspired by the movements of nature , movements of free and unequal durations " .
what is one work by olivier messiaen ?
la nativité du seigneur

Sample: 755

edward john noble , the owner of life savers candy , drugstore chain rexall and new york city radio station wmca , purchased the network for $ 8 million . due to fcc ownership rules , the transaction , which was to include the purchase of three rca stations by noble , would require him to resell his station with the fcc 's approval . the commission authorized the transaction on october 12 , 1943 . soon afterward , the blue network was purchased by the new company noble founded , the american broadcasting system . noble subsequently acquired the rights to the " american broadcasting company " name from george b. storer in 1944 ; its parent company adopted the corporate name american broadcasting companies , inc. woods retained his position as president and ceo of abc until december 1949 , and was subsequently promoted to vice-chairman of the board before leaving abc altogether on june 30 , 1951 .
what candy company did edward john noble own ?
life savers candy

Sample: 756

the shortcomings of aristotelian physics would not be fully corrected until the 17th century work of galileo galilei , who was influenced by the late medieval idea that objects in forced motion carried an innate force of impetus . galileo constructed an experiment in which stones and cannonballs were both rolled down an incline to disprove the aristotelian theory of motion early in the 17th century . he showed that the bodies were accelerated by gravity to an extent that was independent of their mass and argued that objects retain their velocity unless acted on by a force , for example friction .
whose work corrected aristotle 's physics in the seventeenth century ?
galileo galilei

Sample: 757

following their loss in the divisional round of the previous season 's playoffs , the denver broncos underwent numerous coaching changes , including a mutual parting with head coach john fox ( who had won four divisional championships in his four years as broncos head coach ) , and the hiring of gary kubiak as the new head coach . under kubiak , the broncos planned to install a run-oriented offense with zone blocking to blend in with quarterback peyton manning 's shotgun passing skills , but struggled with numerous changes and injuries to the offensive line , as well as manning having his worst statistical season since his rookie year with the indianapolis colts in 1998 , due to a plantar fasciitis injury in his heel that he had suffered since the summer , and the simple fact that manning was getting old , as he turned 39 in the 2015 off-season . although the team had a 7–0 start , manning led the nfl in interceptions . in week 10 , manning suffered a partial tear of the plantar fasciitis in his left foot . he set the nfl 's all-time record for career passing yards in this game , but was benched after throwing four interceptions in favor of backup quarterback brock osweiler , who took over as the starter for most of the remainder of the regular season . osweiler was injured , however , leading to manning 's return during the week 17 regular season finale , where the broncos were losing 13–7 against the 4–11 san diego chargers , resulting in manning re-claiming the starting quarterback position for the playoffs by leading the team to a key 27–20 win that enabled the team to clinch the number one overall afc seed . under defensive coordinator wade phillips , the broncos ' defense ranked number one in total yards allowed , passing yards allowed and sacks , and like the previous three seasons , the team has continued to set numerous individual , league and franchise records . with the defense carrying the team despite the issues with the offense , the broncos finished the regular season with a 12–4 record and earned home-field advantage throughout the afc playoffs .
how old was peyton manning in 2015 ?
39

Sample: 758

the advances made in the middle east in botany and chemistry led medicine in medieval islam substantially to develop pharmacology . muhammad ibn zakarīya rāzi ( rhazes ) ( 865–915 ) , for instance , acted to promote the medical uses of chemical compounds . abu al-qasim al-zahrawi ( abulcasis ) ( 936–1013 ) pioneered the preparation of medicines by sublimation and distillation . his liber servitoris is of particular interest , as it provides the reader with recipes and explains how to prepare the ` simples ’ from which were compounded the complex drugs then generally used . sabur ibn sahl ( d 869 ) , was , however , the first physician to initiate pharmacopoedia , describing a large variety of drugs and remedies for ailments . al-biruni ( 973–1050 ) wrote one of the most valuable islamic works on pharmacology , entitled kitab al-saydalah ( the book of drugs ) , in which he detailed the properties of drugs and outlined the role of pharmacy and the functions and duties of the pharmacist . avicenna , too , described no less than 700 preparations , their properties , modes of action , and their indications . he devoted in fact a whole volume to simple drugs in the canon of medicine . of great impact were also the works by al-maridini of baghdad and cairo , and ibn al-wafid ( 1008–1074 ) , both of which were printed in latin more than fifty times , appearing as de medicinis universalibus et particularibus by 'mesue ' the younger , and the medicamentis simplicibus by 'abenguefit ' . peter of abano ( 1250–1316 ) translated and added a supplement to the work of al-maridini under the title de veneris . al-muwaffaq ’ s contributions in the field are also pioneering . living in the 10th century , he wrote the foundations of the true properties of remedies , amongst others describing arsenious oxide , and being acquainted with silicic acid . he made clear distinction between sodium carbonate and potassium carbonate , and drew attention to the poisonous nature of copper compounds , especially copper vitriol , and also lead compounds . he also describes the distillation of sea-water for drinking . [ verification needed ]
developments in which scientists influenced the creation of pharmacology in medieval islam ?
botany and chemistry

Sample: 759

bills can be introduced to parliament in a number of ways ; the scottish government can introduce new laws or amendments to existing laws as a bill ; a committee of the parliament can present a bill in one of the areas under its remit ; a member of the scottish parliament can introduce a bill as a private member ; or a private bill can be submitted to parliament by an outside proposer . most draft laws are government bills introduced by ministers in the governing party . bills pass through parliament in a number of stages :
how do bills pass through parliament ?
in a number of stages

Sample: 760

highly concentrated sources of oxygen promote rapid combustion . fire and explosion hazards exist when concentrated oxidants and fuels are brought into close proximity ; an ignition event , such as heat or a spark , is needed to trigger combustion . oxygen is the oxidant , not the fuel , but nevertheless the source of most of the chemical energy released in combustion . combustion hazards also apply to compounds of oxygen with a high oxidative potential , such as peroxides , chlorates , nitrates , perchlorates , and dichromates because they can donate oxygen to a fire .
what can concentrated oxygen produce ?
rapid combustion

Sample: 761

imperialism and colonialism both dictate the political and economic advantage over a land and the indigenous populations they control , yet scholars sometimes find it difficult to illustrate the difference between the two . although imperialism and colonialism focus on the suppression of an other , if colonialism refers to the process of a country taking physical control of another , imperialism refers to the political and monetary dominance , either formally or informally . colonialism is seen to be the architect deciding how to start dominating areas and then imperialism can be seen as creating the idea behind conquest cooperating with colonialism . colonialism is when the imperial nation begins a conquest over an area and then eventually is able to rule over the areas the previous nation had controlled . colonialism 's core meaning is the exploitation of the valuable assets and supplies of the nation that was conquered and the conquering nation then gaining the benefits from the spoils of the war . the meaning of imperialism is to create an empire , by conquering the other state 's lands and therefore increasing its own dominance . colonialism is the builder and preserver of the colonial possessions in an area by a population coming from a foreign region . colonialism can completely change the existing social structure , physical structure and economics of an area ; it is not unusual that the characteristics of the conquering peoples are inherited by the conquered indigenous populations .
what do conquering people pass down to native populations ?
characteristics

Sample: 762

the panthers offense , which led the nfl in scoring ( 500 points ) , was loaded with talent , boasting six pro bowl selections . pro bowl quarterback cam newton had one of his best seasons , throwing for 3,837 yards and rushing for 636 , while recording a career-high and league-leading 45 total touchdowns ( 35 passing , 10 rushing ) , a career-low 10 interceptions , and a career-best quarterback rating of 99.4 . newton 's leading receivers were tight end greg olsen , who caught a career-high 77 passes for 1,104 yards and seven touchdowns , and wide receiver ted ginn , jr. , who caught 44 passes for 739 yards and 10 touchdowns ; ginn also rushed for 60 yards and returned 27 punts for 277 yards . other key receivers included veteran jerricho cotchery ( 39 receptions for 485 yards ) , rookie devin funchess ( 31 receptions for 473 yards and five touchdowns ) , and second-year receiver corey brown ( 31 receptions for 447 yards ) . the panthers backfield featured pro bowl running back jonathan stewart , who led the team with 989 rushing yards and six touchdowns in 13 games , along with pro bowl fullback mike tolbert , who rushed for 256 yards and caught 18 passes for another 154 yards . carolina 's offensive line also featured two pro bowl selections : center ryan kalil and guard trai turner .
what was newton 's quarterback rating for 2015 ?
99.4 .

Sample: 763

highly concentrated sources of oxygen promote rapid combustion . fire and explosion hazards exist when concentrated oxidants and fuels are brought into close proximity ; an ignition event , such as heat or a spark , is needed to trigger combustion . oxygen is the oxidant , not the fuel , but nevertheless the source of most of the chemical energy released in combustion . combustion hazards also apply to compounds of oxygen with a high oxidative potential , such as peroxides , chlorates , nitrates , perchlorates , and dichromates because they can donate oxygen to a fire .
combustion is caused by an oxidant and a fuel . what role does oxygen play in combustion ?
oxygen is the oxidant

Sample: 764

a study by the world institute for development economics research at united nations university reports that the richest 1 % of adults alone owned 40 % of global assets in the year 2000 . the three richest people in the world possess more financial assets than the lowest 48 nations combined . the combined wealth of the " 10 million dollar millionaires " grew to nearly $ 41 trillion in 2008 . a january 2014 report by oxfam claims that the 85 wealthiest individuals in the world have a combined wealth equal to that of the bottom 50 % of the world 's population , or about 3.5 billion people . according to a los angeles times analysis of the report , the wealthiest 1 % owns 46 % of the world 's wealth ; the 85 richest people , a small part of the wealthiest 1 % , own about 0.7 % of the human population 's wealth , which is the same as the bottom half of the population . more recently , in january 2015 , oxfam reported that the wealthiest 1 percent will own more than half of the global wealth by 2016 . an october 2014 study by credit suisse also claims that the top 1 % now own nearly half of the world 's wealth and that the accelerating disparity could trigger a recession . in october 2015 , credit suisse published a study which shows global inequality continues to increase , and that half of the world 's wealth is now in the hands of those in the top percentile , whose assets each exceed $ 759,900 . a 2016 report by oxfam claims that the 62 wealthiest individuals own as much wealth as the poorer half of the global population combined . oxfam 's claims have however been questioned on the basis of the methodology used : by using net wealth ( adding up assets and subtracting debts ) , the oxfam report , for instance , finds that there are more poor people in the united states and western europe than in china ( due to a greater tendency to take on debts ) . [ unreliable source ? ] [ unreliable source ? ] anthony shorrocks , the lead author of the credit suisse report which is one of the sources of oxfam 's data , considers the criticism about debt to be a " silly argument " and " a non-issue . . . a diversion . "
according to oxfam , the 85 richest people have wealth equal to how many average people ?
about 3.5 billion people

Sample: 765

immunology is a science that examines the structure and function of the immune system . it originates from medicine and early studies on the causes of immunity to disease . the earliest known reference to immunity was during the plague of athens in 430 bc . thucydides noted that people who had recovered from a previous bout of the disease could nurse the sick without contracting the illness a second time . in the 18th century , pierre-louis moreau de maupertuis made experiments with scorpion venom and observed that certain dogs and mice were immune to this venom . this and other observations of acquired immunity were later exploited by louis pasteur in his development of vaccination and his proposed germ theory of disease . pasteur 's theory was in direct opposition to contemporary theories of disease , such as the miasma theory . it was not until robert koch 's 1891 proofs , for which he was awarded a nobel prize in 1905 , that microorganisms were confirmed as the cause of infectious disease . viruses were confirmed as human pathogens in 1901 , with the discovery of the yellow fever virus by walter reed .
what even is the earliest known reference to immunity ?
plague of athens in 430 bc

Sample: 766

in the fall of 1937 , after midnight one night , tesla left the hotel new yorker to make his regular commute to the cathedral and the library to feed the pigeons . while crossing a street a couple of blocks from the hotel , tesla was unable to dodge a moving taxicab and was thrown heavily to the ground . tesla 's back was severely wrenched and three of his ribs were broken in the accident ( the full extent of his injuries will never be known ; tesla refused to consult a doctor—an almost lifelong custom ) . tesla did n't raise any question as to who was at fault and refused medical aid , only asking to be taken to his hotel via cab . tesla was bedridden for some months and was unable to continue feeding pigeons from his window ; soon , they failed to come . in early 1938 , tesla was able to get up . he at once resumed the pigeon-feeding walks on a much more limited scale , but frequently had a messenger act for him .
what was tesla on his way to do when he was struck by the cab ?
feed the pigeons

Sample: 767

the exodus of huguenots from france created a brain drain , as many huguenots had occupied important places in society . the kingdom did not fully recover for years . the french crown 's refusal to allow non-catholics to settle in new france may help to explain that colony 's slow rate of population growth compared to that of the neighbouring british colonies , which opened settlement to religious dissenters . by the time of the french and indian war ( the north american front of the seven years ' war ) , a sizeable population of huguenot descent lived in the british colonies , and many participated in the british defeat of new france in 1759-60 .
what was the name of france 's primary colony in the new world ?
new france

Sample: 768

while qutb 's ideas became increasingly radical during his imprisonment prior to his execution in 1966 , the leadership of the brotherhood , led by hasan al-hudaybi , remained moderate and interested in political negotiation and activism . fringe or splinter movements inspired by the final writings of qutb in the mid-1960s ( particularly the manifesto milestones , a.k.a . ma'alim fi-l-tariq ) did , however , develop and they pursued a more radical direction . by the 1970s , the brotherhood had renounced violence as a means of achieving its goals .
when had the brotherhood renounced violence as a means of achieving its goals ?
by the 1970s

Sample: 769

in addition to the negative consequences of sleep deprivation , sleep and the intertwined circadian system have been shown to have strong regulatory effects on immunological functions affecting both the innate and the adaptive immunity . first , during the early slow-wave-sleep stage , a sudden drop in blood levels of cortisol , epinephrine , and norepinephrine induce increased blood levels of the hormones leptin , pituitary growth hormone , and prolactin . these signals induce a pro-inflammatory state through the production of the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1 , interleukin-12 , tnf-alpha and ifn-gamma . these cytokines then stimulate immune functions such as immune cells activation , proliferation , and differentiation . it is during this time that undifferentiated , or less differentiated , like naïve and central memory t cells , peak ( i.e . during a time of a slowly evolving adaptive immune response ) . in addition to these effects , the milieu of hormones produced at this time ( leptin , pituitary growth hormone , and prolactin ) support the interactions between apcs and t-cells , a shift of the th1/th2 cytokine balance towards one that supports th1 , an increase in overall th cell proliferation , and naïve t cell migration to lymph nodes . this milieu is also thought to support the formation of long-lasting immune memory through the initiation of th1 immune responses .
drop in the blood levels of cortisol and epinephrine results in increase levels of what hormones ?
leptin , pituitary growth hormone , and prolactin

Sample: 770

in 1211 , after the conquest of western xia , genghis khan planned again to conquer the jin dynasty . the commander of the jin dynasty army made a tactical mistake in not attacking the mongols at the first opportunity . instead , the jin commander sent a messenger , ming-tan , to the mongol side , who defected and told the mongols that the jin army was waiting on the other side of the pass . at this engagement fought at badger pass the mongols massacred hundreds of thousands of jin troops . in 1215 genghis besieged , captured , and sacked the jin capital of zhongdu ( modern-day beijing ) . this forced the emperor xuanzong to move his capital south to kaifeng , abandoning the northern half of his kingdom to the mongols . between 1232 and 1233 , kaifeng fell to the mongols under the reign of genghis ' third son , ögedei khan . the jin dynasty collapsed in 1234 , after the siege of caizhou .
what dynasty did genghis khan plan to attack after conquering western xia ?
the jin dynasty

Sample: 771

on 17 may 1899 , tesla moved to colorado springs , where he would have room for his high-voltage , high-frequency experiments ; his lab was located near foote ave. and kiowa st . he chose this location because the polyphase alternating current power distribution system had been introduced there and he had associates who were willing to give him all the power he needed without charging for it . upon his arrival , he told reporters that he was conducting wireless telegraphy experiments , transmitting signals from pikes peak to paris . [ citation needed ] the 1978 book colorado springs notes , 1899–1900 contains descriptions of tesla 's experiments . on 15 june 1899 , tesla performed his first experiments at his colorado springs lab ; he recorded his initial spark length at five inches long , but very thick and noisy .
what was the recorded length of the first spark ?
five inches

Sample: 772

the jewellery collection , containing over 6000 items is one of the finest and most comprehensive collections of jewellery in the world and includes works dating from ancient egypt to the present day , as well as jewellery designs on paper . the museum owns pieces by renowned jewelers cartier , jean schlumberger , peter carl fabergé , hemmerle and lalique . other items in the collection include diamond dress ornaments made for catherine the great , bracelet clasps once belonging to marie antoinette , and the beauharnais emerald necklace presented by napoleon to his adopted daughter hortense de beauharnais in 1806 . the museum also collects international modern jewellery by designers such as gijs bakker , onno boekhoudt , peter chang , gerda flockinger , lucy sarneel , dorothea prühl and wendy ramshaw , and african and asian traditional jewellery . major bequests include reverend chauncy hare townshend 's collection of 154 gems bequeathed in 1869 , lady cory 's 1951 gift of major diamond jewellery from the 18th and 19th centuries , and jewellery scholar dame joan evans ' 1977 gift of more than 800 jewels dating from the middle ages to the early 19th century . a new jewellery gallery , funded by william and judith bollinger , opened on 24 may 2008 .
in which year was reverend chauncy hare townshend 's collection of gems was bequeathed to the museum ?
1869

Sample: 773

luther 's hymns were frequently evoked by particular events in his life and the unfolding reformation . this behavior started with his learning of the execution of johann esch and heinrich voes , the first individuals to be martyred by the roman catholic church for lutheran views , prompting luther to write the hymn " ein neues lied wir heben an " ( " a new song we raise " ) , which is generally known in english by john c. messenger 's translation by the title and first line " flung to the heedless winds " and sung to the tune ibstone composed in 1875 by maria c. tiddeman .
who is the english translator of this hymn ?
john c. messenger

Sample: 774

anti-inflammatory drugs are often used to control the effects of inflammation . glucocorticoids are the most powerful of these drugs ; however , these drugs can have many undesirable side effects , such as central obesity , hyperglycemia , osteoporosis , and their use must be tightly controlled . lower doses of anti-inflammatory drugs are often used in conjunction with cytotoxic or immunosuppressive drugs such as methotrexate or azathioprine . cytotoxic drugs inhibit the immune response by killing dividing cells such as activated t cells . however , the killing is indiscriminate and other constantly dividing cells and their organs are affected , which causes toxic side effects . immunosuppressive drugs such as cyclosporin prevent t cells from responding to signals correctly by inhibiting signal transduction pathways .
what is an example of an immunosuppressive drug that prevents t cell activity by altering signal transduction pathways ?
cyclosporin

Sample: 775

the climate in newcastle is oceanic ( köppen cfb ) and significantly milder than some other locations in the world at a similar latitude , due to the warming influence of the gulf stream ( via the north atlantic drift ) . being in the rain shadow of the north pennines , it is among the driest cities in the uk . temperature extremes recorded at newcastle weather centre include 32.5 °c ( 90.5 °f ) during august 1990 down to −12.6 °c ( 9.3 °f ) during january 1982 . in contrast to other areas influenced by the gulf stream , such as inland scandinavia , newcastle has milder winters and cooler summers , similar to the remainder of the british isles .
what type of shadow does the north pennines cast ?
rain

Sample: 776

pathogens can rapidly evolve and adapt , and thereby avoid detection and neutralization by the immune system ; however , multiple defense mechanisms have also evolved to recognize and neutralize pathogens . even simple unicellular organisms such as bacteria possess a rudimentary immune system , in the form of enzymes that protect against bacteriophage infections . other basic immune mechanisms evolved in ancient eukaryotes and remain in their modern descendants , such as plants and invertebrates . these mechanisms include phagocytosis , antimicrobial peptides called defensins , and the complement system . jawed vertebrates , including humans , have even more sophisticated defense mechanisms , including the ability to adapt over time to recognize specific pathogens more efficiently . adaptive ( or acquired ) immunity creates immunological memory after an initial response to a specific pathogen , leading to an enhanced response to subsequent encounters with that same pathogen . this process of acquired immunity is the basis of vaccination .
what is the ability to recognize and adapt to new specific pathogens called ?
adaptive ( or acquired ) immunity

Sample: 777

starting in the late 1950s , american computer scientist paul baran developed the concept distributed adaptive message block switching with the goal to provide a fault-tolerant , efficient routing method for telecommunication messages as part of a research program at the rand corporation , funded by the us department of defense . this concept contrasted and contradicted the theretofore established principles of pre-allocation of network bandwidth , largely fortified by the development of telecommunications in the bell system . the new concept found little resonance among network implementers until the independent work of donald davies at the national physical laboratory ( united kingdom ) ( npl ) in the late 1960s . davies is credited with coining the modern name packet switching and inspiring numerous packet switching networks in europe in the decade following , including the incorporation of the concept in the early arpanet in the united states .
what did distributed adaptive message block switching do
provide a fault-tolerant , efficient routing method for telecommunication messages

Sample: 778

on 18 november 2015 , sky announced sky q , a range of products and services to be available in 2016 . the sky q range consists of three set top boxes ( sky q , sky q silver and sky q mini ) , a broadband router ( sky q hub ) and mobile applications . the sky q set top boxes introduce a new user interface , wi-fi hotspot functionality , power-line and bluetooth connectivity and a new touch-sensitive remote control . the sky q mini set top boxes connect to the sky q silver set top boxes with a wi-fi or power-line connection rather than receive their own satellite feeds . this allows all set top boxes in a household to share recordings and other media . the sky q silver set top box is capable of receiving and displaying uhd broadcasts , which sky will introduce later in 2016 .
what are the sky q mini set top boxes able to connect to ?
sky q silver set top boxes

Sample: 779

immunology is a science that examines the structure and function of the immune system . it originates from medicine and early studies on the causes of immunity to disease . the earliest known reference to immunity was during the plague of athens in 430 bc . thucydides noted that people who had recovered from a previous bout of the disease could nurse the sick without contracting the illness a second time . in the 18th century , pierre-louis moreau de maupertuis made experiments with scorpion venom and observed that certain dogs and mice were immune to this venom . this and other observations of acquired immunity were later exploited by louis pasteur in his development of vaccination and his proposed germ theory of disease . pasteur 's theory was in direct opposition to contemporary theories of disease , such as the miasma theory . it was not until robert koch 's 1891 proofs , for which he was awarded a nobel prize in 1905 , that microorganisms were confirmed as the cause of infectious disease . viruses were confirmed as human pathogens in 1901 , with the discovery of the yellow fever virus by walter reed .
what did robert koch prove was the cause of infectious disease ?
microorganisms

Sample: 780

natural killer cells , or nk cells , are a component of the innate immune system which does not directly attack invading microbes . rather , nk cells destroy compromised host cells , such as tumor cells or virus-infected cells , recognizing such cells by a condition known as " missing self . " this term describes cells with low levels of a cell-surface marker called mhc i ( major histocompatibility complex ) – a situation that can arise in viral infections of host cells . they were named " natural killer " because of the initial notion that they do not require activation in order to kill cells that are " missing self . " for many years it was unclear how nk cells recognize tumor cells and infected cells . it is now known that the mhc makeup on the surface of those cells is altered and the nk cells become activated through recognition of " missing self " . normal body cells are not recognized and attacked by nk cells because they express intact self mhc antigens . those mhc antigens are recognized by killer cell immunoglobulin receptors ( kir ) which essentially put the brakes on nk cells .
what is one part of the innate immune system that does n't attack microbes directly ?
natural killer cells

Sample: 781

western musical instruments were introduced to enrich chinese performing arts . from this period dates the conversion to islam , by muslims of central asia , of growing numbers of chinese in the northwest and southwest . nestorianism and roman catholicism also enjoyed a period of toleration . buddhism ( especially tibetan buddhism ) flourished , although taoism endured certain persecutions in favor of buddhism from the yuan government . confucian governmental practices and examinations based on the classics , which had fallen into disuse in north china during the period of disunity , were reinstated by the yuan court , probably in the hope of maintaining order over han society . advances were realized in the fields of travel literature , cartography , geography , and scientific education .
what religion did the yuan discourage , to support buddhism ?
taoism

Sample: 782

the united methodist church is the largest denomination within the wider methodist movement , which has approximately 80 million adherents across the world . in the united states , the umc ranks as the largest mainline protestant denomination , the largest protestant church after the southern baptist convention , and the third largest christian denomination . as of 2014 , worldwide membership was about 12 million : 7.2 million in the united states , and 4.4 million in africa , asia and europe . it is a member of the world council of churches , the world methodist council , and other religious associations . in 2015 , pew research estimated that 3.6 % of the u.s population , or 9 million adult adherents , self-identify with the united methodist church revealing a much larger number of adherents than registered membership .
what is the largest denomination within the wider methodist movement ?
united methodist church

Sample: 783

the principle of cross-cutting relationships pertains to the formation of faults and the age of the sequences through which they cut . faults are younger than the rocks they cut ; accordingly , if a fault is found that penetrates some formations but not those on top of it , then the formations that were cut are older than the fault , and the ones that are not cut must be younger than the fault . finding the key bed in these situations may help determine whether the fault is a normal fault or a thrust fault .
what principle relates to the formation of faults and the age of the sequences through which they cut ?
the principle of cross-cutting relationships

Sample: 784

some civil disobedients feel it is incumbent upon them to accept punishment because of their belief in the validity of the social contract , which is held to bind all to obey the laws that a government meeting certain standards of legitimacy has established , or else suffer the penalties set out in the law . other civil disobedients who favor the existence of government still do n't believe in the legitimacy of their particular government , or do n't believe in the legitimacy of a particular law it has enacted . and still other civil disobedients , being anarchists , do n't believe in the legitimacy of any government , and therefore see no need to accept punishment for a violation of criminal law that does not infringe the rights of others .
what is the group called that does not agree with government at all ?
anarchists

Sample: 785

it has won the short form of the hugo award for best dramatic presentation , the oldest science fiction/fantasy award for films and series , six times ( every year since 2006 , except for 2009 , 2013 and 2014 ) . the winning episodes were " the empty child " / " the doctor dances " ( 2006 ) , " the girl in the fireplace " ( 2007 ) , " blink " ( 2008 ) , " the waters of mars " ( 2010 ) , " the pandorica opens " / " the big bang " ( 2011 ) , and " the doctor 's wife " ( 2012 ) . doctor who star matt smith won best actor in the 2012 national television awards alongside karen gillan who won best actress . doctor who has been nominated for over 200 awards and has won over a hundred of them .
what doctor who actor won a best actor award in 2012 ?
matt smith

Sample: 786

non-revolutionary civil disobedience is a simple disobedience of laws on the grounds that they are judged " wrong " by an individual conscience , or as part of an effort to render certain laws ineffective , to cause their repeal , or to exert pressure to get one 's political wishes on some other issue . revolutionary civil disobedience is more of an active attempt to overthrow a government ( or to change cultural traditions , social customs , religious beliefs , etc ... revolution does n't have to be political , i.e . " cultural revolution " , it simply implies sweeping and widespread change to a section of the social fabric ) . gandhi 's acts have been described as revolutionary civil disobedience . it has been claimed that the hungarians under ferenc deák directed revolutionary civil disobedience against the austrian government . thoreau also wrote of civil disobedience accomplishing " peaceable revolution . " howard zinn , harvey wheeler , and others have identified the right espoused in the declaration of independence to " alter or abolish " an unjust government to be a principle of civil disobedience .
why would a person chose civil disobedience against specific laws ?
judged " wrong " by an individual conscience

Sample: 787

the rhine-meuse delta is a tidal delta , shaped not only by the sedimentation of the rivers , but also by tidal currents . this meant that high tide formed a serious risk because strong tidal currents could tear huge areas of land into the sea . before the construction of the delta works , tidal influence was palpable up to nijmegen , and even today , after the regulatory action of the delta works , the tide acts far inland . at the waal , for example , the most landward tidal influence can be detected between brakel and zaltbommel .
what does a high tide risk near lands ?
tear huge areas of land into the sea .

Sample: 788

ctenophores may be abundant during the summer months in some coastal locations , but in other places they are uncommon and difficult to find . in bays where they occur in very high numbers , predation by ctenophores may control the populations of small zooplanktonic organisms such as copepods , which might otherwise wipe out the phytoplankton ( planktonic plants ) , which are a vital part of marine food chains . one ctenophore , mnemiopsis , has accidentally been introduced into the black sea , where it is blamed for causing fish stocks to collapse by eating both fish larvae and organisms that would otherwise have fed the fish . the situation was aggravated by other factors , such as over-fishing and long-term environmental changes that promoted the growth of the mnemiopsis population . the later accidental introduction of beroe helped to mitigate the problem , as beroe preys on other ctenophores .
what event was blamed on the introduction of mnemiopsis into the black sea ?
causing fish stocks to collapse

Sample: 789

wealth concentration is a theoretical [ according to whom ? ] process by which , under certain conditions , newly created wealth concentrates in the possession of already-wealthy individuals or entities . according to this theory , those who already hold wealth have the means to invest in new sources of creating wealth or to otherwise leverage the accumulation of wealth , thus are the beneficiaries of the new wealth . over time , wealth condensation can significantly contribute to the persistence of inequality within society . thomas piketty in his book capital in the twenty-first century argues that the fundamental force for divergence is the usually greater return of capital ( r ) than economic growth ( g ) , and that larger fortunes generate higher returns [ pp . 384 table 12.2 , u.s. university endowment size vs. real annual rate of return ]
who wrote the book " capital in the twenty-first century " ?
thomas piketty

Sample: 790

in cpdna , there are several a → g deamination gradients . dna becomes susceptible to deamination events when it is single stranded . when replication forks form , the strand not being copied is single stranded , and thus at risk for a → g deamination . therefore , gradients in deamination indicate that replication forks were most likely present and the direction that they initially opened ( the highest gradient is most likely nearest the start site because it was single stranded for the longest amount of time ) . this mechanism is still the leading theory today ; however , a second theory suggests that most cpdna is actually linear and replicates through homologous recombination . it further contends that only a minority of the genetic material is kept in circular chromosomes while the rest is in branched , linear , or other complex structures .
how does the secondary theory say most cpdna replicates ?
homologous recombination

Sample: 791

in 1900 , the los angeles times defined southern california as including " the seven counties of los angeles , san bernardino , orange , riverside , san diego , ventura and santa barbara . " in 1999 , the times added a newer county—imperial—to that list .
in which year did the newspaper define southern california ?
1900

Sample: 792

a function problem is a computational problem where a single output ( of a total function ) is expected for every input , but the output is more complex than that of a decision problem , that is , it is n't just yes or no . notable examples include the traveling salesman problem and the integer factorization problem .
a function problem is an example of what ?
a computational problem

Sample: 793

professional sports teams in southern california include teams from the nfl ( los angeles rams , san diego chargers ) ; nba ( los angeles lakers , los angeles clippers ) ; mlb ( los angeles dodgers , los angeles angels of anaheim , san diego padres ) ; nhl ( los angeles kings , anaheim ducks ) ; and mls ( la galaxy ) .
the los angeles clippers are a team belonging to which sport ?
nba

Sample: 794

quickbooks sponsored a " small business big game " contest , in which death wish coffee had a 30-second commercial aired free of charge courtesy of quickbooks . death wish coffee beat out nine other contenders from across the united states for the free advertisement .
which company had a commercial aired for free as a result of the quickbooks contest ?
death wish coffee

Sample: 795

in 1993 , the fcc repealed the financial interest and syndication rules , once again allowing networks to hold interests in television production studios . that same year , capital cities/abc purchased the french animation studio dic entertainment ; it also signed an agreement with time warner cable to carry its owned-and-operated television stations on the provider 's systems in abc o & o markets . by that year , abc had a total viewership share of 23.63 % of american households , just below the limit of 25 % imposed by the fcc .
what was abc 's viewership share in 1993 ?
23.63 % of american households

Sample: 796

after each team punted , panthers quarterback cam newton appeared to complete a 24-yard pass jerricho cotchery , but the call was ruled an incompletion and upheld after a replay challenge . cbs analyst and retired referee mike carey stated he disagreed with the call and felt the review clearly showed the pass was complete . a few plays later , on 3rd-and-10 from the 15-yard line , linebacker von miller knocked the ball out of newton 's hands while sacking him , and malik jackson recovered it in the end zone for a broncos touchdown , giving the team a 10–0 lead . this was the first fumble return touchdown in a super bowl since super bowl xxviii at the end of the 1993 season .
who sacked newton a few plays after the challenge ?
von miller

Sample: 797

civil disobedients have chosen a variety of different illegal acts . bedau writes , " there is a whole class of acts , undertaken in the name of civil disobedience , which , even if they were widely practiced , would in themselves constitute hardly more than a nuisance ( e.g . trespassing at a nuclear-missile installation ) ... such acts are often just a harassment and , at least to the bystander , somewhat inane ... the remoteness of the connection between the disobedient act and the objectionable law lays such acts open to the charge of ineffectiveness and absurdity . " bedau also notes , though , that the very harmlessness of such entirely symbolic illegal protests toward public policy goals may serve a propaganda purpose . some civil disobedients , such as the proprietors of illegal medical cannabis dispensaries and voice in the wilderness , which brought medicine to iraq without the permission of the u.s. government , directly achieve a desired social goal ( such as the provision of medication to the sick ) while openly breaking the law . julia butterfly hill lived in luna , a 180-foot ( 55 m ) -tall , 600-year-old california redwood tree for 738 days , successfully preventing it from being cut down .
bedau notes that illegal protests towards public policy may serve as what purpose ?
propaganda

Sample: 798

for exercise , tesla walked between 8 to 10 miles per day . he squished his toes one hundred times for each foot every night , saying that it stimulated his brain cells .
what was he hoping to stimulate with the toe squishing ?
brain cells

Sample: 799

kenya 's first system of education was introduced by british colonists . after kenya 's independence on 12 december 1963 , an authority named the ominde commission was formed to introduce changes that would reflect the nation 's sovereignty . the commission focused on identity and unity , which were critical issues at the time . changes in the subject content of history and geography were made to reflect national cohesion . between 1964 and 1985 , the 7–4–2–3 system was adopted – seven years of primary , four years of lower secondary , two years of upper secondary , and three years of university . all schools had a common curriculum .
what did the ominde commission do ?
focused on identity and unity , which were critical issues at the time

Sample: 800

sayyid abul ala maududi was an important early twentieth-century figure in the islamic revival in india , and then after independence from britain , in pakistan . trained as a lawyer he chose the profession of journalism , and wrote about contemporary issues and most importantly about islam and islamic law . maududi founded the jamaat-e-islami party in 1941 and remained its leader until 1972 . however , maududi had much more impact through his writing than through his political organising . his extremely influential books ( translated into many languages ) placed islam in a modern context , and influenced not only conservative ulema but liberal modernizer islamists such as al-faruqi , whose " islamization of knowledge " carried forward some of maududi 's key principles .
where did maududi exert the most impact ?
through his writing

Sample: 801

temüjin began his ascent to power by offering himself as an ally ( or , according to other sources , a vassal ) to his father 's anda ( sworn brother or blood brother ) toghrul , who was khan of the keraites , and is better known by the chinese title " wang khan " , which the jurchen jin dynasty granted him in 1197 . this relationship was first reinforced when börte was captured by the merkits . temüjin turned to toghrul for support , and in response , toghrul offered his vassal 20,000 of his keraite warriors and suggested that he also involve his childhood friend jamukha , who had himself become khan ( ruler ) of his own tribe , the jadaran .
which of temüjin 's childhood friends did toghrul suggest he also enlist ?
jamukha

Sample: 802

the panthers used the san jose state practice facility and stayed at the san jose marriott . the broncos practiced at stanford university and stayed at the santa clara marriott .
where did the broncos practice for the super bowl ?
stanford university

Sample: 803

in early 2012 , nfl commissioner roger goodell stated that the league planned to make the 50th super bowl " spectacular " and that it would be " an important game for us as a league " .
who was the nfl commissioner in early 2012 ?
roger goodell

Sample: 804

as a result , with the exception of the largest markets , abc was relegated to secondary status on one or both of the existing stations , usually via off-hours clearances ( a notable exception during this time was wkst-tv in youngstown , ohio , now wytv , despite the small size of the surrounding market and its close proximity to cleveland and pittsburgh even decades before the city 's economic collapse ) . according to goldenson , this meant that an hour of abc programming reported five times lower viewership than its competitors . however , the network 's intake of money at the time would allow it to accelerate its content production . still , abc 's limited reach would continue to hobble it for the next two decades ; several smaller markets would not grow large enough to support a full-time abc affiliate until the 1960s , with some very small markets having to wait as late as the 1980s or even the advent of digital television in the 2000s , which allowed stations like wtrf-tv in wheeling , west virginia to begin airing abc programming on a digital subchannel after airing the network 's programs outside of recommended timeslots decades before .
relegation to secondary status for abc resulted in viewership how much lower than their competitors , according to goldenson ?
five times lower viewership

Sample: 805

long-term active memory is acquired following infection by activation of b and t cells . active immunity can also be generated artificially , through vaccination . the principle behind vaccination ( also called immunization ) is to introduce an antigen from a pathogen in order to stimulate the immune system and develop specific immunity against that particular pathogen without causing disease associated with that organism . this deliberate induction of an immune response is successful because it exploits the natural specificity of the immune system , as well as its inducibility . with infectious disease remaining one of the leading causes of death in the human population , vaccination represents the most effective manipulation of the immune system mankind has developed .
vaccination exploits what feature of the human immune system in order to be successful ?
natural specificity of the immune system

Sample: 806

there would be no more scoring in the third quarter , but early in the fourth , the broncos drove to the panthers 41-yard line . on the next play , ealy knocked the ball out of manning 's hand as he was winding up for a pass , and then recovered it for carolina on the 50-yard line . a 16-yard reception by devin funchess and a 12-yard run by stewart then set up gano 's 39-yard field goal , cutting the panthers deficit to one score at 16–10 . the next three drives of the game would end in punts .
who caught a 16-yard pass on this drive ?
devin funchess

Sample: 807

immunology is a science that examines the structure and function of the immune system . it originates from medicine and early studies on the causes of immunity to disease . the earliest known reference to immunity was during the plague of athens in 430 bc . thucydides noted that people who had recovered from a previous bout of the disease could nurse the sick without contracting the illness a second time . in the 18th century , pierre-louis moreau de maupertuis made experiments with scorpion venom and observed that certain dogs and mice were immune to this venom . this and other observations of acquired immunity were later exploited by louis pasteur in his development of vaccination and his proposed germ theory of disease . pasteur 's theory was in direct opposition to contemporary theories of disease , such as the miasma theory . it was not until robert koch 's 1891 proofs , for which he was awarded a nobel prize in 1905 , that microorganisms were confirmed as the cause of infectious disease . viruses were confirmed as human pathogens in 1901 , with the discovery of the yellow fever virus by walter reed .
who won the nobel prize in 1905 ?
robert koch

Sample: 808

as the designated home team in the annual rotation between afc and nfc teams , the broncos elected to wear their road white jerseys with matching white pants . elway stated , " we 've had super bowl success in our white uniforms . " the broncos last wore matching white jerseys and pants in the super bowl in super bowl xxxiii , elway 's last game as denver qb , when they defeated the atlanta falcons 34–19 . in their only other super bowl win in super bowl xxxii , denver wore blue jerseys , which was their primary color at the time . they also lost super bowl xxi when they wore white jerseys , but they are 0-4 in super bowls when wearing orange jerseys , losing in super bowl xii , xxii , xxiv , and xlviii . the only other afc champion team to have worn white as the designated home team in the super bowl was the pittsburgh steelers ; they defeated the seattle seahawks 21–10 in super bowl xl 10 seasons prior . the broncos ' decision to wear white meant the panthers would wear their standard home uniform : black jerseys with silver pants .
what color pants did the broncos wear in super bowl 50 ?
white

Sample: 809

the university of chicago ( uchicago , chicago , or u of c ) is a private research university in chicago . the university , established in 1890 , consists of the college , various graduate programs , interdisciplinary committees organized into four academic research divisions and seven professional schools . beyond the arts and sciences , chicago is also well known for its professional schools , which include the pritzker school of medicine , the university of chicago booth school of business , the law school , the school of social service administration , the harris school of public policy studies , the graham school of continuing liberal and professional studies and the divinity school . the university currently enrolls approximately 5,000 students in the college and around 15,000 students overall .
how many professional schools does the university of chicago have ?
seven

Sample: 810

the collection of italian , medieval , renaissance , baroque and neoclassical sculpture ( both original and in cast form ) is unequalled outside of italy . it includes canova 's the three graces , which the museum jointly owns with national galleries of scotland . italian sculptors whose work is held by the museum include : bartolomeo bon , bartolomeo bellano , luca della robbia , giovanni pisano , donatello , agostino di duccio , andrea riccio , antonio rossellino , andrea del verrocchio , antonio lombardo , pier jacopo alari bonacolsi , andrea della robbia , michelozzo di bartolomeo , michelangelo ( represented by a freehand wax model and casts of his most famous sculptures ) , jacopo sansovino , alessandro algardi , antonio calcagni , benvenuto cellini ( medusa 's head dated c. 1547 ) , agostino busti , bartolomeo ammannati , giacomo della porta , giambologna ( samson slaying a philistine ( giambologna ) c. 1562 , his finest work outside italy ) , bernini ( neptune and triton c. 1622–3 ) , giovanni battista foggini , vincenzo foggini ( samson and the philistines ) , massimiliano soldani benzi , antonio corradini , andrea brustolon , giovanni battista piranesi , innocenzo spinazzi , canova , carlo marochetti and raffaelle monti . an unusual sculpture is the ancient roman statue of narcissus restored by valerio cioli c1564 with plaster . there are several small scale bronzes by donatello , alessandro vittoria , tiziano aspetti and francesco fanelli in the collection . the largest item from italy is the chancel chapel from santa chiara florence dated 1493–1500 , designed by giuliano da sangallo it is 11.1 metres in height by 5.4 metres square , it includes a grand sculpted tabernacle by antonio rossellino and coloured terracotta decoration .
to which period is the largest item from italy that is included in the sculpture collection dated ?
1493–1500

Sample: 811

the central garden was redesigned by kim wilkie and opened as the john madejski garden , on 5 july 2005 . the design is a subtle blend of the traditional and modern , the layout is formal ; there is an elliptical water feature lined in stone with steps around the edge which may be drained to use the area for receptions , gatherings or exhibition purposes . this is in front of the bronze doors leading to the refreshment rooms , a central path flanked by lawns leads to the sculpture gallery ; the north , east and west sides have herbaceous borders along the museum walls with paths in front which continues along the south façade ; in the two corners by the north façade there is planted an american sweetgum tree ; the southern , eastern and western edges of the lawns have glass planters which contain orange and lemon trees in summer , these are replaced by bay trees in winter .
who redesigned the central garden ?
kim wilkie

Sample: 812

pathogens can rapidly evolve and adapt , and thereby avoid detection and neutralization by the immune system ; however , multiple defense mechanisms have also evolved to recognize and neutralize pathogens . even simple unicellular organisms such as bacteria possess a rudimentary immune system , in the form of enzymes that protect against bacteriophage infections . other basic immune mechanisms evolved in ancient eukaryotes and remain in their modern descendants , such as plants and invertebrates . these mechanisms include phagocytosis , antimicrobial peptides called defensins , and the complement system . jawed vertebrates , including humans , have even more sophisticated defense mechanisms , including the ability to adapt over time to recognize specific pathogens more efficiently . adaptive ( or acquired ) immunity creates immunological memory after an initial response to a specific pathogen , leading to an enhanced response to subsequent encounters with that same pathogen . this process of acquired immunity is the basis of vaccination .
how do pathogens avoid detection ?
pathogens can rapidly evolve and adapt

Sample: 813

the chloroplast membranes sometimes protrude out into the cytoplasm , forming a stromule , or stroma-containing tubule . stromules are very rare in chloroplasts , and are much more common in other plastids like chromoplasts and amyloplasts in petals and roots , respectively . they may exist to increase the chloroplast 's surface area for cross-membrane transport , because they are often branched and tangled with the endoplasmic reticulum . when they were first observed in 1962 , some plant biologists dismissed the structures as artifactual , claiming that stromules were just oddly shaped chloroplasts with constricted regions or dividing chloroplasts . however , there is a growing body of evidence that stromules are functional , integral features of plant cell plastids , not merely artifacts .
why do stromules exist ?
to increase the chloroplast 's surface area for cross-membrane transport

Sample: 814

warsaw remained the capital of the polish–lithuanian commonwealth until 1796 , when it was annexed by the kingdom of prussia to become the capital of the province of south prussia . liberated by napoleon 's army in 1806 , warsaw was made the capital of the newly created duchy of warsaw . following the congress of vienna of 1815 , warsaw became the centre of the congress poland , a constitutional monarchy under a personal union with imperial russia . the royal university of warsaw was established in 1816 .
what kingdom annexed warsaw in 1796 ?
prussia

Sample: 815

plants have two main immune responses—the hypersensitive response , in which infected cells seal themselves off and undergo programmed cell death , and systemic acquired resistance , where infected cells release signals warning the rest of the plant of a pathogen 's presence . chloroplasts stimulate both responses by purposely damaging their photosynthetic system , producing reactive oxygen species . high levels of reactive oxygen species will cause the hypersensitive response . the reactive oxygen species also directly kill any pathogens within the cell . lower levels of reactive oxygen species initiate systemic acquired resistance , triggering defense-molecule production in the rest of the plant .
what does damaging photosynthesis systems create ?
reactive oxygen species

Sample: 816

the chloroplast double membrane is also often compared to the mitochondrial double membrane . this is not a valid comparison—the inner mitochondria membrane is used to run proton pumps and carry out oxidative phosphorylation across to generate atp energy . the only chloroplast structure that can considered analogous to it is the internal thylakoid system . even so , in terms of " in-out " , the direction of chloroplast h+ ion flow is in the opposite direction compared to oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondria . in addition , in terms of function , the inner chloroplast membrane , which regulates metabolite passage and synthesizes some materials , has no counterpart in the mitochondrion .
what chloroplast structure is similar to the inner mitochondria membrane ?
the internal thylakoid system

Sample: 817

these chloroplasts , which can be traced back directly to a cyanobacterial ancestor , are known as primary plastids ( " plastid " in this context means almost the same thing as chloroplast ) . all primary chloroplasts belong to one of three chloroplast lineages—the glaucophyte chloroplast lineage , the rhodophyte , or red algal chloroplast lineage , or the chloroplastidan , or green chloroplast lineage . the second two are the largest , and the green chloroplast lineage is the one that contains the land plants .
what does chloroplastidan mean ?
green chloroplast

Sample: 818

the apollo program , also known as project apollo , was the third united states human spaceflight program carried out by the national aeronautics and space administration ( nasa ) , which accomplished landing the first humans on the moon from 1969 to 1972 . first conceived during dwight d. eisenhower 's administration as a three-man spacecraft to follow the one-man project mercury which put the first americans in space , apollo was later dedicated to president john f. kennedy 's national goal of " landing a man on the moon and returning him safely to the earth " by the end of the 1960s , which he proposed in a may 25 , 1961 , address to congress . project mercury was followed by the two-man project gemini ( 1962–66 ) . the first manned flight of apollo was in 1968 .
what president is credited with the original notion of putting americans in space ?
dwight d. eisenhower

Sample: 819

whilst the permanent building at holyrood was being constructed , the parliament 's temporary home was the general assembly hall of the church of scotland on the royal mile in edinburgh . official photographs and television interviews were held in the courtyard adjoining the assembly hall , which is part of the school of divinity of the university of edinburgh . this building was vacated twice to allow for the meeting of the church 's general assembly . in may 2000 , the parliament was temporarily relocated to the former strathclyde regional council debating chamber in glasgow , and to the university of aberdeen in may 2002 .
where was parliament temporarily relocated to in may of 2000 ?
former strathclyde regional council debating chamber in glasgow

Sample: 820

are prime . prime numbers of this form are known as factorial primes . other primes where either p + 1 or p − 1 is of a particular shape include the sophie germain primes ( primes of the form 2p + 1 with p prime ) , primorial primes , fermat primes and mersenne primes , that is , prime numbers that are of the form 2p − 1 , where p is an arbitrary prime . the lucas–lehmer test is particularly fast for numbers of this form . this is why the largest known prime has almost always been a mersenne prime since the dawn of electronic computers .
what is the name of one type of prime where p+1 or p-1 takes a certain shape ?
primorial primes

Sample: 821

luther and his wife moved into a former monastery , " the black cloister , " a wedding present from the new elector john the steadfast ( 1525–32 ) . they embarked on what appeared to have been a happy and successful marriage , though money was often short . between bearing six children , hans – june 1526 ; elizabeth – 10 december 1527 , who died within a few months ; magdalene – 1529 , who died in luther 's arms in 1542 ; martin – 1531 ; paul – january 1533 ; and margaret – 1534 ; katharina helped the couple earn a living by farming the land and taking in boarders . luther confided to michael stiefel on 11 august 1526 : " my katie is in all things so obliging and pleasing to me that i would not exchange my poverty for the riches of croesus . "
what was the black cloister ?
former monastery

Sample: 822

the division process starts when the proteins ftsz1 and ftsz2 assemble into filaments , and with the help of a protein arc6 , form a structure called a z-ring within the chloroplast 's stroma . the min system manages the placement of the z-ring , ensuring that the chloroplast is cleaved more or less evenly . the protein mind prevents ftsz from linking up and forming filaments . another protein arc3 may also be involved , but it is not very well understood . these proteins are active at the poles of the chloroplast , preventing z-ring formation there , but near the center of the chloroplast , mine inhibits them , allowing the z-ring to form .
what gets the z-ring in the right place ?
the min system

Sample: 823

even before the norman conquest of england , the normans had come into contact with wales . edward the confessor had set up the aforementioned ralph as earl of hereford and charged him with defending the marches and warring with the welsh . in these original ventures , the normans failed to make any headway into wales .
who made ralph earl ?
edward the confessor

Sample: 824

at the same time the mongols imported central asian muslims to serve as administrators in china , the mongols also sent han chinese and khitans from china to serve as administrators over the muslim population in bukhara in central asia , using foreigners to curtail the power of the local peoples of both lands . han chinese were moved to central asian areas like besh baliq , almaliq , and samarqand by the mongols where they worked as artisans and farmers . alans were recruited into the mongol forces with one unit called " right alan guard " which was combined with " recently surrendered " soldiers , mongols , and chinese soldiers stationed in the area of the former kingdom of qocho and in besh balikh the mongols established a chinese military colony led by chinese general qi kongzhi ( ch'i kung-chih ) . after the mongol conquest of central asia by genghis khan , foreigners were chosen as administrators and co-management with chinese and qara-khitays ( khitans ) of gardens and fields in samarqand was put upon the muslims as a requirement since muslims were not allowed to manage without them . the mongol appointed governor of samarqand was a qara-khitay ( khitan ) , held the title taishi , familiar with chinese culture his name was ahai
who did the mongols bring to china as administrators ?
central asian muslims

Sample: 825

the revocation forbade protestant services , required education of children as catholics , and prohibited emigration . it proved disastrous to the huguenots and costly for france . it precipitated civil bloodshed , ruined commerce , and resulted in the illegal flight from the country of hundreds of thousands of protestants , many of whom became intellectuals , doctors and business leaders in britain as well as holland , prussia , and south africa . four thousand emigrated to the north american colonies , where they settled in new york and virginia , especially . the english welcomed the french refugees , providing money from both government and private agencies to aid their relocation . those huguenots who stayed in france became catholics and were called " new converts " .
besides britain and north america , where else did huguenot refugees settle ?
holland , prussia , and south africa

Sample: 826

the ussr 's invasion of afghanistan was only one sign of insecurity in the region , also marked by increased american weapons sales , technology , and outright military presence . saudi arabia and iran became increasingly dependent on american security assurances to manage both external and internal threats , including increased military competition between them over increased oil revenues . both states were competing for preeminence in the persian gulf and using increased revenues to fund expanded militaries . by 1979 , saudi arms purchases from the us exceeded five times israel 's . another motive for the large scale purchase of arms from the us by saudi arabia was the failure of the shah during january 1979 to maintain control of iran , a non-arabic but largely shiite muslim nation , which fell to a theocratic islamist government under the ayatollah ruhollah khomeini in the wake of the 1979 iranian revolution . saudi arabia , on the other hand , is an arab , largely sunni muslim nation headed by a near absolutist monarchy . in the wake of the iranian revolution the saudis were forced to deal with the prospect of internal destabilization via the radicalism of islamism , a reality which would quickly be revealed in the seizure of the grand mosque in mecca by wahhabi extremists during november 1979 and a shiite revolt in the oil rich al-hasa region of saudi arabia in december of the same year . in november 2010 , wikileaks leaked confidential diplomatic cables pertaining to the united states and its allies which revealed that the late saudi king abdullah urged the united states to attack iran in order to destroy its potential nuclear weapons program , describing iran as " a snake whose head should be cut off without any procrastination . "
when did the wahhabi seized the grand mosque in mecca ?
november 1979

Sample: 827

like mitochondria , chloroplasts use the potential energy stored in an h+ , or hydrogen ion gradient to generate atp energy . the two photosystems capture light energy to energize electrons taken from water , and release them down an electron transport chain . the molecules between the photosystems harness the electrons ' energy to pump hydrogen ions into the thylakoid space , creating a concentration gradient , with more hydrogen ions ( up to a thousand times as many ) inside the thylakoid system than in the stroma . the hydrogen ions in the thylakoid space then diffuse back down their concentration gradient , flowing back out into the stroma through atp synthase . atp synthase uses the energy from the flowing hydrogen ions to phosphorylate adenosine diphosphate into adenosine triphosphate , or atp . because chloroplast atp synthase projects out into the stroma , the atp is synthesized there , in position to be used in the dark reactions .
where do chloroplasts pump hydrogen ?
into the thylakoid space

Sample: 828

prince albert appears within the main arch above the twin entrances , queen victoria above the frame around the arches and entrance , sculpted by alfred drury . these façades surround four levels of galleries . other areas designed by webb include the entrance hall and rotunda , the east and west halls , the areas occupied by the shop and asian galleries as well as the costume gallery . the interior makes much use of marble in the entrance hall and flanking staircases , although the galleries as originally designed were white with restrained classical detail and mouldings , very much in contrast to the elaborate decoration of the victorian galleries , although much of this decoration was removed in the early 20th century .
what building material does the entrance hall and flanking staircases use predominantly ?
marble

Sample: 829

there would be no more scoring in the third quarter , but early in the fourth , the broncos drove to the panthers 41-yard line . on the next play , ealy knocked the ball out of manning 's hand as he was winding up for a pass , and then recovered it for carolina on the 50-yard line . a 16-yard reception by devin funchess and a 12-yard run by stewart then set up gano 's 39-yard field goal , cutting the panthers deficit to one score at 16–10 . the next three drives of the game would end in punts .
what is the last name of the player who bumped the ball away from manning in the fourth quarter of super bowl 50 ?
ealy

Sample: 830

in 1507 , he was ordained to the priesthood , and in 1508 , von staupitz , first dean of the newly founded university of wittenberg , sent for luther , to teach theology . he received a bachelor 's degree in biblical studies on 9 march 1508 , and another bachelor 's degree in the sentences by peter lombard in 1509 .
when was luther called by von staupitz to wittenberg ?
1508

Sample: 831

to help reduce consumption , in 1974 a national maximum speed limit of 55 mph ( about 88 km/h ) was imposed through the emergency highway energy conservation act . development of the strategic petroleum reserve began in 1975 , and in 1977 the cabinet-level department of energy was created , followed by the national energy act of 1978 . [ citation needed ] on november 28 , 1995 , bill clinton signed the national highway designation act , ending the federal 55 mph ( 89 km/h ) speed limit , allowing states to restore their prior maximum speed limit .
when was the national highway designated act signed ?
november 28 , 1995

Sample: 832

super bowl 50 featured numerous records from individuals and teams . denver won despite being massively outgained in total yards ( 315 to 194 ) and first downs ( 21 to 11 ) . their 194 yards and 11 first downs were both the lowest totals ever by a super bowl winning team . the previous record was 244 yards by the baltimore ravens in super bowl xxxv . only seven other teams had ever gained less than 200 yards in a super bowl , and all of them had lost . the broncos ' seven sacks tied a super bowl record set by the chicago bears in super bowl xx . kony ealy tied a super bowl record with three sacks . jordan norwood 's 61-yard punt return set a new record , surpassing the old record of 45 yards set by john taylor in super bowl xxiii . denver was just 1-of-14 on third down , while carolina was barely better at 3-of-15 . the two teams ' combined third down conversion percentage of 13.8 was a super bowl low . manning and newton had quarterback passer ratings of 56.6 and 55.4 , respectively , and their added total of 112 is a record lowest aggregate passer rating for a super bowl . manning became the oldest quarterback ever to win a super bowl at age 39 , and the first quarterback ever to win a super bowl with two different teams , while gary kubiak became the first head coach to win a super bowl with the same franchise he went to the super bowl with as a player .
how many total yards did denver gain ?
194

Sample: 833

a revised version of the abc logo was introduced for promotions for the 2013–14 season during the network 's upfront presentation on may 14 , 2013 , and officially introduced on-air on june 17 ( although some affiliates implemented the new design prior to then ) , as part of an overhaul of abc 's identity by design agency loyalkaspar . the updated logo carries a simpler gloss design than the previous version , and contains lettering more closely resembling paul rand 's original version of the circle logo . the logo is displayed on-air , online and in print advertising in four variants shading the respective color used with the circle design 's native black coloring : a gold version is primarily used on entertainment-oriented outlets ( such as abc.com , watch abc , and by abc studios ) and the on-screen bug ; steel blue and dark grey versions are used primarily by abc news ; a red version is used for espn on abc , while all four variants are used selectively in advertising and by affiliates . a new custom typeface , " abc modern " ( which was inspired by the logotype ) , was also created for use in advertising and other promotional materials .
how many variants is the new abc logo currently displayed in ?
four variants

Sample: 834

as in the house of commons , a number of qualifications apply to being an msp . such qualifications were introduced under the house of commons disqualification act 1975 and the british nationality act 1981 . specifically , members must be over the age of 18 and must be a citizen of the united kingdom , the republic of ireland , one of the countries in the commonwealth of nations , a citizen of a british overseas territory , or a european union citizen resident in the uk . members of the police and the armed forces are disqualified from sitting in the scottish parliament as elected msps , and similarly , civil servants and members of foreign legislatures are disqualified . an individual may not sit in the scottish parliament if he or she is judged to be insane under the terms of the mental health ( care and treatment ) ( scotland ) act 2003 .
what act sets the term for judging the boundaries of sanity to which individuals wishing to sit on the sp must adhere ?
mental health ( care and treatment ) ( scotland ) act 2003

Sample: 835

in europe , the north american theater of the seven years ' war usually is not given a separate name . the entire international conflict is known as the seven years ' war . " seven years " refers to events in europe , from the official declaration of war in 1756 to the signing of the peace treaty in 1763 . these dates do not correspond with the fighting on mainland north america , where the fighting between the two colonial powers was largely concluded in six years , from the battle of jumonville glen in 1754 to the capture of montreal in 1760 .
what time framd does the seven years war cover ?
declaration of war in 1756 to the signing of the peace treaty in 1763

Sample: 836

however , this oft-quoted saying of tetzel was by no means representative of contemporary catholic teaching on indulgences , but rather a reflection of his capacity to exaggerate . yet if tetzel overstated the matter in regard to indulgences for the dead , his teaching on indulgences for the living was in line with catholic dogma of the time .
what did this statement of tetzel 's show about him ?
capacity to exaggerate

Sample: 837

the movement which would become the united methodist church began in the mid-18th century within the church of england . a small group of students , including john wesley , charles wesley and george whitefield , met on the oxford university campus . they focused on bible study , methodical study of scripture and living a holy life . other students mocked them , saying they were the " holy club " and " the methodists " , being methodical and exceptionally detailed in their bible study , opinions and disciplined lifestyle . eventually , the so-called methodists started individual societies or classes for members of the church of england who wanted to live a more religious life .
why was the student group called " the methodists ? "
being methodical and exceptionally detailed in their bible study

Sample: 838

for some decades prior to the first palestine intifada in 1987 , the muslim brotherhood in palestine took a " quiescent " stance towards israel , focusing on preaching , education and social services , and benefiting from israel 's " indulgence " to build up a network of mosques and charitable organizations . as the first intifada gathered momentum and palestinian shopkeepers closed their shops in support of the uprising , the brotherhood announced the formation of hamas ( " zeal " ) , devoted to jihad against israel . rather than being more moderate than the plo , the 1988 hamas charter took a more uncompromising stand , calling for the destruction of israel and the establishment of an islamic state in palestine . it was soon competing with and then overtaking the plo for control of the intifada . the brotherhood 's base of devout middle class found common cause with the impoverished youth of the intifada in their cultural conservatism and antipathy for activities of the secular middle class such as drinking alcohol and going about without hijab .
what did the hamas charter uncompromisingly encourage ?
destruction of israel

Sample: 839

fresno has three large public parks , two in the city limits and one in county land to the southwest . woodward park , which features the shinzen japanese gardens , numerous picnic areas and several miles of trails , is in north fresno and is adjacent to the san joaquin river parkway . roeding park , near downtown fresno , is home to the fresno chaffee zoo , and rotary storyland and playland . kearney park is the largest of the fresno region 's park system and is home to historic kearney mansion and plays host to the annual civil war revisited , the largest reenactment of the civil war in the west coast of the u.s .
which park hosts the largest civil war reenactment on the west coast ?
kearney park

Sample: 840

some forms of civil disobedience , such as illegal boycotts , refusals to pay taxes , draft dodging , distributed denial-of-service attacks , and sit-ins , make it more difficult for a system to function . in this way , they might be considered coercive . brownlee notes that " although civil disobedients are constrained in their use of coercion by their conscientious aim to engage in moral dialogue , nevertheless they may find it necessary to employ limited coercion in order to get their issue onto the table . " the plowshares organization temporarily closed gcsb waihopai by padlocking the gates and using sickles to deflate one of the large domes covering two satellite dishes .
brownlee argues that sometimes people behave in what way to have their issue heard ?
limited coercion

Sample: 841

the writers guild of america strike that halted production of network programs for much of the 2007–08 season affected the network in 2007–08 and 2008–09 , as various abc shows that premiered in 2007 , such as dirty sexy money , pushing daisies , eli stone and samantha who ? , did not live to see a third season ; other series such as boston legal and the u.s. version of life on mars suffered from low viewership , despite the former , a spin off of the practice , being a once-highlighted breakout series when it debuted in 2005 . one of the network 's strike-replacement programs during that time was the game show duel , which premiered in december 2007 . the program would become a minor success for the network during its initial six-episode run , which led abc to renew duel as a regular series starting in april 2008 . however , duel suffered from low viewership during its run as a regular series , and abc canceled the program after sixteen episodes . on august 15 , 2008 , disney denied rumors started by caris & co. that it would be selling the ten abc owned-and-operated stations .
who started rumors in 2008 that abc would sell its ten owned-and-operated stations ?
caris & co.

Sample: 842

britain 's imperialist ambitions can be seen as early as the sixteenth century . in 1599 the british east india company was established and was chartered by queen elizabeth in the following year . with the establishment of trading posts in india , the british were able to maintain strength relative to others empires such as the portuguese who already had set up trading posts in india . in 1767 political activity caused exploitation of the east india company causing the plundering of the local economy , almost bringing the company into bankruptcy .
when was the british east india company established ?
1599

Sample: 843

french irregular forces ( canadian scouts and indians ) harassed fort william henry throughout the first half of 1757 . in january they ambushed british rangers near ticonderoga . in february they launched a daring raid against the position across the frozen lake george , destroying storehouses and buildings outside the main fortification . in early august , montcalm and 7,000 troops besieged the fort , which capitulated with an agreement to withdraw under parole . when the withdrawal began , some of montcalm 's indian allies , angered at the lost opportunity for loot , attacked the british column , killing and capturing several hundred men , women , children , and slaves . the aftermath of the siege may have contributed to the transmission of smallpox into remote indian populations ; as some indians were reported to have traveled from beyond the mississippi to participate in the campaign and returned afterward having been exposed to european carriers .
during withdrawal from fort william henry , what did some indian allies of french do ?
attacked the british column , killing and capturing several hundred men , women , children , and slaves .

Sample: 844

ctenophores form an animal phylum that is more complex than sponges , about as complex as cnidarians ( jellyfish , sea anemones , etc . ) , and less complex than bilaterians ( which include almost all other animals ) . unlike sponges , both ctenophores and cnidarians have : cells bound by inter-cell connections and carpet-like basement membranes ; muscles ; nervous systems ; and some have sensory organs . ctenophores are distinguished from all other animals by having colloblasts , which are sticky and adhere to prey , although a few ctenophore species lack them .
ctenophores are less complex than what other group ?
bilaterians

Sample: 845

british victories continued in all theaters in the annus mirabilis of 1759 , when they finally captured ticonderoga , james wolfe defeated montcalm at quebec ( in a battle that claimed the lives of both commanders ) , and victory at fort niagara successfully cut off the french frontier forts further to the west and south . the victory was made complete in 1760 when , despite losing outside quebec city in the battle of sainte-foy , the british were able to prevent the arrival of french relief ships in the naval battle of the restigouche while armies marched on montreal from three sides .
what was the significance of victory at forth niagara for british ?
cut off the french frontier forts further to the west and south

Sample: 846

producers introduced the concept of regeneration to permit the recasting of the main character . this was first prompted by original star william hartnell 's poor health . the actual term " regeneration " was not initially conceived of until the doctor 's third on-screen regeneration however ; hartnell 's doctor had merely described undergoing a " renewal , " and the second doctor underwent a " change of appearance " . [ citation needed ] the device has allowed for the recasting of the actor various times in the show 's history , as well as the depiction of alternative doctors either from the doctor 's relative past or future . [ citation needed ]
when was the term " regeneration " first used ?
the doctor 's third on-screen regeneration

Sample: 847

in 1993 , for the franchise 's 30th anniversary , another charity special , titled dimensions in time was produced for children in need , featuring all of the surviving actors who played the doctor and a number of previous companions . it also featured a crossover with the soap opera eastenders , the action taking place in the latter 's albert square location and around greenwich . the special was one of several special 3d programmes the bbc produced at the time , using a 3d system that made use of the pulfrich effect requiring glasses with one darkened lens ; the picture would look normal to those viewers who watched without the glasses .
what was the name of the 3d system effect in dimension in time ?
the pulfrich effect

Sample: 848

the league announced on october 16 , 2012 , that the two finalists were sun life stadium and levi 's stadium . the south florida/miami area has previously hosted the event 10 times ( tied for most with new orleans ) , with the most recent one being super bowl xliv in 2010 . the san francisco bay area last hosted in 1985 ( super bowl xix ) , held at stanford stadium in stanford , california , won by the home team 49ers . the miami bid depended on whether the stadium underwent renovations . however , on may 3 , 2013 , the florida legislature refused to approve the funding plan to pay for the renovations , dealing a significant blow to miami 's chances .
what was the last super bowl that took place at sun life stadium in miami ?
super bowl xliv

Sample: 849

in addition to those actors who have headlined the series , others have portrayed versions of the doctor in guest roles . notably , in 2013 , john hurt guest-starred as a hitherto unknown incarnation of the doctor known as the war doctor in the run-up to the show 's 50th anniversary special " the day of the doctor " . he is shown in mini-episode " the night of the doctor " to have been retroactively inserted into the show 's fictional chronology between mcgann and eccleston 's doctors , although his introduction was written so as not to disturb the established numerical naming of the doctors . another example is from the 1986 serial the trial of a time lord , where michael jayston portrayed the valeyard , who is described as an amalgamation of the darker sides of the doctor 's nature , somewhere between his twelfth and final incarnation .
what actor played the valeyard ?
michael jayston

Sample: 850

the broncos took an early lead in super bowl 50 and never trailed . newton was limited by denver 's defense , which sacked him seven times and forced him into three turnovers , including a fumble which they recovered for a touchdown . denver linebacker von miller was named super bowl mvp , recording five solo tackles , 2½ sacks , and two forced fumbles .
what denver player caused two fumbles for the panthers ?
von miller

Sample: 851

in addition to identifying rocks in the field , petrologists identify rock samples in the laboratory . two of the primary methods for identifying rocks in the laboratory are through optical microscopy and by using an electron microprobe . in an optical mineralogy analysis , thin sections of rock samples are analyzed through a petrographic microscope , where the minerals can be identified through their different properties in plane-polarized and cross-polarized light , including their birefringence , pleochroism , twinning , and interference properties with a conoscopic lens . in the electron microprobe , individual locations are analyzed for their exact chemical compositions and variation in composition within individual crystals . stable and radioactive isotope studies provide insight into the geochemical evolution of rock units .
what do petrologists use electron microprobes in the laboratory for ?
identifying rocks

Sample: 852

more than 26,000 square kilometres ( 10,000 sq mi ) of victorian farmland are sown for grain , mostly in the state 's west . more than 50 % of this area is sown for wheat , 33 % for barley and 7 % for oats . a further 6,000 square kilometres ( 2,300 sq mi ) is sown for hay . in 2003–04 , victorian farmers produced more than 3 million tonnes of wheat and 2 million tonnes of barley . victorian farms produce nearly 90 % of australian pears and third of apples . it is also a leader in stone fruit production . the main vegetable crops include asparagus , broccoli , carrots , potatoes and tomatoes . last year , 121,200 tonnes of pears and 270,000 tonnes of tomatoes were produced .
how much of victoria 's farmland grows hay ?
6,000 square kilometres

Sample: 853

larger drugs ( > 500 da ) can provoke a neutralizing immune response , particularly if the drugs are administered repeatedly , or in larger doses . this limits the effectiveness of drugs based on larger peptides and proteins ( which are typically larger than 6000 da ) . in some cases , the drug itself is not immunogenic , but may be co-administered with an immunogenic compound , as is sometimes the case for taxol . computational methods have been developed to predict the immunogenicity of peptides and proteins , which are particularly useful in designing therapeutic antibodies , assessing likely virulence of mutations in viral coat particles , and validation of proposed peptide-based drug treatments . early techniques relied mainly on the observation that hydrophilic amino acids are overrepresented in epitope regions than hydrophobic amino acids ; however , more recent developments rely on machine learning techniques using databases of existing known epitopes , usually on well-studied virus proteins , as a training set . a publicly accessible database has been established for the cataloguing of epitopes from pathogens known to be recognizable by b cells . the emerging field of bioinformatics-based studies of immunogenicity is referred to as immunoinformatics . immunoproteomics is the study of large sets of proteins ( proteomics ) involved in the immune response .
at what size and larger can drugs elicit a neutralizing immune response ?
> 500 da

Sample: 854

ht does not engage in armed jihad or work for a democratic system , but works to take power through " ideological struggle " to change muslim public opinion , and in particular through elites who will " facilitate " a " change of the government , " i.e. , launch a " bloodless " coup . it allegedly attempted and failed such coups in 1968 and 1969 in jordan , and in 1974 in egypt , and is now banned in both countries . but many ht members have gone on to join terrorist groups and many jihadi terrorists have cited ht as their key influence .
what have many ht members graduated to joining ?
terrorist groups

Sample: 855

passenger rail service is provided by amtrak san joaquins . the main passenger rail station is the recently renovated historic santa fe railroad depot in downtown fresno . the bakersfield-stockton mainlines of the burlington northern santa fe railway and union pacific railroad railroads cross in fresno , and both railroads maintain railyards within the city ; the san joaquin valley railroad also operates former southern pacific branchlines heading west and south out of the city . the city of fresno is planned to serve the future california high speed rail .
if you were to take a train west or south out of the city of fresno , which railroad would you take ?
san joaquin valley railroad

Sample: 856

the cyclades packet switching network was a french research network designed and directed by louis pouzin . first demonstrated in 1973 , it was developed to explore alternatives to the early arpanet design and to support network research generally . it was the first network to make the hosts responsible for reliable delivery of data , rather than the network itself , using unreliable datagrams and associated end-to-end protocol mechanisms . concepts of this network influenced later arpanet architecture .
what was a first for this network
to make the hosts responsible for reliable delivery of data , rather than the network itself

Sample: 857

hormones can act as immunomodulators , altering the sensitivity of the immune system . for example , female sex hormones are known immunostimulators of both adaptive and innate immune responses . some autoimmune diseases such as lupus erythematosus strike women preferentially , and their onset often coincides with puberty . by contrast , male sex hormones such as testosterone seem to be immunosuppressive . other hormones appear to regulate the immune system as well , most notably prolactin , growth hormone and vitamin d .
what is the effect of testosterone on the male immune system ?
immunosuppressive

Sample: 858

a construction project is a complex net of contracts and other legal obligations , each of which all parties must carefully consider . a contract is the exchange of a set of obligations between two or more parties , but it is not so simple a matter as trying to get the other side to agree to as much as possible in exchange for as little as possible . the time element in construction means that a delay costs money , and in cases of bottlenecks , the delay can be extremely expensive . thus , the contracts must be designed to ensure that each side is capable of performing the obligations set out . contracts that set out clear expectations and clear paths to accomplishing those expectations are far more likely to result in the project flowing smoothly , whereas poorly drafted contracts lead to confusion and collapse .
what is the exchange of a set of obligations between two or more parties ?
a contract

Sample: 859

kenya ranks low on transparency international 's corruption perception index ( cpi ) , a metric which attempts to gauge the prevalence of public sector corruption in various countries . in 2012 , the nation placed 139th out of 176 total countries in the cpi , with a score of 27/100 . however , there are several rather significant developments with regards to curbing corruption from the kenyan government , for instance , the establishment of a new and independent ethics and anti-corruption commission ( eacc ) .
where does kenya rang on the cpi scale ?
low

Sample: 860

the element is found in almost all biomolecules that are important to ( or generated by ) life . only a few common complex biomolecules , such as squalene and the carotenes , contain no oxygen . of the organic compounds with biological relevance , carbohydrates contain the largest proportion by mass of oxygen . all fats , fatty acids , amino acids , and proteins contain oxygen ( due to the presence of carbonyl groups in these acids and their ester residues ) . oxygen also occurs in phosphate ( po3− 4 ) groups in the biologically important energy-carrying molecules atp and adp , in the backbone and the purines ( except adenine ) and pyrimidines of rna and dna , and in bones as calcium phosphate and hydroxylapatite .
besides fats , fatty acids , and amino acids , what other organic compounds contain oxygen ?
proteins

Sample: 861

the newcastle beer festival , organized by camra , takes place in april . in may , newcastle and gateshead host the evolution festival , a music festival held on the newcastle and gateshead quaysides over the spring bank holiday , with performances by acts from the world of rock , indie and dance music . the biennial av festival of international electronic art , featuring exhibitions , concerts , conferences and film screenings , is held in march . the north east art expo , a festival of art and design from the regions professional artists , is held in late may . eat ! newcastlegateshead , a festival of food and drink , runs for 2 weeks each year in mid june .
what festival takes place in april in newcastle ?
the newcastle beer festival

Sample: 862

one theory is that , while disobedience may be helpful , any great amount of it would undermine the law by encouraging general disobedience which is neither conscientious nor of social benefit . therefore , conscientious lawbreakers must be punished . michael bayles argues that if a person violates a law in order to create a test case as to the constitutionality of a law , and then wins his case , then that act did not constitute civil disobedience . it has also been argued that breaking the law for self-gratification , as in the case of a homosexual or cannabis user who does not direct his act at securing the repeal of amendment of the law , is not civil disobedience . likewise , a protestor who attempts to escape punishment by committing the crime covertly and avoiding attribution , or by denying having committed the crime , or by fleeing the jurisdiction , is generally viewed as not being a civil disobedient .
what needs to be avoided with civil disobedience ?
general disobedience

Sample: 863

the strong force only acts directly upon elementary particles . however , a residual of the force is observed between hadrons ( the best known example being the force that acts between nucleons in atomic nuclei ) as the nuclear force . here the strong force acts indirectly , transmitted as gluons , which form part of the virtual pi and rho mesons , which classically transmit the nuclear force ( see this topic for more ) . the failure of many searches for free quarks has shown that the elementary particles affected are not directly observable . this phenomenon is called color confinement .
what is the term for the lack of obsevable free quarks ?
color confinement

Sample: 864

on carolina 's next possession fullback mike tolbert lost a fumble while being tackled by safety darian stewart , which linebacker danny trevathan recovered on the broncos 40-yard line . however , the panthers soon took the ball back when defensive end kony ealy tipped a manning pass to himself and then intercepted it , returning the ball 19 yards to the panthers 39-yard line with 1:55 left on the clock . the panthers could not gain any yards with their possession and had to punt . after a denver punt , carolina drove to the broncos 45-yard line . but with 11 seconds left , newton was sacked by demarcus ware as time expired in the half .
who tackled the carolina panthers ' quarterback just before the end of the first half ?
demarcus ware

Sample: 865

to fix carbon dioxide into sugar molecules in the process of photosynthesis , chloroplasts use an enzyme called rubisco . rubisco has a problem—it has trouble distinguishing between carbon dioxide and oxygen , so at high oxygen concentrations , rubisco starts accidentally adding oxygen to sugar precursors . this has the end result of atp energy being wasted and co2 being released , all with no sugar being produced . this is a big problem , since o2 is produced by the initial light reactions of photosynthesis , causing issues down the line in the calvin cycle which uses rubisco .
what effect does rubisco 's flaw have ?
at high oxygen concentrations , rubisco starts accidentally adding oxygen to sugar precursors

Sample: 866

in the immediate post-war years there was little money available for other than essential repairs . the 1950s and early 1960s saw little in the way of building work ; the first major work was the creation of new storage space for books in the art library in 1966 and 1967 . this involved flooring over aston webb 's main hall to form the book stacks , with a new medieval gallery on the ground floor ( now the shop , opened in 2006 ) . then the lower ground-floor galleries in the south-west part of the museum were redesigned , opening in 1978 to form the new galleries covering continental art 1600–1800 ( late renaissance , baroque through rococo and neo-classical ) . in 1974 the museum had acquired what is now the henry cole wing from the royal college of science . in order to adapt the building as galleries , all the victorian interiors except for the staircase were recast during the remodelling . to link this to the rest of the museum , a new entrance building was constructed on the site of the former boiler house , the intended site of the spiral , between 1978 and 1982 . this building is of concrete and very functional , the only embellishment being the iron gates by christopher hay and douglas coyne of the royal college of art . these are set in the columned screen wall designed by aston webb that forms the façade .
who designed the iron gates that decorate the new entrance building ?
christopher hay and douglas coyne

Sample: 867

another green space in newcastle is the town moor , lying immediately north of the city centre . it is larger than london 's famous hyde park and hampstead heath put together and the freemen of the city have the right to graze cattle on it . the right incidentally extends to the pitch of st. james ' park , newcastle united football club 's ground , though this is not exercised , although the freemen do collect rent for the loss of privilege . honorary freemen include bob geldof , king harald v of norway , bobby robson , alan shearer , the late nelson mandela and the royal shakespeare company . the hoppings funfair , said to be the largest travelling funfair in europe , is held here annually in june .
what is said to be the largest travelling funfair in europe ?
the hoppings funfair

Sample: 868

reciprocating piston type steam engines remained the dominant source of power until the early 20th century , when advances in the design of electric motors and internal combustion engines gradually resulted in the replacement of reciprocating ( piston ) steam engines in commercial usage , and the ascendancy of steam turbines in power generation . considering that the great majority of worldwide electric generation is produced by turbine type steam engines , the " steam age " is continuing with energy levels far beyond those of the turn of the 19th century .
what type of steam engines produced most power up to the early 20th century ?
reciprocating piston

Sample: 869

engineering news-record ( enr ) is a trade magazine for the construction industry . each year , enr compiles and reports on data about the size of design and construction companies . they publish a list of the largest companies in the united states ( top-40 ) and also a list the largest global firms ( top-250 , by amount of work they are doing outside their home country ) . in 2014 , enr compiled the data in nine market segments . it was divided as transportation , petroleum , buildings , power , industrial , water , manufacturing , sewer/waste , telecom , hazardous waste plus a tenth category for other projects . in their reporting on the top 400 , they used data on transportation , sewer , hazardous waste and water to rank firms as heavy contractors .
in what year did enr compile data in nine market segments ?
2014

Sample: 870

construction projects can suffer from preventable financial problems . underbids happen when builders ask for too little money to complete the project . cash flow problems exist when the present amount of funding can not cover the current costs for labour and materials , and because they are a matter of having sufficient funds at a specific time , can arise even when the overall total is enough . fraud is a problem in many fields , but is notoriously prevalent in the construction field . financial planning for the project is intended to ensure that a solid plan with adequate safeguards and contingency plans are in place before the project is started and is required to ensure that the plan is properly executed over the life of the project .
when do cash flow problems exist ?
when the present amount of funding can not cover the current costs for labour and materials

Sample: 871

the game 's media day , which was typically held on the tuesday afternoon prior to the game , was moved to the monday evening and re-branded as super bowl opening night . the event was held on february 1 , 2016 at sap center in san jose . alongside the traditional media availabilities , the event featured an opening ceremony with player introductions on a replica of the golden gate bridge .
when is the game 's media day usually held ?
the tuesday afternoon prior to the game

Sample: 872

on april 12 , 1961 , soviet cosmonaut yuri gagarin became the first person to fly in space , reinforcing american fears about being left behind in a technological competition with the soviet union . at a meeting of the us house committee on science and astronautics one day after gagarin 's flight , many congressmen pledged their support for a crash program aimed at ensuring that america would catch up . kennedy was circumspect in his response to the news , refusing to make a commitment on america 's response to the soviets .
how many days after gagarin 's flight did the us house committee on science and astronautics meet ?
one day

Sample: 873

maududi also believed that muslim society could not be islamic without sharia , and islam required the establishment of an islamic state . this state should be a " theo-democracy , " based on the principles of : tawhid ( unity of god ) , risala ( prophethood ) and khilafa ( caliphate ) . although maududi talked about islamic revolution , by " revolution " he meant not the violence or populist policies of the iranian revolution , but the gradual changing the hearts and minds of individuals from the top of society downward through an educational process or da'wah .
by what method did maududi want to change the hearts and minds of individuals ?
an educational process

Sample: 874

wiesner kept up the pressure , even making the disagreement public during a two-day september visit by the president to marshall space flight center . wiesner blurted out " no , that 's no good " in front of the press , during a presentation by von braun . webb jumped in and defended von braun , until kennedy ended the squabble by stating that the matter was " still subject to final review " . webb held firm , and issued a request for proposal to candidate lunar excursion module ( lem ) contractors . wiesner finally relented , unwilling to settle the dispute once and for all in kennedy 's office , because of the president 's involvement with the october cuban missile crisis , and fear of kennedy 's support for webb . nasa announced the selection of grumman as the lem contractor in november 1962 .
who was announced as the lem contractor in november 1962 ?
grumman

Sample: 875

the idea was to create a network of wholly and partially owned channels , and affiliates to rebroadcast the network 's programs . in 1959 , this rerun activity was completed with program syndication , with abc films selling programs to networks not owned by abc . the arrival of satellite television ended the need for abc to hold interests in other countries ; many governments also wanted to increase their independence and strengthen legislation to limit foreign ownership of broadcasting properties . as a result , abc was forced to sell all of its interests in international networks , mainly in japan and latin america , in the 1970s .
what ended the need for abc to maintain interests in other countries ?
satellite television

Sample: 876

in 2009 , nasa held a symposium on project costs which presented an estimate of the apollo program costs in 2005 dollars as roughly $ 170 billion . this included all research and development costs ; the procurement of 15 saturn v rockets , 16 command/service modules , 12 lunar modules , plus program support and management costs ; construction expenses for facilities and their upgrading , and costs for flight operations . this was based on a congressional budget office report , a budgetary analysis of nasa 's new vision for space , september 2004 . the space review estimated in 2010 the cost of apollo from 1959 to 1973 as $ 20.4 billion , or $ 109 billion in 2010 dollars .
how much was nasa 's procured spending on the apollo project estimated to be at in 2005 after inflation ?
$ 170 billion

Sample: 877

the development of fundamental theories for forces proceeded along the lines of unification of disparate ideas . for example , isaac newton unified the force responsible for objects falling at the surface of the earth with the force responsible for the orbits of celestial mechanics in his universal theory of gravitation . michael faraday and james clerk maxwell demonstrated that electric and magnetic forces were unified through one consistent theory of electromagnetism . in the 20th century , the development of quantum mechanics led to a modern understanding that the first three fundamental forces ( all except gravity ) are manifestations of matter ( fermions ) interacting by exchanging virtual particles called gauge bosons . this standard model of particle physics posits a similarity between the forces and led scientists to predict the unification of the weak and electromagnetic forces in electroweak theory subsequently confirmed by observation . the complete formulation of the standard model predicts an as yet unobserved higgs mechanism , but observations such as neutrino oscillations indicate that the standard model is incomplete . a grand unified theory allowing for the combination of the electroweak interaction with the strong force is held out as a possibility with candidate theories such as supersymmetry proposed to accommodate some of the outstanding unsolved problems in physics . physicists are still attempting to develop self-consistent unification models that would combine all four fundamental interactions into a theory of everything . einstein tried and failed at this endeavor , but currently the most popular approach to answering this question is string theory . :212–219
in what century was quantum mechanics made ?
20th

Sample: 878

among the few bright spots during this season were the midseason crime dramedy castle as well as the success of two family sitcoms that anchored the network 's revamped wednesday comedy lineup , the middle and modern family , the latter of which was both a critical and commercial success . shark tank ( based on the dragon 's den reality format ) also became a midseason sleeper hit on sundays in the spring of 2010 ; the following season , it became the tentpole of the network 's friday night schedule , gradually helping make abc a strong competitor ( after being paired with 20/20 and beginning with the 2012–13 season , the tim allen sitcom last man standing ) against cbs ' long-dominant drama/reality lineup on that night for the first time since the " tgif " lineup ended in 2000 .
in 2012-13 , abc debuted a comedy last man standing starring who ?
tim allen

Sample: 879

for the first time , the super bowl 50 host committee and the nfl have openly sought disabled veteran and lesbian , gay , bisexual and transgender-owned businesses in business connect , the super bowl program that provides local companies with contracting opportunities in and around the super bowl . the host committee has already raised over $ 40 million through sponsors including apple , google , yahoo ! , intel , gap , chevron , and dignity health .
what health company was a super bowl sponsor ?
dignity health

Sample: 880

in 1898 , tesla demonstrated a radio-controlled boat—which he dubbed " teleautomaton " —to the public during an electrical exhibition at madison square garden . the crowd that witnessed the demonstration made outrageous claims about the workings of the boat , such as magic , telepathy , and being piloted by a trained monkey hidden inside . tesla tried to sell his idea to the u.s. military as a type of radio-controlled torpedo , but they showed little interest . remote radio control remained a novelty until world war i and afterward , when a number of countries used it in military programs . tesla took the opportunity to further demonstrate " teleautomatics " in an address to a meeting of the commercial club in chicago , while he was travelling to colorado springs , on 13 may 1899 .
what was the occasion for the boat demonstration ?
an electrical exhibition

Sample: 881

sociologist jake rosenfield of the university of washington asserts that the decline of organized labor in the united states has played a more significant role in expanding the income gap than technological changes and globalization , which were also experienced by other industrialized nations that did n't experience steep surges in inequality . he points out that nations with high rates of unionization , particularly in scandinavia , have very low levels of inequality , and concludes " the historical pattern is clear ; the cross-national pattern is clear : high inequality goes hand-in-hand with weak labor movements and vice-versa . "
what is the profession of jake rosenfield ?
sociologist

Sample: 882

in the mid-1960s , corruption scandals began to arise among many of the city 's officials , who were mainly elected through the traditional old boy network . after a grand jury was convened to investigate , 11 officials were indicted and more were forced to resign . jacksonville consolidation , led by j. j. daniel and claude yates , began to win more support during this period , from both inner city blacks , who wanted more involvement in government , and whites in the suburbs , who wanted more services and more control over the central city . in 1964 all 15 of duval county 's public high schools lost their accreditation . this added momentum to proposals for government reform . lower taxes , increased economic development , unification of the community , better public spending and effective administration by a more central authority were all cited as reasons for a new consolidated government .
what spurred increased support for government reform ?
public high schools lost their accreditation

Sample: 883

the panthers seemed primed to score on their opening drive of the second half when newton completed a 45-yard pass to ted ginn jr. on the denver 35-yard line on their second offensive play . but the broncos defense halted the drive on the 26-yard line , and it ended with no points when graham gano hit the uprights on a 44-yard field goal attempt . after the miss , manning completed a pair of passes to emmanuel sanders for gains of 25 and 22 yards , setting up mcmanus ' 33-yard field goal that gave the broncos a 16–7 lead . carolina got off to another strong start after the kickoff , with newton completing a 42-yard pass to corey brown . but once again they came up empty , this time as a result of a newton pass that bounced off the hands of ginn and was intercepted by safety t. j . ward . ward fumbled the ball during the return , but trevathan recovered it to enable denver to keep possession .
who missed a field goal for the panthers ?
graham gano

Sample: 884

throughout the 1980s and 1990s , demand for a scottish parliament grew , in part because the government of the united kingdom was controlled by the conservative party , while scotland itself elected relatively few conservative mps . in the aftermath of the 1979 referendum defeat , the campaign for a scottish assembly was initiated as a pressure group , leading to the 1989 scottish constitutional convention with various organisations such as scottish churches , political parties and representatives of industry taking part . publishing its blueprint for devolution in 1995 , the convention provided much of the basis for the structure of the parliament .
what provided much of the basis for the structure of the parliament in 1995 ?
blueprint

Sample: 885

at present , the branches waal and nederrijn-lek discharge to the north sea , through the former meuse estuary , near rotterdam . the river ijssel branch flows to the north and enters the ijsselmeer , formerly the zuider zee brackish lagoon ; however , since 1932 , a freshwater lake . the discharge of the rhine is divided among three branches : the river waal ( 6/9 of total discharge ) , the river nederrijn – lek ( 2/9 of total discharge ) and the river ijssel ( 1/9 of total discharge ) . this discharge distribution has been maintained since 1709 , by river engineering works , including the digging of the pannerdens canal and since the 20th century , with the help of weirs in the nederrijn river .
where do the branches waal and nederrijn-lek discharge to ?
north sea

Sample: 886

natural killer cells , or nk cells , are a component of the innate immune system which does not directly attack invading microbes . rather , nk cells destroy compromised host cells , such as tumor cells or virus-infected cells , recognizing such cells by a condition known as " missing self . " this term describes cells with low levels of a cell-surface marker called mhc i ( major histocompatibility complex ) – a situation that can arise in viral infections of host cells . they were named " natural killer " because of the initial notion that they do not require activation in order to kill cells that are " missing self . " for many years it was unclear how nk cells recognize tumor cells and infected cells . it is now known that the mhc makeup on the surface of those cells is altered and the nk cells become activated through recognition of " missing self " . normal body cells are not recognized and attacked by nk cells because they express intact self mhc antigens . those mhc antigens are recognized by killer cell immunoglobulin receptors ( kir ) which essentially put the brakes on nk cells .
natural killer cells recognize cells that should be targeted by a condition known as what ?
missing self

Sample: 887

six-time grammy winner and academy award nominee lady gaga performed the national anthem , while academy award winner marlee matlin provided american sign language ( asl ) translation .
who did the sign language of the national anthem at super bowl 50 ?
marlee matlin

Sample: 888

the serials the deadly assassin and mawdryn undead and the 1996 tv film would later establish that a time lord can only regenerate 12 times , for a total of 13 incarnations . this line became stuck in the public consciousness despite not often being repeated , and was recognised by producers of the show as a plot obstacle for when the show finally had to regenerate the doctor a thirteenth time . the episode " the time of the doctor " depicted the doctor acquiring a new cycle of regenerations , starting from the twelfth doctor , due to the eleventh doctor being the product of the doctor 's twelfth regeneration from his original set .
in what episode did doctor who get a new cycle of regenerations ?
the time of the doctor

Sample: 889

the judicial branch of the eu has played an important role in the development of eu law , by assuming the task of interpreting the treaties , and accelerating economic and political integration . today the court of justice of the european union ( cjeu ) is the main judicial body , within which there is a higher european court of justice ( commonly abbreviated as ecj ) that deals with cases that contain more public importance , and a general court that deals with issues of detail but without general importance . there is also a civil service tribunal to deal with eu staff issues , and then a separate court of auditors . under the treaty on european union article 19 ( 2 ) there is one judge from each member state , 28 at present , who are supposed to " possess the qualifications required for appointment to the highest judicial offices " ( or for the general court , the " ability required for appointment to high judicial office " ) . a president is elected by the judges for three years . under teu article 19 ( 3 ) is to be the ultimate court to interpret questions of eu law . in fact , most eu law is applied by member state courts ( the english court of appeal , the german bundesgerichtshof , the belgian cour du travail , etc . ) but they can refer questions to the eu court for a preliminary ruling . the cjeu 's duty is to " ensure that in the interpretation and application of the treaties the law is observed " , although realistically it has the ability to expand and develop the law according to the principles it deems to be appropriate . arguably this has been done through both seminal and controversial judgments , including van gend en loos , mangold v helm , and kadi v commission .
what is the cjeu 's duty ?
ensure that in the interpretation and application of the treaties the law is observed

Sample: 890

governor vaudreuil , who harboured ambitions to become the french commander in chief ( in addition to his role as governor ) , acted during the winter of 1756 before those reinforcements arrived . scouts had reported the weakness of the british supply chain , so he ordered an attack against the forts shirley had erected at the oneida carry . in the march battle of fort bull , french forces destroyed the fort and large quantities of supplies , including 45,000 pounds of gunpowder . they set back any british hopes for campaigns on lake ontario , and endangered the oswego garrison , already short on supplies . french forces in the ohio valley also continued to intrigue with indians throughout the area , encouraging them to raid frontier settlements . this led to ongoing alarms along the western frontiers , with streams of refugees returning east to get away from the action .
what was the attack on the british weakness ?
battle of fort bull

Sample: 891

in southern europe , the stage was set in the triassic period of the mesozoic era , with the opening of the tethys ocean , between the eurasian and african tectonic plates , between about 240 mbp and 220 mbp ( million years before present ) . the present mediterranean sea descends from this somewhat larger tethys sea . at about 180 mbp , in the jurassic period , the two plates reversed direction and began to compress the tethys floor , causing it to be subducted under eurasia and pushing up the edge of the latter plate in the alpine orogeny of the oligocene and miocene periods . several microplates were caught in the squeeze and rotated or were pushed laterally , generating the individual features of mediterranean geography : iberia pushed up the pyrenees ; italy , the alps , and anatolia , moving west , the mountains of greece and the islands . the compression and orogeny continue today , as shown by the ongoing raising of the mountains a small amount each year and the active volcanoes .
microplates squeezing and rotating created the features of what ?
mediterranean geography

Sample: 892

the earliest recorded incidents of collective civil disobedience took place during the roman empire [ citation needed ] . unarmed jews gathered in the streets to prevent the installation of pagan images in the temple in jerusalem . [ citation needed ] [ original research ? ] in modern times , some activists who commit civil disobedience as a group collectively refuse to sign bail until certain demands are met , such as favorable bail conditions , or the release of all the activists . this is a form of jail solidarity . [ page needed ] there have also been many instances of solitary civil disobedience , such as that committed by thoreau , but these sometimes go unnoticed . thoreau , at the time of his arrest , was not yet a well-known author , and his arrest was not covered in any newspapers in the days , weeks and months after it happened . the tax collector who arrested him rose to higher political office , and thoreau 's essay was not published until after the end of the mexican war .
what position did the tax collector that arrested thoreau get ?
rose to higher political office

Sample: 893

the show has received recognition as one of britain 's finest television programmes , winning the 2006 british academy television award for best drama series and five consecutive ( 2005–2010 ) awards at the national television awards during russell t davies ' tenure as executive producer . in 2011 , matt smith became the first doctor to be nominated for a bafta television award for best actor and in 2016 , michelle gomez became the first female to receive a bafta nomination for the series , getting a best supporting actress nomination for her work as missy .
what doctor who actress was nominated for an award in 2016 ?
michelle gomez

Sample: 894

teachers face several occupational hazards in their line of work , including occupational stress , which can negatively impact teachers ' mental and physical health , productivity , and students ' performance . stress can be caused by organizational change , relationships with students , fellow teachers , and administrative personnel , working environment , expectations to substitute , long hours with a heavy workload , and inspections . teachers are also at high risk for occupational burnout .
what can hurt a teacher 's mental and physical health ?
occupational stress

Sample: 895

the free movement of workers regulation articles 1 to 7 set out the main provisions on equal treatment of workers . first , articles 1 to 4 generally require that workers can take up employment , conclude contracts , and not suffer discrimination compared to nationals of the member state . in a famous case , the belgian football association v bosman , a belgian footballer named jean-marc bosman claimed that he should be able to transfer from r.f.c . de liège to usl dunkerque when his contract finished , regardless of whether dunkerque could afford to pay liège the habitual transfer fees . the court of justice held " the transfer rules constitute [ d ] an obstacle to free movement " and were unlawful unless they could be justified in the public interest , but this was unlikely . in groener v minister for education the court of justice accepted that a requirement to speak gaelic to teach in a dublin design college could be justified as part of the public policy of promoting the irish language , but only if the measure was not disproportionate . by contrast in angonese v cassa di risparmio di bolzano spa a bank in bolzano , italy , was not allowed to require mr angonese to have a bilingual certificate that could only be obtained in bolzano . the court of justice , giving " horizontal " direct effect to tfeu article 45 , reasoned that people from other countries would have little chance of acquiring the certificate , and because it was " impossible to submit proof of the required linguistic knowledge by any other means " , the measure was disproportionate . second , article 7 ( 2 ) requires equal treatment in respect of tax . in finanzamt köln altstadt v schumacker the court of justice held that it contravened tfeu art 45 to deny tax benefits ( e.g . for married couples , and social insurance expense deductions ) to a man who worked in germany , but was resident in belgium when other german residents got the benefits . by contrast in weigel v finanzlandesdirektion für vorarlberg the court of justice rejected mr weigel 's claim that a re-registration charge upon bringing his car to austria violated his right to free movement . although the tax was " likely to have a negative bearing on the decision of migrant workers to exercise their right to freedom of movement " , because the charge applied equally to austrians , in absence of eu legislation on the matter it had to be regarded as justified . third , people must receive equal treatment regarding " social advantages " , although the court has approved residential qualifying periods . in hendrix v employee insurance institute the court of justice held that a dutch national was not entitled to continue receiving incapacity benefits when he moved to belgium , because the benefit was " closely linked to the socio-economic situation " of the netherlands . conversely , in geven v land nordrhein-westfalen the court of justice held that a dutch woman living in the netherlands , but working between 3 and 14 hours a week in germany , did not have a right to receive german child benefits , even though the wife of a man who worked full-time in germany but was resident in austria could . the general justifications for limiting free movement in tfeu article 45 ( 3 ) are " public policy , public security or public health " , and there is also a general exception in article 45 ( 4 ) for " employment in the public service " .
in which case was a dutch national not entitled to continue receiving benefits when he moved to belgium ?
hendrix v employee

Sample: 896

in many countries , there is a gender pay gap in favor of males in the labor market . several factors other than discrimination may contribute to this gap . on average , women are more likely than men to consider factors other than pay when looking for work , and may be less willing to travel or relocate . thomas sowell , in his book knowledge and decisions , claims that this difference is due to women not taking jobs due to marriage or pregnancy , but income studies show that that does not explain the entire difference . a u.s. census 's report stated that in us once other factors are accounted for there is still a difference in earnings between women and men . the income gap in other countries ranges from 53 % in botswana to -40 % in bahrain .
what is the gender income inequality in bahrain ?
-40 %

Sample: 897

it is a logical extension of the compound engine ( described above ) to split the expansion into yet more stages to increase efficiency . the result is the multiple expansion engine . such engines use either three or four expansion stages and are known as triple and quadruple expansion engines respectively . these engines use a series of cylinders of progressively increasing diameter . these cylinders are designed to divide the work into equal shares for each expansion stage . as with the double expansion engine , if space is at a premium , then two smaller cylinders may be used for the low-pressure stage . multiple expansion engines typically had the cylinders arranged inline , but various other formations were used . in the late 19th century , the yarrow-schlick-tweedy balancing 'system ' was used on some marine triple expansion engines . y-s-t engines divided the low-pressure expansion stages between two cylinders , one at each end of the engine . this allowed the crankshaft to be better balanced , resulting in a smoother , faster-responding engine which ran with less vibration . this made the 4-cylinder triple-expansion engine popular with large passenger liners ( such as the olympic class ) , but this was ultimately replaced by the virtually vibration-free turbine engine . [ citation needed ]
what class of ships is an example of large passenger liners ?
olympic

Sample: 898

one of the most famous people born in warsaw was maria skłodowska-curie , who achieved international recognition for her research on radioactivity and was the first female recipient of the nobel prize . famous musicians include władysław szpilman and frédéric chopin . though chopin was born in the village of żelazowa wola , about 60 km ( 37 mi ) from warsaw , he moved to the city with his family when he was seven months old . casimir pulaski , a polish general and hero of the american revolutionary war , was born here in 1745 .
how old was chopin when he moved to warsaw with his family ?
seven months old

Sample: 899

north american aviation won the contract to build the csm , and also the second stage of the saturn v launch vehicle for nasa . because the csm design was started early before the selection of lunar orbit rendezvous , the service propulsion engine was sized to lift the csm off of the moon , and thus was oversized to about twice the thrust required for translunar flight . also , there was no provision for docking with the lunar module . a 1964 program definition study concluded that the initial design should be continued as block i which would be used for early testing , while block ii , the actual lunar spacecraft , would incorporate the docking equipment and take advantage of the lessons learned in block i development .
what was the name of the launch vehicle for nasa , which north american aviation designed the second stage of ?
saturn v

Sample: 900

however , this definition is disputed by thoreau 's political philosophy pitching the conscience vs. the collective . the individual is the final judge of right and wrong . more than this , since only individuals act , only individuals can act unjustly . when the government knocks on the door , it is an individual in the form of a postman or tax collector whose hand hits the wood . before thoreau ’ s imprisonment , when a confused taxman had wondered aloud about how to handle his refusal to pay , thoreau had advised , “ resign. ” if a man chose to be an agent of injustice , then thoreau insisted on confronting him with the fact that he was making a choice . but if government is “ the voice of the people , ” as it is often called , shouldn ’ t that voice be heeded ? thoreau admits that government may express the will of the majority but it may also express nothing more than the will of elite politicians . even a good form of government is “ liable to be abused and perverted before the people can act through it. ” moreover , even if a government did express the voice of the people , this fact would not compel the obedience of individuals who disagree with what is being said . the majority may be powerful but it is not necessarily right . what , then , is the proper relationship between the individual and the government ?
who was famous for disobedience against a tax collector ?
thoreau

Sample: 901

as northwest europe slowly began to warm up from 22,000 years ago onward , frozen subsoil and expanded alpine glaciers began to thaw and fall-winter snow covers melted in spring . much of the discharge was routed to the rhine and its downstream extension . rapid warming and changes of vegetation , to open forest , began about 13,000 bp . by 9000 bp , europe was fully forested . with globally shrinking ice-cover , ocean water levels rose and the english channel and north sea re-inundated . meltwater , adding to the ocean and land subsidence , drowned the former coasts of europe transgressionally .
when did europe slowly begin to warm up from the last ice age ?
22,000 years ago

Sample: 902

tesla theorized that the application of electricity to the brain enhanced intelligence . in 1912 , he crafted " a plan to make dull students bright by saturating them unconsciously with electricity , " wiring the walls of a schoolroom and , " saturating [ the schoolroom ] with infinitesimal electric waves vibrating at high frequency . the whole room will thus , mr. tesla claims , be converted into a health-giving and stimulating electromagnetic field or 'bath . ' " the plan was , at least provisionally approved by then superintendent of new york city schools , william h. maxwell .
who approved of this plan ?
william h. maxwell

Sample: 903

warsaw is located on two main geomorphologic formations : the plain moraine plateau and the vistula valley with its asymmetrical pattern of different terraces . the vistula river is the specific axis of warsaw , which divides the city into two parts , left and right . the left one is situated both on the moraine plateau ( 10 to 25 m ( 32.8 to 82.0 ft ) above vistula level ) and on the vistula terraces ( max . 6.5 m ( 21.3 ft ) above vistula level ) . the significant element of the relief , in this part of warsaw , is the edge of moraine plateau called warsaw escarpment . it is 20 to 25 m ( 65.6 to 82.0 ft ) high in the old town and central district and about 10 m ( 32.8 ft ) in the north and south of warsaw . it goes through the city and plays an important role as a landmark .
which plateau is the left part of warsaw on ?
moraine

Sample: 904

in 2004 , abc 's average viewership declined by ten ratings points , landing the network in fourth place , behind nbc , cbs and fox ( by the following year , the combined season-ending average audience share of abc , nbc and cbs represented only 32 % of u.s. households ) . however , during the 2004–05 season , the network experienced unexpected success with new series such as desperate housewives , lost and grey 's anatomy as well as reality series dancing with the stars , which helped abc rise to second place , jumping ahead of cbs , but behind a surging fox . on april 21 , 2004 , disney announced a restructuring of its disney media networks division with anne sweeney being named president of abc parent disney–abc television group , and espn president george bodenheimer becoming co-ceo of the division with sweeney , as well as president of abc sports . on december 7 , 2005 , abc sports and espn signed an eight-year broadcast rights agreement with nascar , allowing abc and espn to broadcast 17 nextel cup races each season ( comprising just over half of the 36 races held annually ) effective with the 2006 season .
in what year did abc 's viewership end in 4th place behind the other major networks ?
2004

Sample: 905

established originally by the massachusetts legislature and soon thereafter named for john harvard ( its first benefactor ) , harvard is the united states ' oldest institution of higher learning , and the harvard corporation ( formally , the president and fellows of harvard college ) is its first chartered corporation . although never formally affiliated with any denomination , the early college primarily trained congregationalist and unitarian clergy . its curriculum and student body were gradually secularized during the 18th century , and by the 19th century harvard had emerged as the central cultural establishment among boston elites . following the american civil war , president charles w. eliot 's long tenure ( 1869–1909 ) transformed the college and affiliated professional schools into a modern research university ; harvard was a founding member of the association of american universities in 1900 . james bryant conant led the university through the great depression and world war ii and began to reform the curriculum and liberalize admissions after the war . the undergraduate college became coeducational after its 1977 merger with radcliffe college .
what president of the university transformed it into a modern research university ?
charles w. eliot

Sample: 906

datanet 1 was the public switched data network operated by the dutch ptt telecom ( now known as kpn ) . strictly speaking datanet 1 only referred to the network and the connected users via leased lines ( using the x.121 dnic 2041 ) , the name also referred to the public pad service telepad ( using the dnic 2049 ) . and because the main videotex service used the network and modified pad devices as infrastructure the name datanet 1 was used for these services as well . although this use of the name was incorrect all these services were managed by the same people within one department of kpn contributed to the confusion .
was the use of the datanet 1 name correct
use of the name was incorrect all these services were managed by the same people within one department of kpn contributed to the confusion

Sample: 907

musicians eric burdon , sting , mark knopfler , alan hull , cheryl cole and neil tennant lived in newcastle . hank marvin and bruce welch were both former pupils of rutherford grammar school , actors charlie hunnam and james scott , entertainers ant and dec and international footballers michael carrick and alan shearer were born in newcastle . multiple circumnavigator david scott cowper , nobel prize winning physicist peter higgs , and former wwe nxt champion neville were born in the city . john dunn , inventor of keyed northumbrian smallpipes , the most characteristic musical instrument in the region , lived and worked in the city .
what did john dunn invent ?
keyed northumbrian smallpipes

Sample: 908

the shape of the rhine delta is determined by two bifurcations : first , at millingen aan de rijn , the rhine splits into waal and pannerdens kanaal , which changes its name to nederrijn at angeren , and second near arnhem , the ijssel branches off from the nederrijn . this creates three main flows , two of which change names rather often . the largest and southern main branch begins as waal and continues as boven merwede ( " upper merwede " ) , beneden merwede ( " lower merwede " ) , noord river ( " north river " ) , nieuwe maas ( " new meuse " ) , het scheur ( " the rip " ) and nieuwe waterweg ( " new waterway " ) . the middle flow begins as nederrijn , then changes into lek , then joins the noord , thereby forming nieuwe maas . the northern flow keeps the name ijssel until it flows into lake ijsselmeer . three more flows carry significant amounts of water : the nieuwe merwede ( " new merwede " ) , which branches off from the southern branch where it changes from boven to beneden merwede ; the oude maas ( " old meuse " ) , which branches off from the southern branch where it changes from beneden merwede into noord , and dordtse kil , which branches off from oude maas .
what is the english translation of het scheur ?
the rip

Sample: 909

reserved matters are subjects that are outside the legislative competence of the scotland parliament . the scottish parliament is unable to legislate on such issues that are reserved to , and dealt with at , westminster ( and where ministerial functions usually lie with uk government ministers ) . these include abortion , broadcasting policy , civil service , common markets for uk goods and services , constitution , electricity , coal , oil , gas , nuclear energy , defence and national security , drug policy , employment , foreign policy and relations with europe , most aspects of transport safety and regulation , national lottery , protection of borders , social security and stability of uk 's fiscal , economic and monetary system .
most aspects of transport safety is a subject dealt with by whom ?
uk government ministers

Sample: 910

however , his religious views remain uncertain due to other statements that he made . for example , in his article , " a machine to end war " , published in 1937 , tesla stated :
in the article 's title , what did the machine hope to end ?
war

Sample: 911

in the north eastern part of fresno , woodward park was founded by the late ralph woodward , a long-time fresno resident . he bequeathed a major portion of his estate in 1968 to provide a regional park and bird sanctuary in northeast fresno . the park lies on the south bank of the san joaquin river between highway 41 and friant road . the initial 235 acres ( 0.95 km2 ) , combined with additional acres acquired later by the city , brings the park to a sizable 300 acres ( 1.2 km2 ) . now packed with amenities , woodward park is the only regional park of its size in the central valley . the southeast corner of the park harbors numerous bird species offering bird enthusiasts an excellent opportunity for viewing . the park has a multi-use amphitheatre that seats up to 2,500 people , authentic japanese garden , fenced dog park , two-mile ( 3 km ) equestrian trail , exercise par course , three children 's playgrounds , a lake , 3 small ponds , 7 picnic areas and five miles ( 8 km ) of multipurpose trails that are part of the san joaquin river parkway 's lewis s. eaton trail . when complete , the lewis s. eaton trail system will cover 22 miles ( 35 km ) between highway 99 and friant dam . the park 's numerous picnic tables make for a great picnic destination and a convenient escape from city life . the park 's amphetheatre was renovated in 2010 , and has hosted performances by acts such as deftones , tech n9ne , and sevendust as well as numerous others . the park is open april through october , 6am to 10pm and november through march , 6am to 7pm . woodward park is home to the annual cif ( california interscholastic federation ) state championship cross country meet , which takes place in late november . it is also the home of the woodward shakespeare festival which began performances in the park in 2005 .
what months out of the year is woodward park open ?
april through october

Sample: 912

the chloroplasts of some hornworts and algae contain structures called pyrenoids . they are not found in higher plants . pyrenoids are roughly spherical and highly refractive bodies which are a site of starch accumulation in plants that contain them . they consist of a matrix opaque to electrons , surrounded by two hemispherical starch plates . the starch is accumulated as the pyrenoids mature . in algae with carbon concentrating mechanisms , the enzyme rubisco is found in the pyrenoids . starch can also accumulate around the pyrenoids when co2 is scarce . pyrenoids can divide to form new pyrenoids , or be produced " de novo " .
what do pyrenoids look like ?
highly refractive

Sample: 913

the 1970s were highlighted by several successful comedy , fantasy , action and superhero-themed series for the network including kung fu , the six million dollar man , wonder woman , starsky & hutch , charlie 's angels , the bionic woman , fantasy island and battlestar galactica . many of these series were greenlit by silverman , who left abc in 1978 to become president of nbc 's entertainment division . the rousing success of happy days also led to a successful spin-off series , laverne & shirley , which debuted in 1976 . charlie 's angels and three 's company ( which debuted in 1977 ) were two prime examples of a trend among the major networks during the 1970s known as " jiggle tv " , featuring attractive , often buxom , women in main and guest roles .
what television trend are charlies angels and three 's company an example of ?
jiggle tv

Sample: 914

cultural imperialism is when a country 's influence is felt in social and cultural circles , i.e . its soft power , such that it changes the moral , cultural and societal worldview of another . this is more than just " foreign " music , television or film becoming popular with young people , but that popular culture changing their own expectations of life and their desire for their own country to become more like the foreign country depicted . for example , depictions of opulent american lifestyles in the soap opera dallas during the cold war changed the expectations of romanians ; a more recent example is the influence of smuggled south korean drama series in north korea . the importance of soft power is not lost on authoritarian regimes , fighting such influence with bans on foreign popular culture , control of the internet and unauthorised satellite dishes etc . nor is such a usage of culture recent , as part of roman imperialism local elites would be exposed to the benefits and luxuries of roman culture and lifestyle , with the aim that they would then become willing participants .
how do regimes fight against cultural imperialism ?
bans

Sample: 915

the service started on 1 september 1993 based on the idea from the then chief executive officer , sam chisholm and rupert murdoch , of converting the company business strategy to an entirely fee-based concept . the new package included four channels formerly available free-to-air , broadcasting on astra 's satellites , as well as introducing new channels . the service continued until the closure of bskyb 's analogue service on 27 september 2001 , due to the launch and expansion of the sky digital platform . some of the channels did broadcast either in the clear or soft encrypted ( whereby a videocrypt decoder was required to decode , without a subscription card ) prior to their addition to the sky multichannels package . within two months of the launch , bskyb gained 400,000 new subscribers , with the majority taking at least one premium channel as well , which helped bskyb reach 3.5 million households by mid-1994 . michael grade criticized the operations in front of the select committee on national heritage , mainly for the lack of original programming on many of the new channels .
who was the chief executive officer when the service began ?
sam chisholm

Sample: 916

another of the egyptian groups which employed violence in their struggle for islamic order was al-gama'a al-islamiyya ( islamic group ) . victims of their campaign against the egyptian state in the 1990s included the head of the counter-terrorism police ( major general raouf khayrat ) , a parliamentary speaker ( rifaat al-mahgoub ) , dozens of european tourists and egyptian bystanders , and over 100 egyptian police . ultimately the campaign to overthrow the government was unsuccessful , and the major jihadi group , jamaa islamiya ( or al-gama'a al-islamiyya ) , renounced violence in 2003 . other lesser known groups include the islamic liberation party , salvation from hell and takfir wal-hijra , and these groups have variously been involved in activities such as attempted assassinations of political figures , arson of video shops and attempted takeovers of government buildings .
when did jamaa islamiya renounce violence ?
in 2003

Sample: 917

the principle of cross-cutting relationships pertains to the formation of faults and the age of the sequences through which they cut . faults are younger than the rocks they cut ; accordingly , if a fault is found that penetrates some formations but not those on top of it , then the formations that were cut are older than the fault , and the ones that are not cut must be younger than the fault . finding the key bed in these situations may help determine whether the fault is a normal fault or a thrust fault .
finding what helps to determine if a fault is a normal fault or a thrust fault ?
the key bed

Sample: 918

planetary geologists have measured different abundances of oxygen isotopes in samples from the earth , the moon , mars , and meteorites , but were long unable to obtain reference values for the isotope ratios in the sun , believed to be the same as those of the primordial solar nebula . analysis of a silicon wafer exposed to the solar wind in space and returned by the crashed genesis spacecraft has shown that the sun has a higher proportion of oxygen-16 than does the earth . the measurement implies that an unknown process depleted oxygen-16 from the sun 's disk of protoplanetary material prior to the coalescence of dust grains that formed the earth .
what type of process was involved the the depletion of the sun 's oxygen 16 ?
unknown

Sample: 919

trotsky , and others , believed that the revolution could only succeed in russia as part of a world revolution . lenin wrote extensively on the matter and famously declared that imperialism was the highest stage of capitalism . however , after lenin 's death , joseph stalin established 'socialism in one country ' for the soviet union , creating the model for subsequent inward looking stalinist states and purging the early internationalist elements . the internationalist tendencies of the early revolution would be abandoned until they returned in the framework of a client state in competition with the americans during the cold war . with the beginning of the new era , the after stalin period called the " thaw " , in the late 1950s , the new political leader nikita khrushchev put even more pressure on the soviet-american relations starting a new wave of anti-imperialist propaganda . in his speech on the un conference in 1960 , he announced the continuation of the war on imperialism , stating that soon the people of different countries will come together and overthrow their imperialist leaders . although the soviet union declared itself anti-imperialist , critics argue that it exhibited tendencies common to historic empires . some scholars hold that the soviet union was a hybrid entity containing elements common to both multinational empires and nation states . it has also been argued that the ussr practiced colonialism as did other imperial powers and was carrying on the old russian tradition of expansion and control . mao zedong once argued that the soviet union had itself become an imperialist power while maintaining a socialist façade . moreover , the ideas of imperialism were widely spread in action on the higher levels of government . non russian marxists within the russian federation and later the ussr , like sultan galiev and vasyl shakhrai , considered the soviet regime a renewed version of the russian imperialism and colonialism .
who argued that the ussr had itself become an imperialist power ?
mao zedong

Sample: 920

sociologist jake rosenfield of the university of washington asserts that the decline of organized labor in the united states has played a more significant role in expanding the income gap than technological changes and globalization , which were also experienced by other industrialized nations that did n't experience steep surges in inequality . he points out that nations with high rates of unionization , particularly in scandinavia , have very low levels of inequality , and concludes " the historical pattern is clear ; the cross-national pattern is clear : high inequality goes hand-in-hand with weak labor movements and vice-versa . "
what country has low income inequality and high presence of unions ?
scandinavia

Sample: 921

contrary to popular belief , genghis khan did not conquer all the areas ultimately part of the mongol empire . at the time of his death , the mongol empire stretched from the caspian sea to the sea of japan . the empire 's expansion continued for a generation or more after genghis 's death in 1227 . under genghis 's successor ögedei khan the speed of expansion reached its peak . mongol armies pushed into persia , finished off the western xia and the remnants of the khwarezmids , and came into conflict with the imperial song dynasty of china , starting a war that lasted until 1279 and that concluded with the mongols gaining control of all of china . they also pushed further into russia and eastern europe .
what body of water sat to the west of the mongol empire when genghis khan died ?
caspian sea

Sample: 922

the panthers used the san jose state practice facility and stayed at the san jose marriott . the broncos practiced at stanford university and stayed at the santa clara marriott .
at what university 's facility did the panthers practice ?
san jose state

Sample: 923

the victoria and albert museum ’ s word and image department was under the same pressure being felt in archives around the world , to digitize their collection . a large scale digitization project began in 2007 in that department . that project was entitled the factory project to reference andy warhol and to create a factory to completely digitize the collection . the first step of the factory project was to take photographs utilizing digital cameras . the word and image department had a collection of old photos but they were in black and white and in variant conditions , so new photos were shot . those new photographs will be accessible to researchers to the victoria and albert museum web-site . 15,000 images were taken during the first year of the factory project , including drawings , watercolors , computer-generated art , photographs , posters , and woodcuts . the second step of the factory project is to catalog everything . the third step of the factory project is to audit the collection . all of those items which were photographed and cataloged , must be audited to make sure everything listed as being in the collection was physically found during the creation of the factory project . the fourth goal of the factory project is conservation , which means performing some basic preventable procedures to those items in the department . there is a " search the collections " feature on the victoria and albert web-site . the main impetus behind the large-scale digitization project called the factory project was to list more items in the collections in those computer databases .
what was the digitization project called ?
factory project

Sample: 924

in the 1930s , radio in the united states was dominated by three companies : the columbia broadcasting system ( cbs ) , the mutual broadcasting system and the national broadcasting company ( nbc ) . the last was owned by electronics manufacturer radio corporation of america ( rca ) , which owned two radio networks that each ran different varieties of programming , nbc blue and nbc red . the nbc blue network was created in 1927 for the primary purpose of testing new programs on markets of lesser importance than those served by nbc red , which served the major cities , and to test drama series .
what two radio networks did rca own ?
nbc blue and nbc red

Sample: 925

as jamukha and temüjin drifted apart in their friendship , each began consolidating power , and soon became rivals . jamukha supported the traditional mongolian aristocracy , while temüjin followed a meritocratic method , and attracted a broader , though lower class , range of followers . due to his earlier defeat of the merkits , and a proclamation by the shaman kokochu that the eternal blue sky had set aside the world for temüjin , temüjin began rising to power . in 1186 , temüjin was elected khan of the mongols . however , jamukha , threatened by temüjin 's rapid ascent , quickly moved to stop temüjin 's ambitions . in 1187 , he launched an attack against his former friend with an army of thirty thousand troops . temüjin hastily gathered together his followers to defend against the attack , but he was decisively beaten in the battle of dalan balzhut . jamukha horrified people greatly and harmed his image by boiling seventy young male captives alive in cauldrons , alienating many of his potential followers and eliciting sympathy for temüjin . toghrul , as temüjin 's patron , was exiled to the qara khitai . the life of temüjin for the next ten years is very unclear , as historical records are mostly silent on that period .
when was temüjin elected khan of the mongols ?
1186

Sample: 926

within the genitourinary and gastrointestinal tracts , commensal flora serve as biological barriers by competing with pathogenic bacteria for food and space and , in some cases , by changing the conditions in their environment , such as ph or available iron . this reduces the probability that pathogens will reach sufficient numbers to cause illness . however , since most antibiotics non-specifically target bacteria and do not affect fungi , oral antibiotics can lead to an " overgrowth " of fungi and cause conditions such as a vaginal candidiasis ( a yeast infection ) . there is good evidence that re-introduction of probiotic flora , such as pure cultures of the lactobacilli normally found in unpasteurized yogurt , helps restore a healthy balance of microbial populations in intestinal infections in children and encouraging preliminary data in studies on bacterial gastroenteritis , inflammatory bowel diseases , urinary tract infection and post-surgical infections .
most antibiotics target bacteria and do n't affect what class of organisms ?
fungi

Sample: 927

throughout the history of education the most common form of school discipline was corporal punishment . while a child was in school , a teacher was expected to act as a substitute parent , with all the normal forms of parental discipline open to them .
what was the teacher 's role while the child was with them ?
substitute parent

Sample: 928

because of the complexity of medications including specific indications , effectiveness of treatment regimens , safety of medications ( i.e. , drug interactions ) and patient compliance issues ( in the hospital and at home ) many pharmacists practicing in hospitals gain more education and training after pharmacy school through a pharmacy practice residency and sometimes followed by another residency in a specific area . those pharmacists are often referred to as clinical pharmacists and they often specialize in various disciplines of pharmacy . for example , there are pharmacists who specialize in hematology/oncology , hiv/aids , infectious disease , critical care , emergency medicine , toxicology , nuclear pharmacy , pain management , psychiatry , anti-coagulation clinics , herbal medicine , neurology/epilepsy management , pediatrics , neonatal pharmacists and more .
which pharmacists are likely to seek additional education following pharmacy school ?
pharmacists practicing in hospitals

Sample: 929

luther 's final journey , to mansfeld , was taken because of his concern for his siblings ' families continuing in their father hans luther 's copper mining trade . their livelihood was threatened by count albrecht of mansfeld bringing the industry under his own control . the controversy that ensued involved all four mansfeld counts : albrecht , philip , john george , and gerhard . luther journeyed to mansfeld twice in late 1545 to participate in the negotiations for a settlement , and a third visit was needed in early 1546 for their completion .
what was luther involved in dealing with the minds in mansfeld ?
negotiations

Sample: 930

egyptian president anwar sadat – whose policies included opening egypt to western investment ( infitah ) ; transferring egypt 's allegiance from the soviet union to the united states ; and making peace with israel – released islamists from prison and welcomed home exiles in tacit exchange for political support in his struggle against leftists . his " encouraging of the emergence of the islamist movement " was said to have been " imitated by many other muslim leaders in the years that followed . " this " gentlemen 's agreement " between sadat and islamists broke down in 1975 but not before islamists came to completely dominate university student unions . sadat was later assassinated and a formidable insurgency was formed in egypt in the 1990s . the french government has also been reported to have promoted islamist preachers " in the hope of channeling muslim energies into zones of piety and charity . "
when did the so called gentlemen 's agreement between sadat and the islamists break down ?
1975

Sample: 931

the panthers beat the seattle seahawks in the divisional round , running up a 31–0 halftime lead and then holding off a furious second half comeback attempt to win 31–24 , avenging their elimination from a year earlier . the panthers then blew out the arizona cardinals in the nfc championship game , 49–15 , racking up 487 yards and forcing seven turnovers .
how many times did arizona turn the ball over in the nfc championship ?
seven

Sample: 932

its counties of los angeles , orange , san diego , san bernardino , and riverside are the five most populous in the state and all are in the top 15 most populous counties in the united states .
what is the smallest geographical region discussed ?
counties

Sample: 933

in contrast , during wake periods differentiated effector cells , such as cytotoxic natural killer cells and ctls ( cytotoxic t lymphocytes ) , peak in order to elicit an effective response against any intruding pathogens . as well during awake active times , anti-inflammatory molecules , such as cortisol and catecholamines , peak . there are two theories as to why the pro-inflammatory state is reserved for sleep time . first , inflammation would cause serious cognitive and physical impairments if it were to occur during wake times . second , inflammation may occur during sleep times due to the presence of melatonin . inflammation causes a great deal of oxidative stress and the presence of melatonin during sleep times could actively counteract free radical production during this time .
melatonin during sleep can actively counteract the production of what ?
free radical production

Sample: 934

politically , victoria has 37 seats in the australian house of representatives and 12 seats in the australian senate . at state level , the parliament of victoria consists of the legislative assembly ( the lower house ) and the legislative council ( the upper house ) . victoria is currently governed by the labor party , with daniel andrews the current premier . the personal representative of the queen of australia in the state is the governor of victoria , currently linda dessau . local government is concentrated in 79 municipal districts , including 33 cities , although a number of unincorporated areas still exist , which are administered directly by the state .
how many seats does victoria have in the senate ?
12

Sample: 935

the collection includes about 1130 british and 650 european oil paintings , 6800 british watercolours , pastels and 2000 miniatures , for which the museum holds the national collection . also on loan to the museum , from her majesty the queen elizabeth ii , are the raphael cartoons : the seven surviving ( there were ten ) full scale designs for tapestries in the sistine chapel , of the lives of peter and paul from the gospels and the acts of the apostles . there is also on display a fresco by pietro perugino dated 1522 from the church of castello at fontignano ( perugia ) and is amongst the painter 's last works . one of the largest objects in the collection is the spanish tempera on wood , 670 x 486 cm , retable of st george , c. 1400 , consisting of numerous scenes and painted by andrés marzal de sax in valencia .
who painted the retable of st. george that is in the v & a collection ?
andrés marzal de sax

Sample: 936

this projection was not included in the final summary for policymakers . the ipcc has since acknowledged that the date is incorrect , while reaffirming that the conclusion in the final summary was robust . they expressed regret for " the poor application of well-established ipcc procedures in this instance " . the date of 2035 has been correctly quoted by the ipcc from the wwf report , which has misquoted its own source , an icsi report " variations of snow and ice in the past and at present on a global and regional scale " .
what did the ipcc apologize for ?
" the poor application of well-established ipcc procedures in this instance "

Sample: 937

kenya has a warm and humid tropical climate on its indian ocean coastline . the climate is cooler in the savannah grasslands around the capital city , nairobi , and especially closer to mount kenya , which has snow permanently on its peaks . further inland , in the nyanza region , there is a hot and dry climate which becomes humid around lake victoria , the largest tropical fresh-water lake in the world . this gives way to temperate and forested hilly areas in the neighboring western region . the north-eastern regions along the border with somalia and ethiopia are arid and semi-arid areas with near-desert landscapes . kenya is known for its safaris , diverse climate and geography , and expansive wildlife reserves and national parks such as the east and west tsavo national park , the maasai mara , lake nakuru national park , and aberdares national park . kenya has several world heritage sites such as lamu and numerous beaches , including in diani , bamburi and kilifi , where international yachting competitions are held every year .
what regions do the north-eastern part of the country boarder ?
somalia and ethiopia

Sample: 938

throughout the middle ages , newcastle was england 's northern fortress . incorporated first by henry ii , the city had a new charter granted by elizabeth in 1589 . a 25-foot ( 7.6 m ) high stone wall was built around the town in the 13th century , to defend it from invaders during the border war against scotland . the scots king william the lion was imprisoned in newcastle in 1174 , and edward i brought the stone of scone and william wallace south through the town . newcastle was successfully defended against the scots three times during the 14th century , and was created a county corporate with its own sheriff by henry iv in 1400 .
how many times did newcastle fight off the scots during the 14th century ?
three times

Sample: 939

meanwhile , abc news , which formed as a newly separate division , sought to become a global leader in television news . in 1977 , roone arledge was named president of the new abc news in addition to being president of abc sports . that same year , abc launched a major expansion of its office facilities in new york city . the company first constructed a new 10-story building on land previously occupied by an abandoned warehouse on the corner of columbus avenue and west 66th street ; the facility that was built in its place is nicknamed " 7 lincoln square " ( although it is actually located at 149 columbus avenue ) . meanwhile , a former parking lot , located at 30 west 67th street , was transformed into an impressive 15-story building . both buildings were completed in june 1979 . wabc-tv moved its operations from offices at 77 west 66th street to 149 columbus avenue , freeing up space for the abc network to house some of its operations .
besides abc news , what other division was roone arledge president of ?
abc sports

Sample: 940

after each team punted , panthers quarterback cam newton appeared to complete a 24-yard pass jerricho cotchery , but the call was ruled an incompletion and upheld after a replay challenge . cbs analyst and retired referee mike carey stated he disagreed with the call and felt the review clearly showed the pass was complete . a few plays later , on 3rd-and-10 from the 15-yard line , linebacker von miller knocked the ball out of newton 's hands while sacking him , and malik jackson recovered it in the end zone for a broncos touchdown , giving the team a 10–0 lead . this was the first fumble return touchdown in a super bowl since super bowl xxviii at the end of the 1993 season .
who recovered the fumble and ran the ball in for a touchdown ?
malik jackson

Sample: 941

civil disobedients have chosen a variety of different illegal acts . bedau writes , " there is a whole class of acts , undertaken in the name of civil disobedience , which , even if they were widely practiced , would in themselves constitute hardly more than a nuisance ( e.g . trespassing at a nuclear-missile installation ) ... such acts are often just a harassment and , at least to the bystander , somewhat inane ... the remoteness of the connection between the disobedient act and the objectionable law lays such acts open to the charge of ineffectiveness and absurdity . " bedau also notes , though , that the very harmlessness of such entirely symbolic illegal protests toward public policy goals may serve a propaganda purpose . some civil disobedients , such as the proprietors of illegal medical cannabis dispensaries and voice in the wilderness , which brought medicine to iraq without the permission of the u.s. government , directly achieve a desired social goal ( such as the provision of medication to the sick ) while openly breaking the law . julia butterfly hill lived in luna , a 180-foot ( 55 m ) -tall , 600-year-old california redwood tree for 738 days , successfully preventing it from being cut down .
such protests are usually considered to be what type ?
entirely symbolic

Sample: 942

cyanobacteria are considered the ancestors of chloroplasts . they are sometimes called blue-green algae even though they are prokaryotes . they are a diverse phylum of bacteria capable of carrying out photosynthesis , and are gram-negative , meaning that they have two cell membranes . cyanobacteria also contain a peptidoglycan cell wall , which is thicker than in other gram-negative bacteria , and which is located between their two cell membranes . like chloroplasts , they have thylakoids within . on the thylakoid membranes are photosynthetic pigments , including chlorophyll a. phycobilins are also common cyanobacterial pigments , usually organized into hemispherical phycobilisomes attached to the outside of the thylakoid membranes ( phycobilins are not shared with all chloroplasts though ) .
what does 'gram-negative ' mean ?
they have two cell membranes

Sample: 943

in many poor and developing countries much land and housing is held outside the formal or legal property ownership registration system . much unregistered property is held in informal form through various associations and other arrangements . reasons for extra-legal ownership include excessive bureaucratic red tape in buying property and building , in some countries it can take over 200 steps and up to 14 years to build on government land . other causes of extra-legal property are failures to notarize transaction documents or having documents notarized but failing to have them recorded with the official agency .
how is unregistered property held in informal form ?
through various associations and other arrangements

Sample: 944

super bowl 50 was an american football game to determine the champion of the national football league ( nfl ) for the 2015 season . the american football conference ( afc ) champion denver broncos defeated the national football conference ( nfc ) champion carolina panthers 24–10 to earn their third super bowl title . the game was played on february 7 , 2016 , at levi 's stadium in the san francisco bay area at santa clara , california . as this was the 50th super bowl , the league emphasized the " golden anniversary " with various gold-themed initiatives , as well as temporarily suspending the tradition of naming each super bowl game with roman numerals ( under which the game would have been known as " super bowl l " ) , so that the logo could prominently feature the arabic numerals 50 .
what city did super bowl 50 take place in ?
santa clara

Sample: 945

from 1510 to 1520 , luther lectured on the psalms , the books of hebrews , romans , and galatians . as he studied these portions of the bible , he came to view the use of terms such as penance and righteousness by the catholic church in new ways . he became convinced that the church was corrupt in its ways and had lost sight of what he saw as several of the central truths of christianity . the most important for luther was the doctrine of justification – god 's act of declaring a sinner righteous – by faith alone through god 's grace . he began to teach that salvation or redemption is a gift of god 's grace , attainable only through faith in jesus as the messiah . " this one and firm rock , which we call the doctrine of justification , " he wrote , " is the chief article of the whole christian doctrine , which comprehends the understanding of all godliness . "
what did luther decide about the catholic church ?
corrupt in its ways

Sample: 946

on july 31 , 1995 , the walt disney company announced an agreement to merge with capital cities/abc for $ 19 billion . disney shareholders approved the merger at a special conference in new york city on january 4 , 1996 , with the acquisition of capital cities/abc being completed on february 9 ; following the sale , disney renamed its new subsidiary abc inc . in addition to the abc network , the disney acquisition integrated abc 's ten owned-and-operated television and 21 radio stations ; its 80 % interest in espn , ownership interests in the history channel , a & e television networks , and lifetime entertainment ; and capital cities/abc 's magazine and newspaper properties into the company . as fcc ownership rules forbade the company from keeping both it and kabc-tv , disney sold los angeles independent station kcal-tv to young broadcasting for $ 387 million . on april 4 , disney sold the four newspapers that abc had controlled under capital cities to knight ridder for $ 1.65 billion . following the merger , thomas s. murphy left abc with robert iger taking his place as president and ceo . around the time of the merger , disney 's television production units had already produced series for the network such as home improvement and boy meets world , while the deal also allowed abc access to disney 's children 's programming library for its saturday morning block . in 1998 , abc premiered the aaron sorkin-created sitcom sports night , centering on the travails of the staff of a sportscenter-style sports news program ; despite earning critical praise and multiple emmy awards , the series was cancelled in 2000 after two seasons .
who did disney sell the four newspapers that abc controlled to ?
knight ridder

Sample: 947

the further decline of byzantine state-of-affairs paved the road to a third attack in 1185 , when a large norman army invaded dyrrachium , owing to the betrayal of high byzantine officials . some time later , dyrrachium—one of the most important naval bases of the adriatic—fell again to byzantine hands .
when did the normans attack dyrrachium ?
1185

Sample: 948

in literature , author of the new york times bestseller before i fall lauren oliver , pulitzer prize winning novelist philip roth , canadian-born pulitzer prize and nobel prize for literature winning writer saul bellow , political philosopher , literary critic and author of the new york times bestseller " the closing of the american mind " allan bloom , " the good war " author studs terkel , american writer , essayist , filmmaker , teacher , and political activist susan sontag , analytic philosopher and stanford university professor of comparative literature richard rorty , and american writer and satirist kurt vonnegut are notable alumni .
what is the name of the american writer and satirist who is also a university alumni ?
kurt vonnegut

Sample: 949

the internal cavity forms : a mouth that can usually be closed by muscles ; a pharynx ( " throat " ) ; a wider area in the center that acts as a stomach ; and a system of internal canals . these branch through the mesoglea to the most active parts of the animal : the mouth and pharynx ; the roots of the tentacles , if present ; all along the underside of each comb row ; and four branches round the sensory complex at the far end from the mouth – two of these four branches terminate in anal pores . the inner surface of the cavity is lined with an epithelium , the gastrodermis . the mouth and pharynx have both cilia and well-developed muscles . in other parts of the canal system , the gastrodermis is different on the sides nearest to and furthest from the organ that it supplies . the nearer side is composed of tall nutritive cells that store nutrients in vacuoles ( internal compartments ) , germ cells that produce eggs or sperm , and photocytes that produce bioluminescence . the side furthest from the organ is covered with ciliated cells that circulate water through the canals , punctuated by ciliary rosettes , pores that are surrounded by double whorls of cilia and connect to the mesoglea .
what do photocytes produce ?
bioluminescence

Sample: 950

the annual conference , roughly the equivalent of a diocese in the anglican communion and the roman catholic church or a synod in some lutheran denominations such as the evangelical lutheran church in america , is the basic unit of organization within the umc . the term annual conference is often used to refer to the geographical area it covers as well as the frequency of meeting . clergy are members of their annual conference rather than of any local congregation , and are appointed to a local church or other charge annually by the conference 's resident bishop at the meeting of the annual conference . in many ways , the united methodist church operates in a connectional organization of the annual conferences , and actions taken by one conference are not binding upon another .
the term annual conference is often used to refer to what ?
geographical area it covers as well as the frequency of meeting

Sample: 951

the service started on 1 september 1993 based on the idea from the then chief executive officer , sam chisholm and rupert murdoch , of converting the company business strategy to an entirely fee-based concept . the new package included four channels formerly available free-to-air , broadcasting on astra 's satellites , as well as introducing new channels . the service continued until the closure of bskyb 's analogue service on 27 september 2001 , due to the launch and expansion of the sky digital platform . some of the channels did broadcast either in the clear or soft encrypted ( whereby a videocrypt decoder was required to decode , without a subscription card ) prior to their addition to the sky multichannels package . within two months of the launch , bskyb gained 400,000 new subscribers , with the majority taking at least one premium channel as well , which helped bskyb reach 3.5 million households by mid-1994 . michael grade criticized the operations in front of the select committee on national heritage , mainly for the lack of original programming on many of the new channels .
how many households had bskyb service in 1994 ?
3.5 million

Sample: 952

train operator virgin trains east coast provides a half-hourly frequency of trains to london king 's cross , with a journey time of about three hours , these services call at durham , darlington , york , doncaster , newark north gate and peterborough and north to scotland with all trains calling at edinburgh and a small number of trains extended to glasgow , aberdeen and inverness . crosscountry trains serve destinations in yorkshire , the midlands and the south west . first transpennine express operates services to manchester and liverpool . northern rail provides local and regional services .
whose trains serve destinations in yorkshire ?
crosscountry

Sample: 953

oxygen presents two spectrophotometric absorption bands peaking at the wavelengths 687 and 760 nm . some remote sensing scientists have proposed using the measurement of the radiance coming from vegetation canopies in those bands to characterize plant health status from a satellite platform . this approach exploits the fact that in those bands it is possible to discriminate the vegetation 's reflectance from its fluorescence , which is much weaker . the measurement is technically difficult owing to the low signal-to-noise ratio and the physical structure of vegetation ; but it has been proposed as a possible method of monitoring the carbon cycle from satellites on a global scale .
on what scale would scientists show measurements of vegetation ?
global

Sample: 954

in 1700 several hundred french huguenots migrated from england to the colony of virginia , where the english crown had promised them land grants in lower norfolk county . when they arrived , colonial authorities offered them instead land 20 miles above the falls of the james river , at the abandoned monacan village known as manakin town , now in powhatan county . some settlers landed in present-day chesterfield county . on 12 may 1705 , the virginia general assembly passed an act to naturalise the 148 huguenots still resident at manakintown . of the original 390 settlers in the isolated settlement , many had died ; others lived outside town on farms in the english style ; and others moved to different areas . gradually they intermarried with their english neighbors . through the 18th and 19th centuries , descendants of the french migrated west into the piedmont , and across the appalachian mountains into the west of what became kentucky , tennessee , missouri , and other states . in the manakintown area , the huguenot memorial bridge across the james river and huguenot road were named in their honor , as were many local features , including several schools , including huguenot high school .
in what english colony were huguenot settlers promised land ?
virginia

Sample: 955

in 1935 , in an annual birthday celebration interview , tesla announced a method of transmitting mechanical energy with minimal loss over any terrestrial distance , a related new means of communication , and a method of accurately determining the location of underground mineral deposits .
how far did he claim the mechanical energy could be transmitted ?
over any terrestrial distance

Sample: 956

fossils found in kenya suggest that primates roamed the area more than 20 million years ago . recent findings near lake turkana indicate that hominids such as homo habilis ( 1.8 and 2.5 million years ago ) and homo erectus ( 1.8 million to 350,000 years ago ) are possible direct ancestors of modern homo sapiens , and lived in kenya in the pleistocene epoch . during excavations at lake turkana in 1984 , paleoanthropologist richard leakey assisted by kamoya kimeu discovered the turkana boy , a 1.6-million-year-old fossil belonging to homo erectus . previous research on early hominids is particularly identified with mary leakey and louis leakey , who were responsible for the preliminary archaeological research at olorgesailie and hyrax hill . later work at the former site was undertaken by glynn isaac .
who was responsible for the preliminary archaeological research at ologesailie and hyrax hill ?
mary leakey and louis leakey

Sample: 957

in some countries , formal education can take place through home schooling . informal learning may be assisted by a teacher occupying a transient or ongoing role , such as a family member , or by anyone with knowledge or skills in the wider community setting .
if someone is being taught at their place of residence , what is it called ?
home schooling

Sample: 958

members of the genus dinophysis have a phycobilin-containing chloroplast taken from a cryptophyte . however , the cryptophyte is not an endosymbiont—only the chloroplast seems to have been taken , and the chloroplast has been stripped of its nucleomorph and outermost two membranes , leaving just a two-membraned chloroplast . cryptophyte chloroplasts require their nucleomorph to maintain themselves , and dinophysis species grown in cell culture alone can not survive , so it is possible ( but not confirmed ) that the dinophysis chloroplast is a kleptoplast—if so , dinophysis chloroplasts wear out and dinophysis species must continually engulf cryptophytes to obtain new chloroplasts to replace the old ones .
where did dinophysis get its chloroplasts from ?
a cryptophyte

Sample: 959

packet mode communication may be implemented with or without intermediate forwarding nodes ( packet switches or routers ) . packets are normally forwarded by intermediate network nodes asynchronously using first-in , first-out buffering , but may be forwarded according to some scheduling discipline for fair queuing , traffic shaping , or for differentiated or guaranteed quality of service , such as weighted fair queuing or leaky bucket . in case of a shared physical medium ( such as radio or 10base5 ) , the packets may be delivered according to a multiple access scheme .
how is packet mode communication implemented
with or without intermediate forwarding nodes

Sample: 960

six of the seven lines of the commuter rail system , metrolink , run out of downtown los angeles , connecting los angeles , ventura , san bernardino , riverside , orange , and san diego counties with the other line connecting san bernardino , riverside , and orange counties directly .
what is the name of the commuter rail system ?
metrolink

Sample: 961

another factor in the early 1990s that worked to radicalize the islamist movement was the gulf war , which brought several hundred thousand us and allied non-muslim military personnel to saudi arabian soil to put an end to saddam hussein 's occupation of kuwait . prior to 1990 saudi arabia played an important role in restraining the many islamist groups that received its aid . but when saddam , secularist and ba'athist dictator of neighboring iraq , attacked saudi arabia ( his enemy in the war ) , western troops came to protect the saudi monarchy . islamists accused the saudi regime of being a puppet of the west .
what monarchy did western troops protect ?
saudi

Sample: 962

in some plants such as cacti , chloroplasts are found in the stems , though in most plants , chloroplasts are concentrated in the leaves . one square millimeter of leaf tissue can contain half a million chloroplasts . within a leaf , chloroplasts are mainly found in the mesophyll layers of a leaf , and the guard cells of stomata . palisade mesophyll cells can contain 30–70 chloroplasts per cell , while stomatal guard cells contain only around 8–15 per cell , as well as much less chlorophyll . chloroplasts can also be found in the bundle sheath cells of a leaf , especially in c4 plants , which carry out the calvin cycle in their bundle sheath cells . they are often absent from the epidermis of a leaf .
where do cacti have chloroplasts ?
in the stems

Sample: 963

the system of bureaucracy created by kublai khan reflected various cultures in the empire , including that of the han chinese , khitans , jurchens , mongols , and tibetan buddhists . while the official terminology of the institutions may indicate the government structure was almost purely that of native chinese dynasties , the yuan bureaucracy actually consisted of a mix of elements from different cultures . the chinese-style elements of the bureaucracy mainly came from the native tang , song , as well as khitan liao and jurchen jin dynasties . chinese advisers such as liu bingzhong and yao shu gave strong influence to kublai 's early court , and the central government administration was established within the first decade of kublai 's reign . this government adopted the traditional chinese tripartite division of authority among civil , military , and censorial offices , including the central secretariat ( zhongshu sheng ) to manage civil affairs , the privy council ( chinese : 樞密院 ) to manage military affairs , and the censorate to conduct internal surveillance and inspection . the actual functions of both central and local government institutions , however , showed a major overlap between the civil and military jurisdictions , due to the mongol traditional reliance on military institutions and offices as the core of governance . nevertheless , such a civilian bureaucracy , with the central secretariat as the top institution that was ( directly or indirectly ) responsible for most other governmental agencies ( such as the traditional chinese-style six ministries ) , was created in china . at various times another central government institution called the department of state affairs ( shangshu sheng ) that mainly dealt with finance was established ( such as during the reign of külüg khan or emperor wuzong ) , but was usually abandoned shortly afterwards .
what dynasties inspired the chinese-like elements of kublai 's government ?
tang , song , as well as khitan liao and jurchen jin dynasties

Sample: 964

in the coming decades , pharmacists are expected to become more integral within the health care system . rather than simply dispensing medication , pharmacists are increasingly expected to be compensated for their patient care skills . in particular , medication therapy management ( mtm ) includes the clinical services that pharmacists can provide for their patients . such services include the thorough analysis of all medication ( prescription , non-prescription , and herbals ) currently being taken by an individual . the result is a reconciliation of medication and patient education resulting in increased patient health outcomes and decreased costs to the health care system .
what responsibilities are pharmacists believed to be taking on more in the future ?
increasingly expected to be compensated for their patient care skills

Sample: 965

several project structures can assist the owner in this integration , including design-build , partnering and construction management . in general , each of these project structures allows the owner to integrate the services of architects , interior designers , engineers and constructors throughout design and construction . in response , many companies are growing beyond traditional offerings of design or construction services alone and are placing more emphasis on establishing relationships with other necessary participants through the design-build process .
what project structures assist the owner in integration ?
design-build , partnering and construction management

Sample: 966

as of the 2010 united states census , southern california has a population of 22,680,010 . despite a reputation for high growth rates , southern california 's rate grew less than the state average of 10.0 % in the 2000s as california 's growth became concentrated in the northern part of the state due to a stronger , tech-oriented economy in the bay area and an emerging greater sacramento region .
what is the state average growth rate ?
10.0 %

Sample: 967

free movement of goods within the european union is achieved by a customs union , and the principle of non-discrimination . the eu manages imports from non-member states , duties between member states are prohibited , and imports circulate freely . in addition under the treaty on the functioning of the european union article 34 , ‘ quantitative restrictions on imports and all measures having equivalent effect shall be prohibited between member states ’ . in procureur du roi v dassonville the court of justice held that this rule meant all " trading rules " that are " enacted by member states " which could hinder trade " directly or indirectly , actually or potentially " would be caught by article 34 . this meant that a belgian law requiring scotch whisky imports to have a certificate of origin was unlikely to be lawful . it discriminated against parallel importers like mr dassonville , who could not get certificates from authorities in france , where they bought the scotch . this " wide test " , to determine what could potentially be an unlawful restriction on trade , applies equally to actions by quasi-government bodies , such as the former " buy irish " company that had government appointees . it also means states can be responsible for private actors . for instance , in commission v france french farmer vigilantes were continually sabotaging shipments of spanish strawberries , and even belgian tomato imports . france was liable for these hindrances to trade because the authorities ‘ manifestly and persistently abstained ' from preventing the sabotage . generally speaking , if a member state has laws or practices that directly discriminate against imports ( or exports under tfeu article 35 ) then it must be justified under article 36 . the justifications include public morality , policy or security , " protection of health and life of humans , animals or plants " , " national treasures " of " artistic , historic or archaeological value " and " industrial and commercial property . " in addition , although not clearly listed , environmental protection can justify restrictions on trade as an overriding requirement derived from tfeu article 11 . more generally , it has been increasingly acknowledged that fundamental human rights should take priority over all trade rules . so , in schmidberger v austria the court of justice held that austria did not infringe article 34 by failing to ban a protest that blocked heavy traffic passing over the a13 , brenner autobahn , en route to italy . although many companies , including mr schmidberger 's german undertaking , were prevented from trading , the court of justice reasoned that freedom of association is one of the ‘ fundamental pillars of a democratic society ’ , against which the free movement of goods had to be balanced , and was probably subordinate . if a member state does appeal to the article 36 justification , the measures it takes have to be applied proportionately . this means the rule must be pursue a legitimate aim and ( 1 ) be suitable to achieve the aim , ( 2 ) be necessary , so that a less restrictive measure could not achieve the same result , and ( 3 ) be reasonable in balancing the interests of free trade with interests in article 36 .
what helps the process of free movement of goods ?
a customs union , and the principle of non-discrimination

Sample: 968

the customary law of normandy was developed between the 10th and 13th centuries and survives today through the legal systems of jersey and guernsey in the channel islands . norman customary law was transcribed in two customaries in latin by two judges for use by them and their colleagues : these are the très ancien coutumier ( very ancient customary ) , authored between 1200 and 1245 ; and the grand coutumier de normandie ( great customary of normandy , originally summa de legibus normanniae in curia laïcali ) , authored between 1235 and 1245 .
where are jersey and guernsey
channel islands

Sample: 969

the norman dynasty had a major political , cultural and military impact on medieval europe and even the near east . the normans were famed for their martial spirit and eventually for their christian piety , becoming exponents of the catholic orthodoxy into which they assimilated . they adopted the gallo-romance language of the frankish land they settled , their dialect becoming known as norman , normaund or norman french , an important literary language . the duchy of normandy , which they formed by treaty with the french crown , was a great fief of medieval france , and under richard i of normandy was forged into a cohesive and formidable principality in feudal tenure . the normans are noted both for their culture , such as their unique romanesque architecture and musical traditions , and for their significant military accomplishments and innovations . norman adventurers founded the kingdom of sicily under roger ii after conquering southern italy on the saracens and byzantines , and an expedition on behalf of their duke , william the conqueror , led to the norman conquest of england at the battle of hastings in 1066 . norman cultural and military influence spread from these new european centres to the crusader states of the near east , where their prince bohemond i founded the principality of antioch in the levant , to scotland and wales in great britain , to ireland , and to the coasts of north africa and the canary islands .
who was the duke in the battle of hastings ?
william the conqueror

Sample: 970

while many united methodist congregations operate in the evangelical tradition , others reflect the mainline protestant traditions . although united methodist practices and interpretation of beliefs have evolved over time , these practices and beliefs can be traced to the writings of the church 's founders , especially john wesley and charles wesley ( anglicans ) , but also philip william otterbein and martin boehm ( united brethren ) , and jacob albright ( evangelical association ) . with the formation of the united methodist church in 1968 , theologian albert c. outler led the team which systematized denominational doctrine . outler 's work proved pivotal in the work of union , and he is largely considered the first united methodist theologian .
when was the umc formed ?
1968

Sample: 971

the v & a covers 12.5 acres ( 51,000 m2 ) and 145 galleries . its collection spans 5,000 years of art , from ancient times to the present day , from the cultures of europe , north america , asia and north africa . the holdings of ceramics , glass , textiles , costumes , silver , ironwork , jewellery , furniture , medieval objects , sculpture , prints and printmaking , drawings and photographs are among the largest and most comprehensive in the world . the museum owns the world 's largest collection of post-classical sculpture , with the holdings of italian renaissance items being the largest outside italy . the departments of asia include art from south asia , china , japan , korea and the islamic world . the east asian collections are among the best in europe , with particular strengths in ceramics and metalwork , while the islamic collection is amongst the largest in the western world . overall , it is one of the largest museums in the world .
how many years does the v & a 's collections span ?
5,000

Sample: 972

abc 's daytime schedule currently features talk shows the view and the chew , and the soap opera general hospital , the latter of which is the longest-running entertainment program in the history of the abc television network , having aired since 1963 . abc also broadcasts the morning news program good morning america and has done so since 1975 , though that program is not considered to be part of the abc daytime block . in addition to the long-running all my children ( 1970–2011 ) and one life to live ( 1968–2012 ) , notable past soap operas seen on the daytime lineup include ryan 's hope , dark shadows , loving , the city and port charles . abc also aired the last nine years of the procter & gamble-produced soap the edge of night , following its cancellation by cbs in 1975 . abc daytime has also aired a number of game shows , including the dating game , the newlywed game , let 's make a deal , password , split second , the $ 10,000/ $ 20,000 pyramid , family feud , the better sex , trivia trap , all-star blitz and hot streak .
what are abc 's current daytime talk shows ?
the view and the chew

Sample: 973

there are various mechanisms by which teacher enthusiasm may facilitate higher levels of intrinsic motivation . teacher enthusiasm may contribute to a classroom atmosphere full of energy and enthusiasm which feed student interest and excitement in learning the subject matter . enthusiastic teachers may also lead to students becoming more self-determined in their own learning process . the concept of mere exposure indicates that the teacher 's enthusiasm may contribute to the student 's expectations about intrinsic motivation in the context of learning . also , enthusiasm may act as a " motivational embellishment " ; increasing a student 's interest by the variety , novelty , and surprise of the enthusiastic teacher 's presentation of the material . finally , the concept of emotional contagion , may also apply . students may become more intrinsically motivated by catching onto the enthusiasm and energy of the teacher . [ citation needed ]
enthusiastic teachers may cause students to become more ____ about their learning process ?
self-determined

Sample: 974

one computer model of future climate change caused by greenhouse gas emissions shows that the amazon rainforest could become unsustainable under conditions of severely reduced rainfall and increased temperatures , leading to an almost complete loss of rainforest cover in the basin by 2100 . however , simulations of amazon basin climate change across many different models are not consistent in their estimation of any rainfall response , ranging from weak increases to strong decreases . the result indicates that the rainforest could be threatened though the 21st century by climate change in addition to deforestation .
what are the main threats facing the amazon rainforest in the current century ?
climate change in addition to deforestation

Sample: 975

earlier papers studying problems solvable by turing machines with specific bounded resources include john myhill 's definition of linear bounded automata ( myhill 1960 ) , raymond smullyan 's study of rudimentary sets ( 1961 ) , as well as hisao yamada 's paper on real-time computations ( 1962 ) . somewhat earlier , boris trakhtenbrot ( 1956 ) , a pioneer in the field from the ussr , studied another specific complexity measure . as he remembers :
in 1962 , who was responsible for the authorship of a paper published on real time-computations ?
hisao yamada

Sample: 976

the quick and decisive defeat of the arab troops during the six-day war by israeli troops constituted a pivotal event in the arab muslim world . the defeat along with economic stagnation in the defeated countries , was blamed on the secular arab nationalism of the ruling regimes . a steep and steady decline in the popularity and credibility of secular , socialist and nationalist politics ensued . ba'athism , arab socialism , and arab nationalism suffered , and different democratic and anti-democratic islamist movements inspired by maududi and sayyid qutb gained ground .
secular arab nationalism was blamed for both the defeat of arab troops as well as what type of stagnation ?
economic

Sample: 977

by 1526 , luther found himself increasingly occupied in organising a new church . his biblical ideal of congregations ' choosing their own ministers had proved unworkable . according to bainton : " luther 's dilemma was that he wanted both a confessional church based on personal faith and experience and a territorial church including all in a given locality . if he were forced to choose , he would take his stand with the masses , and this was the direction in which he moved . " from 1525 to 1529 , he established a supervisory church body , laid down a new form of worship service , and wrote a clear summary of the new faith in the form of two catechisms . luther 's thought is revolutionary to the extent that it is a theology of the cross , the negation of every affirmation : as long as the cross is at the center , the system building tendency of reason is held in check , and system building does not degenerate into system .
what did luther establish as a worship service in his church ?
new form

Sample: 978

in the united kingdom and several other commonwealth countries including australia and canada , the use of the term is generally restricted to primary and secondary educational levels ; it is almost never used of universities and other tertiary institutions . private education in north america covers the whole gamut of educational activity , ranging from pre-school to tertiary level institutions . annual tuition fees at k-12 schools range from nothing at so called 'tuition-free ' schools to more than $ 45,000 at several new england preparatory schools .
what are private schools that charge no tuition called ?
'tuition-free

Sample: 979

historically , forces were first quantitatively investigated in conditions of static equilibrium where several forces canceled each other out . such experiments demonstrate the crucial properties that forces are additive vector quantities : they have magnitude and direction . when two forces act on a point particle , the resulting force , the resultant ( also called the net force ) , can be determined by following the parallelogram rule of vector addition : the addition of two vectors represented by sides of a parallelogram , gives an equivalent resultant vector that is equal in magnitude and direction to the transversal of the parallelogram . the magnitude of the resultant varies from the difference of the magnitudes of the two forces to their sum , depending on the angle between their lines of action . however , if the forces are acting on an extended body , their respective lines of application must also be specified in order to account for their effects on the motion of the body .
what do forces have with regard to additive quantities ?
magnitude and direction

Sample: 980

in the presidential elections , president kibaki under the party of national unity ran for re-election against the main opposition party , the orange democratic movement ( odm ) . the elections were seen to have been flawed with international observers saying that they were below international standards . after a split which took a crucial 8 % of the votes away from the odm to the newly formed orange democratic movement-kenya ( odm-k ) 's candidate , kalonzo musyoka , the race tightened between odm candidate raila odinga and kibaki . as the count came into the electoral commission of kenya ( eck ) headquarters , odinga was shown to have a slight , and then substantial lead as the results from his strongholds came in early . as the eck continued to count the votes , kibaki closed the gap and then overtook his opponent by a substantial margin after votes from his stronghold arrived later . this led to protests and open discrediting of the eck for complicity and to odinga declaring himself the " people 's president " and calling for a recount .
who called themselves the " people 's president " ?
odinga

Sample: 981

another important library – the university library , founded in 1816 , is home to over two million items . the building was designed by architects marek budzyński and zbigniew badowski and opened on 15 december 1999 . it is surrounded by green . the university library garden , designed by irena bajerska , was opened on 12 june 2002 . it is one of the largest and most beautiful roof gardens in europe with an area of more than 10,000 m2 ( 107,639.10 sq ft ) , and plants covering 5,111 m2 ( 55,014.35 sq ft ) . as the university garden it is open to the public every day .
how much area does the university library garden cover ?
10,000 m2

Sample: 982

the network has the unusual distinction of having separately owned and operated affiliates which serve the same market in tampa , florida ( wfts-tv and wwsb ) and grand rapids , michigan ( wzzm and wotv ) , with an analogous situation arising in kansas city , missouri ( kmbc-tv and kqtv ) . kqtv is licensed to st. joseph , missouri , which is designated by nielsen as a separate market from kansas city despite being located within 55 miles ( 89 km ) of one another , while wwsb and wotv serve areas that do not receive an adequate signal from their market 's primary abc affiliate ( in the case of wwsb , this dates back to when wtsp was tampa 's primary abc affiliate prior to 1994 , with the former being necessitated to serve the southern part of the tampa market including the station 's city of license , sarasota , due to wtsp 's transmitter being short-spaced to avoid interfering with the analog signal of miami affiliate wplg – which like wtsp , broadcast on vhf channel 10 ) .
what was tampa 's primary abc affiliate prior to 1994 ?
wtsp

Sample: 983

one of the rarest items in the collection is the 58 cm high gloucester candlestick , dated to c1110 , made from gilt bronze ; with highly elaborate and intricate intertwining branches containing small figures and inscriptions , it is a tour de force of bronze casting . also of importance is the becket casket dated c1180 to contain relics of st thomas becket , made from gilt copper , with enamelled scenes of the saint 's martyrdom . another highlight is the 1351 reichenau crozier . the burghley nef , a salt-cellar , french , dated 1527–28 , uses a nautilus shell to form the hull of a vessel , which rests on the tail of a parcelgilt mermaid , who rests on a hexagonal gilt plinth on six claw-and-ball feet . both masts have main and top-sails , and battlemented fighting-tops are made from gold . these items are displayed in the new medieval & renaissance galleries .
which material is the gloucester candlestick made from ?
gilt bronze

Sample: 984

sociologist jake rosenfield of the university of washington asserts that the decline of organized labor in the united states has played a more significant role in expanding the income gap than technological changes and globalization , which were also experienced by other industrialized nations that did n't experience steep surges in inequality . he points out that nations with high rates of unionization , particularly in scandinavia , have very low levels of inequality , and concludes " the historical pattern is clear ; the cross-national pattern is clear : high inequality goes hand-in-hand with weak labor movements and vice-versa . "
what has had a negative impact on the labor markets in the us ?
decline of organized labor

Sample: 985

are prime for any natural number n. here represents the floor function , i.e. , largest integer not greater than the number in question . the latter formula can be shown using bertrand 's postulate ( proven first by chebyshev ) , which states that there always exists at least one prime number p with n < p < 2n − 2 , for any natural number n > 3 . however , computing a or μ requires the knowledge of infinitely many primes to begin with . another formula is based on wilson 's theorem and generates the number 2 many times and all other primes exactly once .
what is name of the function used for the largest integer not greater than the number in question ?
the floor function

Sample: 986

starting in 1934 , the westinghouse electric & manufacturing company began paying tesla $ 125 per month as well as paying his rent at the hotel new yorker , expenses the company would pay for the rest of tesla 's life . accounts on how this came about vary . several sources say westinghouse was worried about potential bad publicity surrounding the impoverished conditions their former star inventor was living under . it has been described as being couched in the form of a " consulting fee " to get around tesla 's aversion to accept charity , or by one biographer ( marc seifer ) , as a type of unspecified settlement .
what other compensation did tesla get from westinghouse ?
rent at the hotel new yorker

Sample: 987

the panthers finished the regular season with a 15–1 record , and quarterback cam newton was named the nfl most valuable player ( mvp ) . they defeated the arizona cardinals 49–15 in the nfc championship game and advanced to their second super bowl appearance since the franchise was founded in 1995 . the broncos finished the regular season with a 12–4 record , and denied the new england patriots a chance to defend their title from super bowl xlix by defeating them 20–18 in the afc championship game . they joined the patriots , dallas cowboys , and pittsburgh steelers as one of four teams that have made eight appearances in the super bowl .
who was this season 's nfl mvp ?
cam newton

Sample: 988

the first methodist clergy were ordained by john wesley , a priest of the church of england , because of the crisis caused by the american revolution which isolated the methodists in the states from the church of england and its sacraments . today , the clergy includes men and women who are ordained by bishops as elders and deacons and are appointed to various ministries . elders in the united methodist church itenerate and are subject to the authority and appointment of their bishops . they generally serve as pastors in local congregations . deacons are in service ministry and may serve as musicians , liturgists , educators , business administrators , and a number of other areas . elders and deacons are required to obtain a master 's degree ( generally an m.div . ) , or another equivalent degree , before commissioning and then ultimately ordination . elders in full connection are each a member of their annual conference order of elders . likewise each deacon in full connection is a member of their annual conference order of deacons .
clergy usually serve as what in local congregations ?
pastors

Sample: 989

in response to american aid to israel , on october 16 , 1973 , opec raised the posted price of oil by 70 % , to $ 5.11 a barrel . the following day , oil ministers agreed to the embargo , a cut in production by five percent from september 's output and to continue to cut production in five percent monthly increments until their economic and political objectives were met . on october 19 , nixon requested congress to appropriate $ 2.2 billion in emergency aid to israel , including $ 1.5 billion in outright grants . george lenczowski notes , " military supplies did not exhaust nixon 's eagerness to prevent israel 's collapse ... this [ $ 2.2 billion ] decision triggered a collective opec response . " libya immediately announced it would embargo oil shipments to the united states . saudi arabia and the other arab oil-producing states joined the embargo on october 20 , 1973 . at their kuwait meeting , oapec proclaimed the embargo that curbed exports to various countries and blocked all oil deliveries to the us as a " principal hostile country " .
when did they raise the price of oil to $ 5.11 ?
october 16 , 1973 ,

Sample: 990

oxygen is the most abundant chemical element by mass in the earth 's biosphere , air , sea and land . oxygen is the third most abundant chemical element in the universe , after hydrogen and helium . about 0.9 % of the sun 's mass is oxygen . oxygen constitutes 49.2 % of the earth 's crust by mass and is the major component of the world 's oceans ( 88.8 % by mass ) . oxygen gas is the second most common component of the earth 's atmosphere , taking up 20.8 % of its volume and 23.1 % of its mass ( some 1015 tonnes ) . [ d ] earth is unusual among the planets of the solar system in having such a high concentration of oxygen gas in its atmosphere : mars ( with 0.1 % o 2 by volume ) and venus have far lower concentrations . the o 2 surrounding these other planets is produced solely by ultraviolet radiation impacting oxygen-containing molecules such as carbon dioxide .
how is oxygen produced from carbon dioxide on the other planets of the solar system ?
ultraviolet radiation

Sample: 991

the catholic church in france and many of its members opposed the huguenots . some huguenot preachers and congregants were attacked as they attempted to meet for worship . the height of this persecution was the st. bartholomew 's day massacre when 5,000 to 30,000 were killed , although there were also underlying political reasons for this as well , as some of the huguenots were nobles trying to establish separate centers of power in southern france . retaliating against the french catholics , the huguenots had their own militia .
what group specifically opposed the huguenots ?
catholic church in france

Sample: 992

fresno is the largest u.s. city not directly linked to an interstate highway . when the interstate highway system was created in the 1950s , the decision was made to build what is now interstate 5 on the west side of the central valley , and thus bypass many of the population centers in the region , instead of upgrading what is now state route 99 . due to rapidly raising population and traffic in cities along sr 99 , as well as the desirability of federal funding , much discussion has been made to upgrade it to interstate standards and eventually incorporate it into the interstate system , most likely as interstate 9 . major improvements to signage , lane width , median separation , vertical clearance , and other concerns are currently underway .
which is the largest city not connected to an interstate highway ?
fresno

Sample: 993

a construction project is a complex net of contracts and other legal obligations , each of which all parties must carefully consider . a contract is the exchange of a set of obligations between two or more parties , but it is not so simple a matter as trying to get the other side to agree to as much as possible in exchange for as little as possible . the time element in construction means that a delay costs money , and in cases of bottlenecks , the delay can be extremely expensive . thus , the contracts must be designed to ensure that each side is capable of performing the obligations set out . contracts that set out clear expectations and clear paths to accomplishing those expectations are far more likely to result in the project flowing smoothly , whereas poorly drafted contracts lead to confusion and collapse .
what does the time element in construction mean ?
that a delay costs money , and in cases of bottlenecks , the delay can be extremely expensive

Sample: 994

tesla was 6 feet 2 inches ( 1.88 m ) tall and weighed 142 pounds ( 64 kg ) , with almost no weight variance from 1888 to about 1926.:292 he was an elegant , stylish figure in new york city , meticulous in his grooming , clothing , and regimented in his daily activities .
how tall was tesla ?
6 feet 2 inches

Sample: 995

cbs broadcast super bowl 50 in the u.s. , and charged an average of $ 5 million for a 30-second commercial during the game . the super bowl 50 halftime show was headlined by the british rock group coldplay with special guest performers beyoncé and bruno mars , who headlined the super bowl xlvii and super bowl xlviii halftime shows , respectively . it was the third-most watched u.s. broadcast ever .
who broadcast the super bowl on tv ?
cbs

Sample: 996

during the mid-eocene , it is believed that the drainage basin of the amazon was split along the middle of the continent by the purus arch . water on the eastern side flowed toward the atlantic , while to the west water flowed toward the pacific across the amazonas basin . as the andes mountains rose , however , a large basin was created that enclosed a lake ; now known as the solimões basin . within the last 5–10 million years , this accumulating water broke through the purus arch , joining the easterly flow toward the atlantic .
where did water on the eastern side of the amazon basin travel after the split ?
the atlantic

Sample: 997

in terms of housing stock , the authority is one of few authorities to see the proportion of detached homes rise in the 2010 census ( to 7.8 % ) , in this instance this was coupled with a similar rise in flats and waterside apartments to 25.6 % , and the proportion of converted or shared houses in 2011 renders this dwelling type within the highest of the five colour-coded brackets at 5.9 % , and on a par with oxford and reading , greater than manchester and liverpool and below a handful of historic densely occupied , arguably overinflated markets in the local authorities : harrogate , cheltenham , bath , inner london , hastings , brighton and tunbridge wells .
what market other than harrogate , cheltenham , bath , inner london , hastings and brighton is overinflated ?
tunbridge wells .

Sample: 998

the energy crisis led to greater interest in renewable energy , nuclear power and domestic fossil fuels . there is criticism that american energy policies since the crisis have been dominated by crisis-mentality thinking , promoting expensive quick fixes and single-shot solutions that ignore market and technology realities . instead of providing stable rules that support basic research while leaving plenty of scope for entrepreneurship and innovation , congresses and presidents have repeatedly backed policies which promise solutions that are politically expedient , but whose prospects are doubtful .
what was the catalyst that created greater interest in renewable resources ?
energy crisis

Sample: 999

in the fall quarter of 2014 , the university of chicago enrolled 5,792 students in the college , 3,468 students in its four graduate divisions , 5,984 students in its professional schools , and 15,244 students overall . in the 2012 spring quarter , international students comprised almost 19 % of the overall study body , over 26 % of students were domestic ethnic minorities , and about 44 % of enrolled students were female . admissions to the university of chicago is highly selective . the middle 50 % band of sat scores for the undergraduate class of 2015 , excluding the writing section , was 1420–1530 , the average mcat score for entering students in the pritzker school of medicine in 2011 was 36 , and the median lsat score for entering students in the law school in 2011 was 171 . in 2015 , the college of the university of chicago had an acceptance rate of 7.8 % for the class of 2019 , the lowest in the college 's history .
in the fall quarter of 2014 , how many students signed up for the university 's in total ?
15,244

Sample: 1000

luther dedicated himself to the augustinian order , devoting himself to fasting , long hours in prayer , pilgrimage , and frequent confession . luther described this period of his life as one of deep spiritual despair . he said , " i lost touch with christ the savior and comforter , and made of him the jailer and hangman of my poor soul . " johann von staupitz , his superior , pointed luther 's mind away from continual reflection upon his sins toward the merits of christ . he taught that true repentance does not involve self-inflicted penances and punishments but rather a change of heart .
who directed luther away from self-reflection and towards the merits of christ ?
johann von staupitz

Sample: 1001

when considering computational problems , a problem instance is a string over an alphabet . usually , the alphabet is taken to be the binary alphabet ( i.e. , the set { 0,1 } ) , and thus the strings are bitstrings . as in a real-world computer , mathematical objects other than bitstrings must be suitably encoded . for example , integers can be represented in binary notation , and graphs can be encoded directly via their adjacency matrices , or by encoding their adjacency lists in binary .
what is one way in which graphs can be encoded ?
adjacency matrices

Sample: 1002

the sculpture collection at the v & a is the most comprehensive holding of post-classical european sculpture in the world . there are approximately 22,000 objects in the collection that cover the period from about 400 ad to 1914 . this covers among other periods byzantine and anglo saxon ivory sculptures , british , french and spanish medieval statues and carvings , the renaissance , baroque , neo-classical , victorian and art nouveau periods . all uses of sculpture are represented , from tomb and memorial , to portrait , allegorical , religious , mythical , statues for gardens including fountains , as well as architectural decorations . materials used include , marble , alabaster , stone , terracotta , wood ( history of wood carving ) , ivory , gesso , plaster , bronze , lead and ceramics .
which time period does the sculpture collection cover ?
from about 400 ad to 1914

Sample: 1003

the university of chicago also maintains facilities apart from its main campus . the university 's booth school of business maintains campuses in singapore , london , and the downtown streeterville neighborhood of chicago . the center in paris , a campus located on the left bank of the seine in paris , hosts various undergraduate and graduate study programs . in fall 2010 , the university of chicago also opened a center in beijing , near renmin university 's campus in haidian district . the most recent additions are a center in new delhi , india , which opened in 2014 , and a center in hong kong which opened in 2015 .
the university 's center in beijing is located next to what school 's campus ?
renmin university

Sample: 1004

in the modern industrialized world , construction usually involves the translation of designs into reality . a formal design team may be assembled to plan the physical proceedings , and to integrate those proceedings with the other parts . the design usually consists of drawings and specifications , usually prepared by a design team including architect , civil engineers , mechanical engineers , electrical engineers , structural engineers , fire protection engineers , planning consultants , architectural consultants , and archaeological consultants . the design team is most commonly employed by ( i.e . in contract with ) the property owner . under this system , once the design is completed by the design team , a number of construction companies or construction management companies may then be asked to make a bid for the work , either based directly on the design , or on the basis of drawings and a bill of quantities provided by a quantity surveyor . following evaluation of bids , the owner typically awards a contract to the most cost efficient bidder .
a formal design team may be assembled to do what ?
plan the physical proceedings , and to integrate those proceedings with the other parts

Sample: 1005

when rock units are placed under horizontal compression , they shorten and become thicker . because rock units , other than muds , do not significantly change in volume , this is accomplished in two primary ways : through faulting and folding . in the shallow crust , where brittle deformation can occur , thrust faults form , which cause deeper rock to move on top of shallower rock . because deeper rock is often older , as noted by the principle of superposition , this can result in older rocks moving on top of younger ones . movement along faults can result in folding , either because the faults are not planar or because rock layers are dragged along , forming drag folds as slip occurs along the fault . deeper in the earth , rocks behave plastically , and fold instead of faulting . these folds can either be those where the material in the center of the fold buckles upwards , creating " antiforms " , or where it buckles downwards , creating " synforms " . if the tops of the rock units within the folds remain pointing upwards , they are called anticlines and synclines , respectively . if some of the units in the fold are facing downward , the structure is called an overturned anticline or syncline , and if all of the rock units are overturned or the correct up-direction is unknown , they are simply called by the most general terms , antiforms and synforms .
if the tops of the rock units within the folds remain pointing upwards , they are called what ?
anticlines and synclines

Sample: 1006

paul revere was descended from huguenot refugees , as was henry laurens , who signed the articles of confederation for south carolina ; jack jouett , who made the ride from cuckoo tavern to warn thomas jefferson and others that tarleton and his men were on their way to arrest him for crimes against the king ; francis marion , and a number of other leaders of the american revolution and later statesmen . the last active huguenot congregation in north america worships in charleston , south carolina , at a church that dates to 1844 . the huguenot society of america maintains manakin episcopal church in virginia as an historic shrine with occasional services . the society has chapters in numerous states , with the one in texas being the largest .
in what state is the largest huguenot society located ?
texas

Sample: 1007

the outcome of most votes can be predicted beforehand since political parties normally instruct members which way to vote . parties entrust some msps , known as whips , with the task of ensuring that party members vote according to the party line . msps do not tend to vote against such instructions , since those who do are unlikely to reach higher political ranks in their parties . errant members can be deselected as official party candidates during future elections , and , in serious cases , may be expelled from their parties outright . thus , as with many parliaments , the independence of members of the scottish parliament tends to be low , and backbench rebellions by members who are discontent with their party 's policies are rare . in some circumstances , however , parties announce " free votes " , which allows members to vote as they please . this is typically done on moral issues .
what type of issues are members typically allowed to vote as they please ?
moral

Sample: 1008

tesla wrote a number of books and articles for magazines and journals . among his books are my inventions : the autobiography of nikola tesla , compiled and edited by ben johnston ; the fantastic inventions of nikola tesla , compiled and edited by david hatcher childress ; and the tesla papers .
who edited tesla 's autobiography ?
ben johnston

Sample: 1009

on 19 october 1512 , he was awarded his doctor of theology and , on 21 october 1512 , was received into the senate of the theological faculty of the university of wittenberg , having been called to the position of doctor in bible . he spent the rest of his career in this position at the university of wittenberg .
when did martin luther receive his doctor of theology ?
19 october 1512

Sample: 1010

the biodiversity of plant species is the highest on earth with one 2001 study finding a quarter square kilometer ( 62 acres ) of ecuadorian rainforest supports more than 1,100 tree species . a study in 1999 found one square kilometer ( 247 acres ) of amazon rainforest can contain about 90,790 tonnes of living plants . the average plant biomass is estimated at 356 ± 47 tonnes per hectare . to date , an estimated 438,000 species of plants of economic and social interest have been registered in the region with many more remaining to be discovered or catalogued . the total number of tree species in the region is estimated at 16,000 .
where does the amazon region rate among the entire earth for its amount of biodiversity ?
highest on earth

Sample: 1011

most species are hermaphrodites—a single animal can produce both eggs and sperm , meaning it can fertilize its own egg , not needing a mate . some are simultaneous hermaphrodites , which can produce both eggs and sperm at the same time . others are sequential hermaphrodites , in which the eggs and sperm mature at different times . fertilization is generally external , although platyctenids ' eggs are fertilized inside their parents ' bodies and kept there until they hatch . the young are generally planktonic and in most species look like miniature cydippids , gradually changing into their adult shapes as they grow . the exceptions are the beroids , whose young are miniature beroids with large mouths and no tentacles , and the platyctenids , whose young live as cydippid-like plankton until they reach near-adult size , but then sink to the bottom and rapidly metamorphose into the adult form . in at least some species , juveniles are capable of reproduction before reaching the adult size and shape . the combination of hermaphroditism and early reproduction enables small populations to grow at an explosive rate .
what is a trait of sequential hermaphrodites ?
the eggs and sperm mature at different times

Sample: 1012

when a person ’ s capabilities are lowered , they are in some way deprived of earning as much income as they would otherwise . an old , ill man can not earn as much as a healthy young man ; gender roles and customs may prevent a woman from receiving an education or working outside the home . there may be an epidemic that causes widespread panic , or there could be rampant violence in the area that prevents people from going to work for fear of their lives . as a result , income and economic inequality increases , and it becomes more difficult to reduce the gap without additional aid . to prevent such inequality , this approach believes it ’ s important to have political freedom , economic facilities , social opportunities , transparency guarantees , and protective security to ensure that people aren ’ t denied their functionings , capabilities , and agency and can thus work towards a better relevant income .
what happens when a person 's capabilities aer lowered , as it relates to their income ?
deprived of earning as much

Sample: 1013

with the opening of the dorothy and michael hintze sculpture galleries in 2006 it was decided to extend the chronology of the works on display up to 1950 ; this has involved loans by other museums , including tate britain , so works by henry moore and jacob epstein along with other of their contemporaries are now on view . these galleries concentrate on works dated 1600 to 1950 by british sculptors , works by continental sculptors who worked in britain , and works bought by british patrons from the continental sculptors , such as canova 's theseus and the minotaur . the galleries overlooking the garden are arranged by theme , tomb sculpture , portraiture , garden sculpture and mythology . then there is a section that covers late 19th-century and early 20th-century sculpture , this includes work by rodin and other french sculptors such as dalou who spent several years in britain where he taught sculpture .
to which year does the new sculpture galleries now encompass ?
1950

Sample: 1014

for exercise , tesla walked between 8 to 10 miles per day . he squished his toes one hundred times for each foot every night , saying that it stimulated his brain cells .
what did he do to his feet at night ?
squished his toes

Sample: 1015

before genghis khan died , he assigned ögedei khan as his successor and split his empire into khanates among his sons and grandsons . he died in 1227 after defeating the western xia . he was buried in an unmarked grave somewhere in mongolia at an unknown location . his descendants extended the mongol empire across most of eurasia by conquering or creating vassal states out of all of modern-day china , korea , the caucasus , central asia , and substantial portions of modern eastern europe , russia , and southwest asia . many of these invasions repeated the earlier large-scale slaughters of local populations . as a result , genghis khan and his empire have a fearsome reputation in local histories .
among whom was genghis khan 's empire split after his death ?
his sons and grandsons

Sample: 1016

a bbc audience research survey conducted in 1972 found that , by their own definition of violence ( " any act [ s ] which may cause physical and/or psychological injury , hurt or death to persons , animals or property , whether intentional or accidental " ) doctor who was the most violent of the drama programmes the corporation produced at the time . the same report found that 3 % of the surveyed audience regarded the show as " very unsuitable " for family viewing . responding to the findings of the survey in the times newspaper , journalist philip howard maintained that , " to compare the violence of dr who , sired by a horse-laugh out of a nightmare , with the more realistic violence of other television series , where actors who look like human beings bleed paint that looks like blood , is like comparing monopoly with the property market in london : both are fantasies , but one is meant to be taken seriously . "
how many of the survey respondents considered doctor who very unsuitable for family viewing ?
3 %

Sample: 1017

in august 1227 , during the fall of yinchuan , the capital of western xia , genghis khan died . the exact cause of his death remains a mystery , and is variously attributed to being killed in action against the western xia , illness , falling from his horse , or wounds sustained in hunting or battle . according to the secret history of the mongols genghis khan fell from his horse while hunting and died because of the injury . he was already old and tired from his journeys . the galician–volhynian chronicle alleges he was killed by the western xia in battle , while marco polo wrote that he died after the infection of an arrow wound he received during his final campaign . later mongol chronicles connect genghis ' death with a western xia princess taken as war booty . one chronicle from the early 17th century even relates the legend that the princess hid a small dagger and stabbed him , though some mongol authors have doubted this version and suspected it to be an invention by the rival oirads .
which rival of the mongols is suspected of inventing the story that genghis khan was murdered by a captured princess ?
oirads

Sample: 1018

when sky digital was launched in 1998 the new service used the astra 2a satellite which was located at the 28.5°e orbital position , unlike the analogue service which was broadcast from 19.2°e . this was subsequently followed by more astra satellites as well as eutelsat 's eurobird 1 ( now eutelsat 33c ) at 28.5°e ) , enabled the company to launch a new all-digital service , sky , with the potential to carry hundreds of television and radio channels . the old position was shared with broadcasters from several european countries , while the new position at 28.5°e came to be used almost exclusively for channels that broadcast to the united kingdom .
what satellite enabled sky digital to launch an all new digital service ?
eutelsat 's eurobird 1

Sample: 1019

the united methodist church ( umc ) is a mainline protestant methodist denomination . in the 19th century its main predecessor was a leader in evangelicalism . founded in 1968 by the union of the methodist church ( usa ) and the evangelical united brethren church , the umc traces its roots back to the revival movement of john and charles wesley in england as well as the great awakening in the united states . as such , the church 's theological orientation is decidedly wesleyan . it embraces both liturgical and evangelical elements .
what is the church 's theological orientation ?
wesleyan

Sample: 1020

luther 's hymns were frequently evoked by particular events in his life and the unfolding reformation . this behavior started with his learning of the execution of johann esch and heinrich voes , the first individuals to be martyred by the roman catholic church for lutheran views , prompting luther to write the hymn " ein neues lied wir heben an " ( " a new song we raise " ) , which is generally known in english by john c. messenger 's translation by the title and first line " flung to the heedless winds " and sung to the tune ibstone composed in 1875 by maria c. tiddeman .
what hymn did luther write after the martyrdom of esch and voes ?
ein neues lied wir heben an

Sample: 1021

the age of imperialism , a time period beginning around 1700 , saw ( generally european ) industrializing nations engaging in the process of colonizing , influencing , and annexing other parts of the world in order to gain political power . [ citation needed ] although imperialist practices have existed for thousands of years , the term " age of imperialism " generally refers to the activities of european powers from the early 18th century through to the middle of the 20th century , for example , the " the great game " in persian lands , the " scramble for africa " and the " open door policy " in china .
what were european countries doing during the 1700 's ?
colonizing

Sample: 1022

this is true throughout most of the united states as well . however , alternative approaches for primary education do exist . one of these , sometimes referred to as a " platoon " system , involves placing a group of students together in one class that moves from one specialist to another for every subject . the advantage here is that students learn from teachers who specialize in one subject and who tend to be more knowledgeable in that one area than a teacher who teaches many subjects . students still derive a strong sense of security by staying with the same group of peers for all classes .
the teacher 's in a platoon style teaching are usually more _____ ?
knowledgeable

Sample: 1023

commissioners have various privileges , such as being exempt from member state taxes ( but not eu taxes ) , and having immunity from prosecution for doing official acts . commissioners have sometimes been found to have abused their offices , particularly since the santer commission was censured by parliament in 1999 , and it eventually resigned due to corruption allegations . this resulted in one main case , commission v edith cresson where the european court of justice held that a commissioner giving her dentist a job , for which he was clearly unqualified , did in fact not break any law . by contrast to the ecj 's relaxed approach , a committee of independent experts found that a culture had developed where few commissioners had ‘ even the slightest sense of responsibility ’ . this led to the creation of the european anti-fraud office . in 2012 it investigated the maltese commissioner for health , john dalli , who quickly resigned after allegations that he received a €60m bribe in connection with a tobacco products directive . beyond the commission , the european central bank has relative executive autonomy in its conduct of monetary policy for the purpose of managing the euro . it has a six-person board appointed by the european council , on the council 's recommendation . the president of the council and a commissioner can sit in on ecb meetings , but do not have voting rights .
can the president of the council vote on important matters related to the european central bank ?
do not have voting rights

Sample: 1024

in 1854 at ballarat there was an armed rebellion against the government of victoria by miners protesting against mining taxes ( the " eureka stockade " ) . this was crushed by british troops , but the discontents prompted colonial authorities to reform the administration ( particularly reducing the hated mining licence fees ) and extend the franchise . within a short time , the imperial parliament granted victoria responsible government with the passage of the colony of victoria act 1855 . some of the leaders of the eureka rebellion went on to become members of the victorian parliament .
what was the incident over taxes at ballarat called ?
eureka stockade

Sample: 1025

the reason for the order of the classes and the reason why people were placed in a certain class was the date they surrendered to the mongols , and had nothing to do with their ethnicity . the earlier they surrendered to the mongols , the higher they were placed , the more the held out , the lower they were ranked . the northern chinese were ranked higher and southern chinese were ranked lower because southern china withstood and fought to the last before caving in . major commerce during this era gave rise to favorable conditions for private southern chinese manufacturers and merchants .
who did the yuan 's increase in commerce help ?
private southern chinese manufacturers and merchants

Sample: 1026

concentrated o 2 will allow combustion to proceed rapidly and energetically . steel pipes and storage vessels used to store and transmit both gaseous and liquid oxygen will act as a fuel ; and therefore the design and manufacture of o 2 systems requires special training to ensure that ignition sources are minimized . the fire that killed the apollo 1 crew in a launch pad test spread so rapidly because the capsule was pressurized with pure o 2 but at slightly more than atmospheric pressure , instead of the 1⁄3 normal pressure that would be used in a mission . [ k ]
what chemical element was the cause of the apollo 1 disastrous outcome ?
pure o

Sample: 1027

in this last connection , the name could suggest the derogatory inference of superstitious worship ; popular fancy held that huguon , the gate of king hugo , was haunted by the ghost of le roi huguet ( regarded by roman catholics as an infamous scoundrel ) and other spirits , who instead of being in purgatory came back to harm the living at night . it was in this place in tours that the prétendus réformés ( " these supposedly 'reformed ' " ) habitually gathered at night , both for political purposes , and for prayer and singing psalms . such explanations have been traced to the contemporary , reguier de la plancha ( d. 1560 ) , who in de l'estat de france offered the following account as to the origin of the name , as cited by the cape monthly :
where was the gate of king hugo ?
tours

Sample: 1028

the panthers offense , which led the nfl in scoring ( 500 points ) , was loaded with talent , boasting six pro bowl selections . pro bowl quarterback cam newton had one of his best seasons , throwing for 3,837 yards and rushing for 636 , while recording a career-high and league-leading 45 total touchdowns ( 35 passing , 10 rushing ) , a career-low 10 interceptions , and a career-best quarterback rating of 99.4 . newton 's leading receivers were tight end greg olsen , who caught a career-high 77 passes for 1,104 yards and seven touchdowns , and wide receiver ted ginn , jr. , who caught 44 passes for 739 yards and 10 touchdowns ; ginn also rushed for 60 yards and returned 27 punts for 277 yards . other key receivers included veteran jerricho cotchery ( 39 receptions for 485 yards ) , rookie devin funchess ( 31 receptions for 473 yards and five touchdowns ) , and second-year receiver corey brown ( 31 receptions for 447 yards ) . the panthers backfield featured pro bowl running back jonathan stewart , who led the team with 989 rushing yards and six touchdowns in 13 games , along with pro bowl fullback mike tolbert , who rushed for 256 yards and caught 18 passes for another 154 yards . carolina 's offensive line also featured two pro bowl selections : center ryan kalil and guard trai turner .
what is the best qb ranking that cam newton holds ?
99.4

Sample: 1029

in 1542 , luther read a latin translation of the qur'an . he went on to produce several critical pamphlets on islam , which he called " mohammedanism " or " the turk " . though luther saw the muslim faith as a tool of the devil , he was indifferent to its practice : " let the turk believe and live as he will , just as one lets the papacy and other false christians live . " he opposed banning the publication of the qur'an , wanting it exposed to scrutiny .
how did luther view islam ?
tool of the devil

Sample: 1030

two block i csms were launched from lc-34 on suborbital flights in 1966 with the saturn ib . the first , as-201 launched on february 26 , reached an altitude of 265.7 nautical miles ( 492.1 km ) and splashed down 4,577 nautical miles ( 8,477 km ) downrange in the atlantic ocean . the second , as-202 on august 25 , reached 617.1 nautical miles ( 1,142.9 km ) altitude and was recovered 13,900 nautical miles ( 25,700 km ) downrange in the pacific ocean . these flights validated the service module engine and the command module heat shield .
what did these flights test on the cm ?
heat shield

Sample: 1031

the early united states expressed its opposition to imperialism , at least in a form distinct from its own manifest destiny , through policies such as the monroe doctrine . however , beginning in the late 19th and early 20th century , policies such as theodore roosevelt ’ s interventionism in central america and woodrow wilson ’ s mission to " make the world safe for democracy " changed all this . they were often backed by military force , but were more often affected from behind the scenes . this is consistent with the general notion of hegemony and imperium of historical empires . in 1898 , americans who opposed imperialism created the anti-imperialist league to oppose the us annexation of the philippines and cuba . one year later , a war erupted in the philippines causing business , labor and government leaders in the us to condemn america 's occupation in the philippines as they also denounced them for causing the deaths of many filipinos . american foreign policy was denounced as a " racket " by smedley butler , an american general . he said , " looking back on it , i might have given al capone a few hints . the best he could do was to operate his racket in three districts . i operated on three continents " .
how did the united states plan to subdue imperialistic tendencies ?
the monroe doctrine

Sample: 1032

in 1854 at ballarat there was an armed rebellion against the government of victoria by miners protesting against mining taxes ( the " eureka stockade " ) . this was crushed by british troops , but the discontents prompted colonial authorities to reform the administration ( particularly reducing the hated mining licence fees ) and extend the franchise . within a short time , the imperial parliament granted victoria responsible government with the passage of the colony of victoria act 1855 . some of the leaders of the eureka rebellion went on to become members of the victorian parliament .
what armed group stopped the uprising at ballarat ?
british troops

Sample: 1033

huguenot immigrants did not disperse or settle in different parts of the country , but rather , formed three societies or congregations ; one in the city of new york , another 21 miles north of new york in a town which they named new rochelle , and a third further upstate in new paltz . the " huguenot street historic district " in new paltz has been designated a national historic landmark site and contains the oldest street in the united states of america . a small group of huguenots also settled on the south shore of staten island along the new york harbor , for which the current neighborhood of huguenot was named .
what huguenot area is designated as a historical landmark ?
" huguenot street historic district " in new paltz

Sample: 1034

southern california consists of one of the more varied collections of geologic , topographic , and natural ecosystem landscapes in a diversity outnumbering other major regions in the state and country . the region spans from pacific ocean islands , shorelines , beaches , and coastal plains , through the transverse and peninsular ranges with their peaks , into the large and small interior valleys , to the vast deserts of california .
the mountain ranges tail off into what kind of geographical formation ?
valleys

Sample: 1035

in october 2010 , the open-access scientific journal plos pathogens published a paper by a multinational team who undertook a new investigation into the role of yersinia pestis in the black death following the disputed identification by drancourt and raoult in 1998 . they assessed the presence of dna/rna with polymerase chain reaction ( pcr ) techniques for y. pestis from the tooth sockets in human skeletons from mass graves in northern , central and southern europe that were associated archaeologically with the black death and subsequent resurgences . the authors concluded that this new research , together with prior analyses from the south of france and germany , " . . . ends the debate about the etiology of the black death , and unambiguously demonstrates that y. pestis was the causative agent of the epidemic plague that devastated europe during the middle ages " .
what does the plos pathogen paper claim ?
unambiguously demonstrates that y. pestis was the causative agent of the epidemic plague

Sample: 1036

in some rural areas in the united kingdom , there are dispensing physicians who are allowed to both prescribe and dispense prescription-only medicines to their patients from within their practices . the law requires that the gp practice be located in a designated rural area and that there is also a specified , minimum distance ( currently 1.6 kilometres ) between a patient 's home and the nearest retail pharmacy . this law also exists in austria for general physicians if the nearest pharmacy is more than 4 kilometers away , or where none is registered in the city .
what is another country that permits physicians to give out drugs from within their practice ?
austria

Sample: 1037

although the european union does not have a codified constitution , like every political body it has laws which " constitute " its basic governance structure . the eu 's primary constitutional sources are the treaty on european union ( teu ) and the treaty on the functioning of the european union ( tfeu ) , which have been agreed or adhered to among the governments of all 28 member states . the treaties establish the eu 's institutions , list their powers and responsibilities , and explain the areas in which the eu can legislate with directives or regulations . the european commission has the initiative to propose legislation . during the ordinary legislative procedure , the council ( which are ministers from member state governments ) and the european parliament ( elected by citizens ) can make amendments and must give their consent for laws to pass . the commission oversees departments and various agencies that execute or enforce eu law . the " european council " ( rather than the council , made up of different government ministers ) is composed of the prime ministers or executive presidents of the member states . it appoints the commissioners and the board of the european central bank . the european court of justice is the supreme judicial body which interprets eu law , and develops it through precedent . the court can review the legality of the eu institutions ' actions , in compliance with the treaties . it can also decide upon claims for breach of eu laws from member states and citizens .
what governing body appoints commissioners and the board of european central bank ?
the " european council "

Sample: 1038

bskyb has no veto over the presence of channels on their epg , with open access being an enforced part of their operating licence from ofcom . any channel which can get carriage on a suitable beam of a satellite at 28° east is entitled to access to bskyb 's epg for a fee , ranging from £15–100,000 . third-party channels which opt for encryption receive discounts ranging from reduced price to free epg entries , free carriage on a bskyb leased transponder , or actual payment for being carried . however , even in this case , bskyb does not carry any control over the channel 's content or carriage issues such as p